References


1

Part 1: Introduction

References

Kurzweil, Ray, and Chris Meyer. 2003. “Understanding the Accelerated Rate of Change.” The Cap Gemini Ernst & Young Center for Business Innovation. Published on KurzweilAI.net with permission. http://www.kurzweilai.net/articles/art0563.html (accessed May 19, 2008). [Quotation]

Image Credits

Ptolemy (woodcut) from the collection of the James Ford Bell Library, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.

2

Knowledge Equals Power

Software Credits

Hunter, John. 2010. Matplotlib Home Page. http://matplotlib.sourceforge.net (accessed March 15, 2010).

Matplotlib (sponsored by ENThought). 2008. “Cookbook/Matplotlib/Maps.” http://www.scipy.org/Cookbook/Matplotlib/Maps (accessed March 30, 2010).

Contributors

Elisha F. Hardy, Bryan J. Hook, Peter A. Hook, Luís M. A. Bettencourt, and Stephen M. Uzzo.

Population Growth

References

About, Inc. 2008. “RADAR and Doppler RADAR Invention and History.” About.com. http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blradar.htm (accessed January 1, 2008).

de Solla Price, Derek J. 1965. Little Science, Big Science. New York: Columbia University Press.

Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. 1991. The New Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th Ed., Phillip W. Goetz (Ed. In Chief). Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., s.v. “Altamira”; “Black Death”; “Cartography”; “Cities”; “Domestication”; “Egypt, Ancient”; “Evolution”; “Greek and Roman Civilization”; “Homo Sapiens”; “Italy”; “Mathematics”; “Papermaking”; “Plague”; “Renaissance”; “Rosetta Stone”; “United States Bill of Rights”; “Universities”; “World War I”; “World War II”; “Writing.” 

Garfield, Eugene. 1955. “Citation Indexes for Science: A New Dimension in Documentation Through Association of Ideas.” Science 122: 108–111.

Hawkes, Jacquetta. 1976. The Atlas of Early Man. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Headrick, Daniel R. 2000. When Information Came of Age: Technologies of Knowledge in the Age of Reason and Revolution, 1700–1850. New York: Oxford University Press.

Kremer, Michael. 1993. “Population Growth and Technological Change: One Million B.C. to 1990.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 108, 3: 681–716. http://www.jstor.org/view/00335533/di976343/97p0125n/0 (accessed October 30, 2007).

Shapiro, Fred R. 1992. “Origins of Bibliometrics, Citation Indexing, and Citation Analysis: The Neglected Legal Literature.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science 43, 5: 337–339.

United Nations Population Division. 1999. “The World at Six Billion.” http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/sixbillion/sixbilpart1.pdf (accessed October 30, 2007).

Weinberg, Bella Hass. 1997. “The Earliest Hebrew Citation Indexes.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science 48, 4: 318–330.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2009. “University of Al-Karaouine.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Al-Karaouine (accessed November 18, 2009). 

Williams, Robert V. 2002. “Chronology of Information Science and Technology.” http://www.libsci.sc.edu/bob/istchron/ISCNET/ISCHRON.htm (accessed October 30, 2007).

Image Credits

Timeline by Russell J. Duhon (data preparation), Elisha F. Hardy (design), Katy Börner (concept), Indiana University.

Data Credits

U.S. Census Bureau. 2007. “Total Midyear Population for the World: 1950–2050.” http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/idb/worldpopinfo.php (accessed February 10, 2010).

World Population Data, see Kremer 1993.

Knowledge and Technology Overload

References

Lesk, Michael. 1997. “How Much Information Is There In the World?” http://www.lesk.com/mlesk/ksg97/ksg.html (accessed October 30, 2007).

Lyman, Peter, Hal R. Varian, James Dunn, Aleksey Strygin, and Kirsten Swearingen. 2000. “How Much Information 2000." http://www.sims.berkeley.edu/how-much-info (accessed June 10, 2007).

Lyman, Peter, Hal R. Varian, James Dunn, Aleksey Strygin, and Kirsten Swearingen. 2003. “How Much Information 2003.” http://www2.sims.berkeley.edu/research/projects/how-much-info-2003 (accessed October 30, 2007).

Regents of the University of California. 2000. “How Much Information?” http://www2.sims.berkeley.edu/research/projects/how-much-info/datapowers.html (accessed April 2, 2010).

TechTarget Corporation. 2010. “What Is: How Many Bytes for …?” http://searchstorage.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid5_gci944596,00.html (accessed March 30, 2010).

Image Credits

How Much Information graph by Russell J. Duhon (data preparation), Elisha F. Hardy (design), Katy Börner (concept), Indiana University. 

Us from Above

References

BGP Expert. 2008. “Overview of the Number of IP Addresses …” http://www.bgpexpert.com/addressespercountry.php (accessed June 10, 2008).

Boyack, Kevin W., Richard Klavans, W. Bradford Paley, and Katy Börner. 2007. “Mapping, Illuminating, and Interacting with Science.” Paper presented at SIGGRAPH 2007: The 34th International Conference and Exhibition on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques in San Diego, CA, August 5–9.

