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Part 1: Introduction Click on image to access credits or download high resolution image.
2-3

Knowledge Equals Power



Image Credits

Timeline by Russell J. Duhon (data preparation), Elisha F. Hardy (design), Katy Börner (concept), Indiana University.

Data Credits

U.S. Census Bureau. 2007. "Total Midyear Population for the World: 1950-2050." http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/idb/worldpopinfo.php (accessed February 10, 2010).

Kremer, Michael. 1993. "Population Growth and Technological Change: One Million B.C. to 1990." The Quarterly Journal of Economics 108, 3: 681-716. http://www.jstor.org/view/00335533/di976343/97p0125n/0 (accessed October 30, 2007).

Software Credits

Hunter, John. Matplotlib Basemap (Class) Library. http://matplotlib.sourceforge.net/classdocs.html (accessed October 30, 2007).

Matplotlib (sponsored by ENThought). 2008. "Cookbook/Matplotlib/Maps." http://www.scipy.org/Cookbook/Matplotlib/Maps (accessed March 30, 2010).



Image Credits

2005 World Population, 2003 Scientific Productivity, and 2007 IP Address Ownership by Russell J. Duhon (data preparation), Elisha F. Hardy (design), Katy Börner (concept), Indiana University.

Data Credits

Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York. 1997-2008. "Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC): Gridded Population of the World and the Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project." Population Grid Data selected, ascii format, year 2005, dowloadable by log-in (file as GL-gpwfe_pcount_05_ascii_quar.zip). http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/gpw/global.jsp. (accessed August 17. 2009).

Software Credits

Hunter, John. Matplotlib Basemap (Class) Library. http://matplotlib.sourceforge.net/classdocs.html (accessed October 30, 2007).



Image Credits

2005 World Population, 2003 Scientific Productivity, and 2007 IP Address Ownership by Russell J. Duhon (data preparation), Elisha F. Hardy (design), Katy Börner (concept), Indiana University.

Data Credits

Boyack, Kevin W., John Burgoon, Peter Kennard, Richard Klavans, and W. Bradford Paley. 2006. "Scientific Productivity: Data from Part 4: Illuminated Diagram." GeoMap.

Software Credits

Hunter, John. Matplotlib Basemap (Class) Library. http://matplotlib.sourceforge.net/classdocs.html (accessed October 30, 2007).


Image Credits

City Lights at Night by Robert Nemiroff and Jerry Bonnell. 2007. "Astronomy Picture of the Day, November 27, 2000." http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap001127.html (accessed October 30, 2007).


Image Credits

2005 World Population, 2003 Scientific Productivity, and 2007 IP Address Ownership by Russell J. Duhon (data preparation), Elisha F. Hardy (design), Katy Börner (concept), Indiana University.

Data Credits

MaxMind, Inc. 2010. "GeoLite Country." http://maxmind.com; http://www.maxmind.com/app/geoip_country (accessed March 15, 2010).


Image Credits

How Much Information graph by Russell J. Duhon (data preparation), Elisha F. Hardy (design), Katy Börner (concept), Indiana University.

Data Credits

Regents of the University of California. 2000. "How Much Information?" http://www2.sims.berkeley.edu/research/projects/how-much-info/datapowers.html (accessed April 2, 2010).

TechTarget Corporation. 2010. "What Is: How Many Bytes for?" http://searchstorage.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid5_gci944596,00.html (accessed March 30, 2010).


4-5

The Rise of Science and Technology



Image Credits

People by Russell J. Duhon (data preparation), Elisha F. Hardy (design), Katy Börner (concept), Indiana University.

Data Credits

Today's Percentage of Creative Class, see Florida 2002.

Florida, Richard. 2002. The Rise of the Creative Class: And How It's Transforming Work, Leisure, Community and Everyday Life. New York: Basic Books.

U.S. Labor Data, see Menard 1971, page 59.

Menard, Henry W. 1971. Science: Growth and Change. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

U.S. Census Bureau. 2000. "United States Census 2000." http://www.census.gov/main/www/cen2000.html (accessed June 10, 2008).

National Science Board. 2006. Science and Engineering Indicators 2006. 2 vols. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation (vol. 1, NSB 06-01; vol. 2, NSB 06-01A).