Lesk, Michael. 1997. “How Much Information Is There in the World?” http://www.lesk.com/mlesk/ksg97/ksg.html (accessed October 30, 2007).

Regents of the University of California. 2000. “How Much Information?” http://www2.sims.berkeley.edu/research/projects/how-much-info/datapowers.html (accessed April 2, 2010).

Yook, Soon-Hyung, Hawoong Jeong, and Albert-László Barabási. 2002. “Modeling the Internet’s Large-Scale Topology.” PNAS 99, 21: 13382–13386. 

Image Credits

2005 World Population, 2003 Scientific Productivity, and 2007 IP Address Ownership by Russell J. Duhon (data preparation), Elisha F. Hardy (design), Katy Börner (concept), Indiana University.

City Lights at Night by Robert Nemiroff and Jerry Bonnell. 2007. “Astronomy Picture of the Day, November 27, 2000.” http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap001127.html (accessed October 30, 2007).

Data Credits

Boyack, Kevin W., John Burgoon, Peter Kennard, Richard Klavans, and W. Bradford Paley. 2006. “Scientific Productivity: Data from Part 4: Illuminated Diagram.” GeoMap.

Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York. 1997–2008. “Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC): Gridded Population of the World and the Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project.” Population Grid Data selected, ascii format, year 2005, dowloadable by log-in (file as GL-gpwfe_pcount_05_ascii_quar.zip). http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/gpw/global.jsp (accessed August 17. 2009). 

MaxMind, Inc. 2010. “GeoLite Country.” http://maxmind.com; http://www.maxmind.com/app/geoip_country (accessed March 15, 2010).

Software Credits

Hunter, John. Matplotlib Basemap (Class) Library. http://matplotlib.sourceforge.net/classdocs.html (accessed October 30, 2007).

The Web of Knowledge

References

Wouters, Paul. 1999. “The Citation Culture.” PhD diss., University of Amsterdam. http://garfield.library.upenn.edu/wouters/wouters.pdf (accessed October 30, 2007).

4

The Rise of Science and Technology

The Rise of the Creative Class

References

de Solla Price, Derek J. 1965. Little Science, Big Science. New York: Columbia University Press.

Florida, Richard. 2002. The Rise of the Creative Class: And How It’s Transforming Work, Leisure, Community and Everyday Life. New York: Basic Books.

Menard, Henry W. 1971. Science: Growth and Change. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Image Credits

People by Russell J. Duhon (data preparation), Elisha F. Hardy (design), Katy Börner (concept), Indiana University.

Data Credits

Today’s Percentage of Creative Class, see Florida 2002.

U.S. Labor Data, see Menard 1971, page 59. 

U.S. Census Bureau. 2000. “United States Census 2000.” http://www.census.gov/main/www/cen2000.html (accessed June 10, 2008).

National Science Board. 2006. Science and Engineering Indicators 2006. 2 vols. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation (vol. 1, NSB 06-01; vol. 2, NSB 06-01A). 

Growth of Science 

Books

References

Carter, Susan B., Scott Sigmund Gartner, Michael R. Haines, Alan L. Olmstead, Richard Sutch, and Gavin Wright. 2006. Historical Statistics of the United States: Millennial Edition. Online edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://hsus.cambridge.org (accessed October 30, 2007).

Internet Archive. 2001. “Million Book Project.” http://www.archive.org/details/millionbooks (accessed October 30, 2007).

Lebert, Marie. 2005. “Project Gutenberg, from 1971 to 2005.” http://www.etudes-francaises.net/dossiers/gutenberg_eng.htm (accessed October 30, 2007).

Project Gutenberg. 2009. “Main Page.” http://www.gutenberg.org/wiki/Main_Page (accessed March 16, 2010).

Image Credits

Books: Russell J. Duhon (data preparation), Elisha F. Hardy (design), Katy Börner (concept), Indiana University.

Data Credits

Bookman data from 1880–2000, see Carter et al. 2006. 

Project Gutenberg. Search returns (quantity) from 1971–2007, see Project Gutenberg, Main Page.

The Million Book Project. “Search returns (quantity) from 1662–2002.” See http://www.archive.org/about/terms.php (accessed October 30, 2007).

Chemical Abstracts Service. 2007. “CAS Statistical Summary 1907–2006.” Columbus, OH: ACS. http://www.cas.org/ASSETS/836E3804111B49BFA28B95BD1B40CD0F/casstats.pdf (accessed October 30, 2007).

OCLC. Worldcat Books. “Search returns (quantity) from 1650–2010.” Retrieved September 21–22, 2007 and October 12, 2007. Data taken from OCLC’s WorldCat® database, used with OCLC’s permission: WorldCat® is a registered trademark of OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc. http://www.worldcat.org (accessed October 30, 2007).

Contributors

Michael S. Hart (Project Gutenberg data), Ann Haynes, and Bryan J. Hook.

Papers and Journals

References

de Solla Price, Derek. 1962. Science Since Babylon. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Efthimiadis, Efthimios N. 1990. “The Growth of the OPAC Literature.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science 44, 5: 342–347.

Ginsparg, Paul. 2006. “As We May Read.” The Journal of Neuroscience, 26, 38: 9606–9608. http://www.jneurosci.org/cgi/content/full/26/38/9606 (accessed October 30, 2007).

Harrison, Chris. 2010. Chris Harrison Home Page. Human-Computer Interaction Institute, Carnegie Mellon University. http://www.chrisharrison.net (accessed March 11, 2010).

Lawrence, Steve, C. Lee Giles, and K. Bollacker. 1999. “Digital Libraries and Autonomous Citation Indexing.” IEEE Computer, 32, 6: 67–71. http://clgiles.ist.psu.edu/papers/IEEE.Computer.DL-ACI.pdf (accessed October 30, 2007). 

May, Robert M. 1997. “The Scientific Wealth of Nations.” Science 275, 5301: 793–795.

Meadows, Jack. 2000. “The Growth of Journal Literature: A Historical Perspective.” The Web of Knowledge: A Festschrift in Honor of Eugene Garfield, edited by Helen Barsky Atkins and Blaise Cronin, 87–108. Medford, NJ: Information Today.

Menard, Henry W. 1971. Science: Growth and Change. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

National Federation of Abstracting and Information Services. 1990. “Member Service Statistics 1957–1990.” NFAIS Newsletter 32, June.

Image Credits

de Solla Price, Derek. 1962. Science Since Babylon. New Haven: Yale University Press. Used by permission of Yale University Press, all rights reserved.

Papers and Wikipedia Entries by Russell J. Duhon (data preparation), Elisha F. Hardy (design), Katy Börner (concept), Indiana University.

Growth of Scientific Records, Journals, see Menard 1971.

Data Credits

Science growth rates data, see Menard 1971.

Ley, Michael. 2008. “The DBLP Computer Science Bibliography.” Universität Trier. http://www.informatik.uni-trier.de/~ley/db (accessed June 10, 2008).

NFAIS abstract data set, 1957–1990, see National Federation of Abstracting and Information Services 1990.

Web of Science going back to 1981 provided by Henry G. Small.

Chris Harrison (preparer), Brian Amento and Mike Yang (compilers at AT&T Labs). “Royal Society Data: Visualizing the Royal Society Archive.” 1665–2005. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A (1665–2005); Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B (1887–2005); Proceedings of the Royal Society A (1800–2005); Proceedings of the Royal Society B (1905–2005). http://www.chrisharrison.net/projects/royalsociety; data sets available at: http://www.chrisharrison.net/projects/royalsociety/AuthorDistribution.zip; http://www.chrisharrison.net/projects/royalsociety/WordDistribution.zip; http://www.chrisharrison.net/projects/royalsociety/CombinedDistribution.zip. (accessed March 30, 2010.)

CiteSeer data. Produced with data from http://dblp.uni-trier.de (accessed October 30, 2007).

Physical Review Data, 1887–2007. 

Chemical Abstracts Service. 2007. “CAS Statistical Summary 1907–2006.” Columbus, OH: ACS. http://www.cas.org/ASSETS/836E3804111B49BFA28B95BD1B40CD0F/casstats.pdf (accessed October 30, 2007).

JSTOR data set. 2007. “Search returns (quantity) for journal publications by date from 1665–2007.” http://fsearch-sandbox.jstor.org/search (accessed October 30, 2007).

MEDLINE data set. “Statistical reports on MEDLINE®/PubMed® baseline data [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), Bibliographic Services Division.” Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/licensee/baselinestats.html (accessed October 30, 2007).

OCLC. “Worldcat Papers: search returns (quantity) from 1650-2010.” Retrieved September 21–22, 2007 and October 12, 2007. Data taken from OCLC’s WorldCat® database, used with OCLC’s permission: WorldCat® is a registered trademark of OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc. http://www.worldcat.org (accessed October 30, 2007).

Scopus Coverage, see Scopus. 2007. Content Coverage. http://www.info.scopus.com/docs/content_coverage.pdf (accessed October 30, 2007). 

Scopus data. “Search returns (quantity) for Scopus from January 2001 to December 2005.” http://www.scopus.com/scopus/home.url (accessed October 30, 2007).

WoS coverage, see Thomson Reuters. 2004. Web of Science 7.0: Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index, Arts and Humanities Citation Index. http://www.science.thomsonreuters.com/mjl/wos_ahci_a5020_final.pdf(accessed March 31, 2010).

Wikimedia Foundation. 2007. Article edit data from January 1, 2007 to April 6, 2007.

Contributors

Chris Harrison prepared Royal Society data; Jill ONeill, NFAIS data; Henry G. Small, Web of Science data; Helen de H. J. Mooji and Jaco J. Zijlstra, Scopus data; Jane L. Rosov, MEDLINE data; Michael Krot, John Burns, and Ronald Snyder, JSTOR data; C. Lee Giles, CiteSeer data; Russell J. Duhon, Bryan J. Hook, and Lokman Meho, Books and E-mail data; and Eugene Garfield suggested books and data sources.