Image Credits

Books: Russell J. Duhon (data preparation), Elisha F. Hardy (design), Katy Börner (concept), Indiana University.

Data Credits

Bookman data from 1880-2000, see Carter et al. 2006.

Carter, Susan B., Scott Sigmund Gartner, Michael R. Haines, Alan L. Olmstead, Richard Sutch, and Gavin Wright. 2006. Historical Statistics of the United States: Millennial Edition. Online edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://hsus.cambridge.org (accessed October 30, 2007).

Project Gutenberg. Search returns (quantity) from 1971-2007, see Project Gutenberg, Main Page.

Project Gutenberg. 2009. "Main Page." http://www.gutenberg.org/wiki/Main_Page (accessed March 16, 2010).

The Million Book Project. "Search returns (quantity) from 1662-2002." See http://www.archive.org/about/terms.php (accessed October 30, 2007).

Internet Archive. 2001. "Million Book Project." http://www.archive.org/details/millionbooks (accessed October 30, 2007).

Chemical Abstracts Service. 2007. "CAS Statistical Summary 1907-2006." Columbus, OH: ACS. http://www.cas.org/ASSETS/836E3804111B49BFA28B95BD1B40CD0F/casstats.pdf (accessed October 30, 2007).

OCLC. Worldcat Books. "Search returns (quantity) from 1650-2010." Retrieved September 21-22, 2007 and October 12, 2007. Data taken from OCLC's WorldCat® database, used with OCLC's permission: WorldCat® is a registered trademark of OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc. http://www.worldcat.org (accessed October 30, 2007).


Image Credits

Papers and Wikipedia Entries by Russell J. Duhon (data preparation), Elisha F. Hardy (design), Katy Börner (concept), Indiana University.

Growth of Scientific Records, Journals, see Menard 1971.

Menard, Henry W. 1971. Science: Growth and Change. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Data Credits

Science growth rates data, see Menard 1971.

Menard, Henry W. 1971. Science: Growth and Change. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Ley, Michael. 2008. "The DBLP Computer Science Bibliography." Universität Trier. http://www.informatik.uni-trier.de/~ley/db (accessed June 10, 2008).

NFAIS abstract data set, 1957-1990, see National Federation of Abstracting and Information Services 1990.

National Federation of Abstracting and Information Services. 1990. "Member Service Statistics 1957-1990." NFAIS Newsletter 32, June.

Web of Science going back to 1981 provided by Henry G. Small.

Chris Harrison (preparer), Brian Amento and Mike Yang (compilers at AT&T Labs). "Royal Society Data: Visualizing the Royal Society Archive." 1665-2005. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A (1665-2005); Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B (1887-2005); Proceedings of the Royal Society A (1800-2005); Proceedings of the Royal Society B (1905-2005). http://www.chrisharrison.net/projects/royalsociety; data sets available at: http://www.chrisharrison.net/projects/royalsociety/AuthorDistribution.zip; http://www.chrisharrison.net/projects/royalsociety/WordDistribution.zip; http://www.chrisharrison.net/projects/royalsociety/CombinedDistribution.zip. (accessed March 30, 2010.)

CiteSeer data. Produced with data from http://dblp.uni-trier.de (accessed October 30, 2007).

Physical Review Data, 1887-2007.

Chemical Abstracts Service. 2007. "CAS Statistical Summary 1907-2006." Columbus, OH: ACS. http://www.cas.org/ASSETS/836E3804111B49BFA28B95BD1B40CD0F/casstats.pdf (accessed October 30, 2007).

JSTOR data set. 2007. "Search returns (quantity) for journal publications by date from 1665-2007." http://fsearch-sandbox.jstor.org/search (accessed October 30, 2007).

MEDLINE data set. "Statistical reports on MEDLINE®/PubMed® baseline data [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), Bibliographic Services Division." Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/licensee/baselinestats.html (accessed October 30, 2007).

OCLC. "Worldcat Papers: search returns (quantity) from 1650-2010." Retrieved September 21-22, 2007 and October 12, 2007. Data taken from OCLC's WorldCat® database, used with OCLC's permission: WorldCat® is a registered trademark of OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc. http://www.worldcat.org (accessed October 30, 2007).

Scopus Coverage, see Scopus. 2007. Content Coverage. http://www.info.scopus.com/docs/content_coverage.pdf (accessed October 30, 2007).