Patents

References

eMedia Asia Ltd. 2007. “Bird’s Eye View of Patent Playground.” EE Times Asia.http://www.eetasia.com/ART_8800489316_480100_NT_ceb53150.HTM (accessed March 30, 2010). 

Schippel, Helmut. 2001. “Die Anfänge des Erfinderschutzes in Venedig.” In Lindgren, Uta (Hrsg). Europäische Technik im Mittelalter. 800 bis 1400. Tradition und Innovation 4. Auflage, Berlin: S.539-550.

World Intellectual Property Organization. 2007. “WIPO Patent Report: Statistics on Worldwide Patent Activity.” http://www.wipo.int/ipstats/en/statistics/patents/pub_archives/patent_report_2007.html (accessed March 30, 2007).

Contributors

Colin Webb, OECD; and Masatsura Igami, NISTEP.

Image Credits

Patents by Russell J. Duhon (data preparation), Elisha F. Hardy (design), Katy Börner (concept), Indiana University.

Data Credits

World Intellectual Property Organization. 2008. “Patent Applications by Office (1883 to 2006).” The WIPO Patent Report, 2007 Edition. http://www.wipo.int/freepublications/en/patents/931/wipo_pub_931.pdf (accessed March 30, 2010).

Top seven companies, see eMedia Asia Ltd. 2007.

Investing in the Future

References

HM Treasury. 2004. Science & Innovation Investment Framework 2004–2014. http://www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/spending_sr04_science.htm (accessed 1/25/2010). 

Menard, Henry W. 1971. Science: Growth and Change. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Radford, Giles. 2006. “Knowledge Optimization in Research Funding.” Presentation at the Knowledge in Service to Health: Leveraging Knowledge for Modern Science Management Symposium. Bethesda, MD, February 6. http://grants.nih.gov/grants/KM/OERRM/OER_KM_events (accessed October 30, 2007). 

Image Credits

U.S. R&D Expenditures graph by Russell J. Duhon (data preparation), Elisha F. Hardy (design), Katy Börner (concept), Indiana University.

Data Credits

National Science Board. 2006. Science and Engineering Indicators 2006. 2 vols. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation (vol. 1, NSB 06-01; vol. 2, NSB 06-01A). 

Welcome Trust data, see Radford 2006.

R&D spending data, see HM Treasury 2004.

Contributors

Matthew Probus and Mike Pollard, DiscoveryLogic.

Science and Society in Equilibrium

References

de Solla Price, Derek J. 1965. Little Science, Big Science. New York: Columbia University Press.

Martino, Joseph P. 1969. “Science and Society in Equilibrium.” Science 165, 3895: 769–772.

United States Central Intelligence Agency. 2007. “The World Factbook: United States.” https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/us.html (accessed March 30, 2010).

Image Credits

Martino, Joseph P. 1969. “Science and Society in Equilibrium.” Science 165, 3895: 769–772, fig. 1. Reprinted with permission from AAAS.

Data Credits

U.S. Population and GDP, see United States Central Intelligence Agency 2007.

6

Addictive Intelligence Amplifiers

Shrinking Planet 

References

About, Inc. 2008. “RADAR and Doppler RADAR Invention and History.” About.com. http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blradar.htm (accessed January 1, 2008).

Carter, Susan B., Scott Sigmund Gartner, Michael R. Haines, Alan L. Olmstead, Richard Sutch, and Gavin Wright. 2006. Historical Statistics of the United States: Millennial Edition. Online edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://hsus.cambridge.org (accessed October 30, 2007).

Lyman, Peter, Hal R. Varian, James Dunn, Aleksey Strygin, and Kirsten Swearingen. 2000. “How Much Information.” http://www.sims.berkeley.edu/how-much-info (accessed June 10, 2007).

Pingdom AB. 2008. Pingdom Blog: Internet 2008 in Numbers. http://royal.pingdom.com/2009/01/22/internet-2008-in-numbers (accessed January 25, 2010).

Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. 1991. The New Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th Ed., Phillip W. Goetz (Ed. In Chief). Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., s.v. “Facsimile”; “Telecommunications”; “Transportation”; “Writing.” 

Image Credits

“Shrinking of Our Planet…” courtesy of the estate of R. Buckminster Fuller.

“U.S. Transportation and Communications” graphs by Russell J. Duhon (data preparation), Elisha F. Hardy (design), Katy Börner (concept), Indiana University.

Data Credits

Carter et al. 2006. 

Internet Systems Consortium, Inc. 2007. “Internet Hosts from 1981 to 2007.” http://www.isc.org/index.pl?/ops/ds/host-count-history.php (accessed October 30, 2007).

Contributors

Bonnie DeVarco suggested the Fuller Map.

From Little Boxes to Big Boxes

References

Wellman, Barry. 2002. “Little Boxes, Glocalization, and Networked Individualism.” In Digital Cities II: Computational and Sociological Approaches. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, edited by Makoto Tanabe, Peter van den Besselaar, and Toru Ishida, 10. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. [Quotation] 

Accelerating the Rate of Change

References

Burke, James. 1978. Connections. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.

Kurzweil, Ray. 1992. The Age of Intelligent Machines. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Kurzweil, Ray. 1998. The Age of Spiritual Machines: When Computers Exceed Human Intelligence. New York: The Penguin Group.

Kurzweil, Ray. 2005. The Singularity is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology. New York: The Penguin Group.

On-the-Fly Assembly

References

Gardner, Howard. 2007. Five Minds for the Future. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

Goleman, Daniel. 1997. Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ. New York: Bantam.

Goleman, Daniel. 2006. Social Intelligence: The New Science of Human Relationships. New York: Bantam. 

Urban Species

References

Whitehouse, David. 2005. “Half of Humanity Set to Go Urban.” BBC News, May 19. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/4561183.stm (accessed August 12, 2009).

Zipf, George K. 1949. Human Behavior and the Principle of Least Effort. Cambridge, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Image Credits

See Zipf 1949.

Natural-Born Cyborgs

References

Clark, Andy. 2003. “Natural Born Cyborgs?” In The New Humanists, edited by John Brockman, 70. New York: Barnes and Noble.

Moths to the Flame

References

Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly. 1991. Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience. New York: HarperCollins.

Rawlins, Gregory J. E. 1997. Moths to the Flame: The Seductions of Computer Technology, 87. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Rawlins, Gregory J. E. 1997. Slaves of the Machine: The Quickening of Computer Technology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. [Quotation, pp. 125-126]

Rheingold, Howard. 2000. Tools for Thought: The History and Future of Mind-Expanding Technology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Man vs. Machine

References

Krauss, Lawrence M., and Glenn D. Starkman. 2004. “Universal Limits on Computation.” http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/astro-ph/pdf/0404/0404510v2.pdf (accessed October 30, 2007).

Levitin, Lev B., and Tommaso Toffoli. 2009. “Fundamental Limit on the Rate of Quantum Dynamics: The Unified Bound is Tight.” Physical Review Letters 103, 16: 160502-160506. 

Licklider, Joseph Carl Robnett. 1960. “Man-Computer Symbiosis.” IRE Transactions on Human Factors in Electronics HFE-1: 4–11. http://groups.csail.mit.edu/medg/people/psz/Licklider.html (accessed October 30, 2007).

Lloyd, S. 2000. “Ultimate Physical Limits to Computation.” Nature 406: 1047–1054.

Moravec, Hans. 1990. Mind Children: The Future of Robot and Human Intelligence. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Moravec, Hans. 1998. “When Will Computer Hardware Match the Human Brain?” Journal of Evolution and Technology 1. http://www.transhumanist.com/volume1/moravec.htm (accessed October 30, 2007). 

Moravec, Hans. 2000. Robot: Mere Machine to Transcendent Mind, 70. New York: Oxford University Press.

8

Knowledge Needs and Desires

References

Herbert Simon quoted in Davenport, Thomas H., and John C. Beck. 2001. The Attention Economy: Understanding the New Currency of Business, 11. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business Press. [Quotation, p. 11]

Data Providers and Librarians

References

Börner, Katy, and Chaomei Chen. 2002. “Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries: Motivation, Utilization and Socio-Technical Challenges.” In Lecture Notes in Computer Science: Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries, edited by Katy Börner and Chaomei Chen, vol. 2539: 1–9. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. 

Chen, Chaomei, and Katy Börner. 2005. “The Spatial-Semantic Impact of a Collaborative Information Virtual Environment on Group Dynamics.” Special Issue (Collaborative Information Visualization Environments), Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 14, 1: 81–103. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Szigeti, Helen. 2001. “The ISI Web of Knowledge Platform: Current and Future Directions.” Published online by ISI, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.

Thomson Reuters. 2004. “Web of Science 7.0: Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index, Arts and Humanities Citation Index.” http://www.science.thomsonreuters.com/mjl/wos_ahci_a5020_final.pdf(accessed March 31, 2010). 

Image Credits

Collaborative Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries, see Börner and Chen 2002.

Data Credits

WoS coverage, see Thomson Reuters 2004.

Industry

References

Kutz, Daniel. 2004. “Examining the Evolution and Distribution of Patent Classifications.” Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Information Visualisation (IV’04), edited by Ebad Banissi, 983–988. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society.

Image Credits

Claiming Intellectual Property Rights via Patents courtesy of Daniel Kutz.

Science Policy Makers

References

Boyack, Kevin W., Katy Börner, and Richard Klavans. 2007. “Mapping the Structure and Evolution of Chemistry Research.” Proceedings of the 11th International Conference of the International Society for Scientometrics and Informetrics, edited by Daniel Torres-Salinas and Henk F. Moed, 112–123. Madrid: CSIC.

Radford, Giles. 2006. “Knowledge Optimization in Research Funding.” Presentation at the Knowledge in Service to Health: Leveraging Knowledge for Modern Science Management Symposium. Bethesda, MD, February 6. http://grants.nih.gov/grants/KM/OERRM/OER_KM_events (accessed October 30, 2007). 

Image Credits

Funding Profiles of NIH and NSF by Russell J. Duhon (data preparation), Elisha F. Hardy (design), Katy Börner (concept), Indiana University; the base map of science created by, and used with the permission of, Kevin W. Boyack and Richard Klavans, SciTech Strategies, http://www.mapofscience.com (accessed June 10, 2008).