Scopus data. "Search returns (quantity) for Scopus from January 2001 to December 2005." http://www.scopus.com/scopus/home.url (accessed October 30, 2007).

Thomson Reuters. 2004. "Web of Science 7.0: Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index, Arts and Humanities Citation Index." http://www.science.thomsonreuters.com/mjl/wos_ahci_a5020_final.pdf(accessed March 31, 2010).


Image Credits

de Solla Price, Derek. 1962. Science Since Babylon. New Haven: Yale University Press. Used by permission of Yale University Press, all rights reserved.


Image Credits

Patents by Russell J. Duhon (data preparation), Elisha F. Hardy (design), Katy Börner (concept), Indiana University.

Data Credits

World Intellectual Property Organization. 2008. "Patent Applications by Office (1883 to 2006)." The WIPO Patent Report, 2007 Edition. http://www.wipo.int/freepublications/en/patents/931/wipo_pub_931.pdf (accessed March 30, 2010).

Top seven companies, see eMedia Asia Ltd. 2007.

eMedia Asia Ltd. 2007. "Bird's Eye View of Patent Playground." EE Times Asia. http://www.eetasia.com/ART_8800489316_480100_NT_ceb53150.HTM (accessed March 30, 2010).


Image Credits

U.S. R&D Expenditures graph by Russell J. Duhon (data preparation), Elisha F. Hardy (design), Katy Börner (concept), Indiana University.

Data Credits

National Science Board. 2006. Science and Engineering Indicators 2006. 2 vols. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation (vol. 1, NSB 06-01; vol. 2, NSB 06-01A).

Welcome Trust data, see Radford 2006.

Radford, Giles. 2006. "Knowledge Optimization in Research Funding." Presentation at the Knowledge in Service to Health: Leveraging Knowledge for Modern Science Management Symposium. Bethesda, MD, February 6. http://grants.nih.gov/grants/KM/OERRM/OER_KM_events (accessed October 30, 2007).

R&D spending data, see HM Treasury 2004.

HM Treasury. 2004. Science & Innovation Investment Framework 2004-2014. http://www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/spending_sr04_science.htm (accessed 1/25/2010).


Image Credits

Martino, Joseph P. 1969. "Science and Society in Equilibrium." Science 165, 3895: 769-772, fig. 1. Reprinted with permission from AAAS.

Data Credits

U.S. Population and GDP, see United States Central Intelligence Agency 2007.

United States Central Intelligence Agency. 2007. "The World Factbook: United States." https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/us.html (accessed March 30, 2010).


6-7

Addictive Intelligence Amplifiers



Image Credits

"Shrinking of Our Planet" courtesy of the estate of R. Buckminster Fuller.


Image Credits

"U.S. Transportation and Communications" graphs by Russell J. Duhon (data preparation), Elisha F. Hardy (design), Katy Börner (concept), Indiana University.

Data Credits

Carter et al. 2006.

Internet Systems Consortium, Inc. 2007. "Internet Hosts from 1981 to 2007." http://www.isc.org/index.pl?/ops/ds/host-count-history.php (accessed October 30, 2007).


Image Credits

"U.S. Transportation and Communications" graphs by Russell J. Duhon (data preparation), Elisha F. Hardy (design), Katy Börner (concept), Indiana University.

Data Credits

Carter et al. 2006.

Internet Systems Consortium, Inc. 2007. "Internet Hosts from 1981 to 2007." http://www.isc.org/index.pl?/ops/ds/host-count-history.php (accessed October 30, 2007).


Image Credits

Zipf, George K. 1949. Human Behavior and the Principle of Least Effort. Cambridge, MA: Addison-Wesley.


8-9

Knowledge Needs and Desires



Image Credits

Collaborative Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries, see Börner and Chen 2002.

Börner, Katy, and Chaomei Chen. 2002. "Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries: Motivation, Utilization and Socio-Technical Challenges." In Lecture Notes in Computer Science: Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries, edited by Katy Börner and Chaomei Chen, vol. 2539: 1-9. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.


Image Credits

Claiming Intellectual Property Rights via Patents courtesy of Daniel Kutz.