Data Credits

Welcome Trust data, see Radford 2006.

Researchers

References

Ke, Weimao, Katy Börner, and Lalitha Viswanath. 2004. “Analysis and Visualization of the IV 2004 Contest Dataset.” IEEE Information Visualization Conference 2004 Poster Compendium, 49–50. http://conferences.computer.org/InfoVis/files/compendium2004.pdf and http://iv.slis.indiana.edu/ref/iv04contest/Ke-Borner-Viswanath.gif (animated version) (accessed October 30, 2007).

Shneiderman, Ben. 1996. “The Eyes Have It: A Task by Data Type Taxonomy for Information Visualizations.” Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages, 336–343. Washington, DC: IEEE Computer Society.

Image Credits

Mapping the Evolution of Coauthorship Networks, see Ke et al. 2004.

Children

References

Börner, Katy, Fileve Palmer, Julie M. Davis, Elisha F. Hardy, Stephen M. Uzzo, and Bryan J. Hook. 2009. “Teaching Children the Structure of Science.” Proceedings of SPIE: Conference on Visualization and Data Analysis, 7243, 1: 1-14. Bellingham, WA: SPIE.

Image Credits

“Hands-On Science Maps for Kids,” see Börner et al. 2009.

Contributors

Fileve Palmer, Katy Börner, Elisha F. Hardy, Julie Smith, Stephen Miles Uzzo (director of technology, New York Hall of Science), and Michael Lane (director of exhibit services, New York Hall of Science).

Society

Image Credits

Places & Spaces: Mapping Science exhibit image courtesy of Katy Börner.

10

The Power of Maps

References

Brown, Lloyd A. 1980. The Story of Maps. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications.

Harmon, Katharine. 2004. You Are Here: Personal Geographies and Other Maps of the Imagination. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. [Quotation, Introduction, p. 10]

Winchester, Simon. 2002. The Map that Changed the World: William Smith and the Birth of Modern Geology. New York: Harper Perennial.

The Power of Stories

References

Belloc, Hilaire. 1913. The Book of the Bayeux Tapestry: Presenting the Complete Work in a Series of Colour Facsimiles. London: Chatto & Windus.

Rud, Mogens. 1992. The Bayeux Tapestry and the Battle of Hastings 1066. Copenhagen: Christian Eilers Publishers.

Wilson, David M. 1985. The Bayeux Tapestry. London: Thames and Hudson.

Image Credits

Bayeux Tapestry, see Belloc 1913.

Early Mapmaking

References

Bunbury, E. H. 1883. A History of Ancient Geography Among the Greeks and Romans from the Earliest Ages Till the Fall of the Roman Empire, 148–149, fig. 11. London: John Murray.

Harmon, Katharine. 2004. You Are Here: Personal Geographies and Other Maps of the Imagination, 10. New York: Princeton Architectural Press.

Miller, Konrad. 1887–1888. “Die Weltkarte des Castorius genannt die Peutingersche Tafel.” In Den Farben des Originals herausgegeben und eingeleitet von Konrad Miller. Ravensburg, Germany: Maier.

Image Credits

Hecataeus map, see Bunbury 1883.

Peutinger map, see Miller 1887–1888.

Toward a Geographic
Reference System

References

Crone, G. R. 1953. Maps and Their Makers. London: Hutchinson University Library.

Skelton, R. A. 1963. “Bibliographical Note.Reproduction of Claudius Ptolemaus, Cosmographia, Ulm, 1482. Amsterdam: Theatrum Orbis Terrarum.

Thomson, J. O. 1948. History of Ancient Geography. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Turnbull, David. 1989. Maps Are Territories: Science is an Atlas. Geelong, Australia: Deakin University Press.

Wood, Denis. 1992. The Power of Maps. New York: The Guilford Press.

Scientific Mapmaking

References

Cassini, Giovanni Domenico. 1668. Ephemerides Bononienses Mediceorum syderum/ex hypothesibus, et tabulis Io. Typis Emilij Mariæ & Fratrum de Manolessijs.

Headrick, Daniel R. 2000. When Information Came of Age: Technologies of Knowledge in the Age of Reason and Revolution, 1700–1850. New York: Oxford University Press.

Hook, Peter A. 2007. “Domain Maps: Purposes, History, Parallels with Cartography, and Applications.” Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Information Visualisation (IV’07), 442-446. Zürich, Switzerland, July 4-6. 

Morrison, Philip, and Phylis Morrison. 1987. The Ring of Truth, 127. New York: Random House.

Walker, James Thomas, Charles Thomas Haig, James Palladio Basevi, Willam James Heaviside, William Maxwell Cambell, and Sir Sidney Gerald Burrard. 1870–1910. Account of the Operations of the Great Trigonometrical Survey of India. Dehra Dun, India: Office of the Trigonometrical Branch, Survey of India.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2009. “World Geodetic System.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Geodetic_System (accessed November 16, 2009). 

Image Credits

Cassini’s world map image courtesy of the Houghton Library, Harvard College Library. IC6.C2735.668c.

Mapping the Highest Mountain, see Walker et al. 1870–1910.

Thematic Map Making, Statistical Graphics, and Data Visualization

References

Garland, K. 1994. Mr. Beck’s Underground Map, 20. Middlesex, UK: Capitol Transport Publishing.

Koch, Tom. 2005. Cartographies of Disease: Maps, Mapping, and Medicine. Redlands, CA: ESRI Press.

Stamp, L. Dudley. 1964. A Geography of Life and Death. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Data Charts and
Network Visualizations

References

Bernal, John D. 1939. The Social Function of Science. London: Routledge & Kegan Ltd.

Bertin, J. 1981.Graphics and Graphic Information Processing. New York: Walter de Gruyter.

Burkhard, Remo. 2005. “Knowledge Visualization—The Use of Complementary Visual Representations for the Transfer of Knowledge. A Model, a Framework, and Four New Approaches.” PhD diss., Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH).

Card, Stuart, Jock Mackinlay, and Ben Shneiderman, eds. 1999. Readings in Information Visualization: Using Vision to Think. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann.

Dodge, Martin, and Rob Kitchin. 2002. Atlas of Cyberspace. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

Eppler, Martin J., and Remo Burkhard. 2005. “Knowledge Visualization.” In Encyclopedia of Knowledge Management, edited by David E. Schwartz. Hershey, PA: Idea Press.

Friendly, Michael, and Daniel J. Denis. 2007. “Milestones in the History of Thematic Cartography, Statistical Graphics, and Data Visualization: An Illustrated Chronology of Innovations.” http://www.math.yorku.ca/SCS/Gallery/milestone (accessed October 30, 2007).

Holmes, Nigel. 1993. The Best in Diagrammatic Graphics. London: Quarto Publishing.

Kahn, Paul, and Krzysztof Lenk. 2001. Mapping Websites: Digital Media Design. Beverly, MA: Rockport Publishers.

Moreno, Jacob L. 1933. “Emotions Mapped by New Geography.” New York Times, April 3: 17.

Moreno, Jacob L. 1934. Who Shall Survive? Washington, DC: Nervous and Mental Disease Publishing Company.

Playfair, William. 1786. The Commercial and Political Atlas: Representing, by Means of Stained Copper-Plate Charts, the Progress of the Commerce, Revenues, Expenditure and Debts of England during the Whole of the Eighteenth Century. London: Debrett, Robinson, and Sewell.

Playfair, William. 2005. The Commercial and Political Atlas and Statistical Breviary, Introduction by Howard Wainer and Ian Spence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Slocum, Terry A. 1998. Thematic Cartography and Visualization. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Tufte, Edward R. 1990. Envisioning Information. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.

Tufte, Edward R. 1997. Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.

Tufte, Edward R. 2001. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. 2nd ed. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.

Tufte, Edward R. 2006. Beautiful Evidence. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.

Wainer, Howard. 1997. Visual Revelations: Graphical Tales of Fate and Deception from Napoleon Bonaparte to Ross Perot. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Image Credits

Map of Science, see Bernal 1939.

12

Science Maps and Their Makers

References

Atkins, Daniel E., Kelvin K. Droegemeier, Stuart I. Feldman, Hector Garcia-Molina, Michael L. Klein, David G. Messerschmitt, Paul Messina, Jeremiah P. Ostriker, and Margaret H. Wright. 2003. “Revolutionizing Science and Engineering Through Cyberinfrastructure: Report of the National Science Foundation Blue-Ribbon Advisory Panel on Cyberinfrastructure.” National Science Foundation. http://www.nsf.gov/od/oci/reports/atkins.pdf (accessed March 25, 2008).

de Solla Price, Derek J. 1965. Little Science, Big Science. New York: Columbia University Press.

Emmott, Stephen, Stuart Rison, Microsoft et al. 2005. “Towards 2020 Science.” http://research.microsoft.com/towards2020science (accessed October 30, 2007).

Kimerling, A. Jon, Phillip C. Muehrcke, and Juliana O. Muehrcke. 2005. Map Use: Reading, Analysis, Interpretation, 5th ed., Madison, WI: JP Publications. [Quotation, p. 520]

Contributions

Computational scientometrics is a term coined by C. Lee Giles.

Scientograph term by George Vladutz, see Garfield 1986.

Mapping Science

References

Börner, Katy, Chaomei Chen, and Kevin W. Boyack. 2003. “Visualizing Knowledge Domains.” In Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, edited by Blaise Cronin, vol. 37: 179–255. Medford, NJ: Information Today/American Society for Information Science and Technology.

Callon, Michel, John Law, and Arie Rip, eds. 1986. Mapping the Dynamics of Science and Technology: Sociology of Science in the Real World. London: The Macmillan Press.

Chen, Chaomei. 2002. Mapping Scientific Frontiers. London: Springer-Verlag.

Garfield, Eugene. 1986. Essays of an Information Scientist: Towards Scientography, vol. 9. Philadelphia: ISI Press.