Image Credits

Funding Profiles of NIH and NSF by Russell J. Duhon (data preparation), Elisha F. Hardy (design), Katy Börner (concept), Indiana University; the base map of science created by, and used with the permission of, Kevin W. Boyack and Richard Klavans, SciTech Strategies, http://www.mapofscience.com (accessed June 10, 2008).

Data Credits

Welcome Trust data, see Radford 2006.

Radford, Giles. 2006. "Knowledge Optimization in Research Funding." Presentation at the Knowledge in Service to Health: Leveraging Knowledge for Modern Science Management Symposium. Bethesda, MD, February 6. http://grants.nih.gov/grants/KM/OERRM/OER_KM_events (accessed October 30, 2007).


Image Credits

Funding Profiles of NIH and NSF by Russell J. Duhon (data preparation), Elisha F. Hardy (design), Katy Börner (concept), Indiana University; the base map of science created by, and used with the permission of, Kevin W. Boyack and Richard Klavans, SciTech Strategies, http://www.mapofscience.com (accessed June 10, 2008).

Data Credits

Welcome Trust data, see Radford 2006.

Radford, Giles. 2006. "Knowledge Optimization in Research Funding." Presentation at the Knowledge in Service to Health: Leveraging Knowledge for Modern Science Management Symposium. Bethesda, MD, February 6. http://grants.nih.gov/grants/KM/OERRM/OER_KM_events (accessed October 30, 2007).


Image Credits

Ke, Weimao, Katy Börner, and Lalitha Viswanath. 2004. "Analysis and Visualization of the IV 2004 Contest Dataset." IEEE Information Visualization Conference 2004 Poster Compendium, 49-50. http://conferences.computer.org/InfoVis/files/compendium2004.pdf and http://iv.slis.indiana.edu/ref/iv04contest/Ke-Borner-Viswanath.gif (animated version) (accessed October 30, 2007).

Image Credits

Börner, Katy, Fileve Palmer, Julie M. Davis, Elisha F. Hardy, Stephen M. Uzzo, and Bryan J. Hook. 2009. "Teaching Children the Structure of Science." Proceedings of SPIE: Conference on Visualization and Data Analysis, 7243, 1: 1-14. Bellingham, WA: SPIE.


Image Credits

Places & Spaces: Mapping Science exhibit image courtesy of Katy Börner.


10-11

The Power of Maps



Image Credits

Belloc, Hilaire. 1913. The Book of the Bayeux Tapestry: Presenting the Complete Work in a Series of Colour Facsimiles. London: Chatto & Windus.


Image Credits

Bunbury, E. H. 1883. A History of Ancient Geography Among the Greeks and Romans from the Earliest Ages Till the Fall of the Roman Empire, 148-149, fig. 11. London: John Murray.


Image Credits

Miller, Konrad. 1887-1888. "Die Weltkarte des Castorius genannt die Peutingersche Tafel." In Den Farben des Originals herausgegeben und eingeleitet von Konrad Miller. Ravensburg, Germany: Maier.


Image Credits

Cassini's world map image courtesy of the Houghton Library, Harvard College Library. IC6.C2735.668c.


Image Credits

Walker, James Thomas, Charles Thomas Haig, James Palladio Basevi, Willam James Heaviside, William Maxwell Cambell, and Sir Sidney Gerald Burrard. 1870-1910. Account of the Operations of the Great Trigonometrical Survey of India. Dehra Dun, India: Office of the Trigonometrical Branch, Survey of India.

Image Credits

Bernal, John D. 1939. The Social Function of Science. London: Routledge & Kegan Ltd.


12-13

Science Maps and Their Makers



Image Credits

Boyack, Kevin W., Richard Klavans, and Katy Börner. 2005. "Mapping the Backbone of Science." Scientometrics 64, 3: 351-374.


Image Credits

Boyack, Kevin W., Katy Börner, and Richard Klavans. 2009. "Mapping the Structure and Evolution of Chemistry Research." Scientometrics 79, 1: 45-60.


Image Credits

Klavans, Richard, and Kevin W. Boyack. 2008. "Thought Leadership: A New Indicator for National and Institutional Comparison." Scientometrics 75, 2: 239-250.


Image Credits

UCSD Map of Science courtesy of Richard Klavans and Kevin W. Boyack, SciTech Strategies, Inc. http://www.mapofscience.com (accessed June 10, 2008).