Garfield, Eugene. 1994. “Scientography: Mapping the Tracks of Science.” Reprinted from Current Contents: Social and Behavioural Sciences 7: 5–10. 

Narin, Francis, and Joy K. Moll. 1977. “Bibliometrics.” In Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, edited by M. E. Williams, 12: 35–58. White Plains, NY: Knowledge Industry Publications.

Shiffrin, Richard M., and Katy Börner. 2004.“Mapping Knowledge Domains.” PNAS 101, Suppl. 1: 5183–5185.

Skupin, André. 2002. “On Geometry and Transformation in Map-like Information Visualization.” Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, edited by Katy Börner and Chaomei Chen, vol. 2539: 161–170. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Skupin, André. 2004. “The World of Geography: Visualizing a Knowledge Domain with Cartographic Means.” PNAS 101, Suppl. 1: 5274–5278.

Skupin, André, and Sara Irina Fabrikant. 2003. “Spatialization Methods: A Cartographic Research Agenda for Non-Geographic Information Visualization.” Cartography and Geographic Information Science 30, 2: 99–119.

White, Howard D. 2001. “Author-Centered Bibliometrics through CAMEOs: Characterizations Automatically Made and Edited Online.” Scientometrics 51, 3: 607–637.

White, Howard D., and Katherine W. McCain. 1997. “Visualization of Literatures.” In Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, vol. 32: 99–168.

Wilson, Concepción S. 1999. “Informetrics.” Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, vol. 34: 107–247.

The Utility of a Science
Reference System

No references or credits.

Toward A Reference System
for Science

References

Boyack, Kevin W., Richard Klavans, and Katy Börner. 2005. “Mapping the Backbone of Science.” Scientometrics 64, 3: 351–374.

Boyack, Kevin W., Katy Börner, and Richard Klavans. 2009. “Mapping the Structure and Evolution of Chemistry Research.” Scientometrics 79, 1: 45–60.

Braam, Robert R., Henk F. Moed, and Anthony F. J. van Raan. 1991. “Mapping of Science by Combined Co-Citation and Word Analysis I: Structural Aspects”; “Mapping of Science by Combined Co-Citation and Word Analysis II: Dynamical Aspects.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science 42, 4: 233–251, 252–266.

Davidson, George S., Brian N. Wylie, and Kevin W. Boyack. 2001. “Cluster Stability and the Use of Noise in Interpretation of Clustering.” Proceedings of IEEE Information Visualization (IV’01), 23–30. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE.

Fabrikant, Sara Irina, Daniel R. Montello, and David M. Mark. 2006. “The Distance-Similarity Metaphor in Region-Display Spatializations.” Special Issue on Exploring Geovisualization: IEEE Computer Graphics & Application, edited by T. M. Rhyne, A. MacEachren, and J. Dykes, vol. 26, 4: 34–44. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society Press.

Fabrikant, Sara Irina, Daniel R. Montello, Marco Ruocco, and Richard S. Middleton. 2004. “The Distance-Similarity Metaphor in Network-Display Spatializations.” Cartography and Geographic Information Science 31, 4: 237–252.

Kessler, Michael M. 1963. “Bibliographic Coupling Between Scientific Papers.” American Documentation 14, 1: 10–25.

Klavans, Richard, and Kevin W. Boyack. 2006. “Identifying a Better Measure of Relatedness for Mapping Science.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 57, 2: 251–263.

Klavans, Richard, and Kevin W. Boyack. 2006. “Quantitative Evaluation of Large Maps of Science.” Scientometrics 68, 3: 475–499.

Klavans, Richard, and Kevin W. Boyack. 2007. “Is There a Convergent Structure to Science?” Proceedings of the 11th International Conference of the International Society for Scientometrics and Informetrics, edited by Daniel Torres-Salinas and Henk F. Moed, 437–448. Madrid: CSIC.

Klavans, Richard, and Kevin W. Boyack. 2008. “Thought Leadership: A New Indicator for National and Institutional Comparison.” Scientometrics 75, 2: 239–250.

Klavans, Richard, and Kevin W. Boyack. 2009. “Toward a Consensus Map of Science.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 60, 3: 455–476.

Leydesdorff, Loet. 1987. “Various Methods for the Mapping of Science.” Scientometrics 11: 291–320.

Leydesdorff, Loet. 2007. “Mapping Interdisciplinarity at the Interfaces between the Science Citation Index and the Social Sciences Citation Index.” Scientometrics 71, 3: 391–405.

Marshakova, Irina V. 1973. “A System of Document Connections Based on References.” Scientific and Technical Information Serial of VINITI 6: 3–8.

Small, Henry. 1973. “Co-citation in Scientific Literature: A New Measure of the Relationship Between Publications.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science 24: 265–269.

Image Credits

Backbone of Science, see Boyack et al. 2005.

2002 Base Map, see Boyack et al. 2009.

Paradigm Map, see Klavans and Boyack 2008.

UCSD Map of Science courtesy of Richard Klavans and Kevin W. Boyack, SciTech Strategies, Inc. http://www.mapofscience.com (accessed June 10, 2008). 

Mapmakers of Science

No references or credits.