References


49

Part 3: Toward a Science of Science

References

Santayana, George. 1905. The Life of Reason, 74–88. New York: C. Scribner’s Sons.

Image Credits

From Zeller, Daniel. 2007. Hypothetical Model of the Evolution and Structure of Science. New York, NY. Courtesy of Daniel Zeller.

50

Building Blocks

References

Monmonier, Mark, and H. J. de Blij. 1996. How to Lie with Maps. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. [Quotation]

Overview

References

Nielsen, Jakob. 1998. Designing Web Usability. Indianapolis, IN: New Riders Publishing.

Rubin, Jeffrey. 1994. Handbook of Usability Testing: How to Plan, Design, and Conduct Effective Tests. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Shneiderman, Ben, and Catherine Plaisant. 2004. Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective Human-Computer Interaction. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Needs Analysis

References

Mayhew, Deborah J. 1999. Usability Engineering Lifecycle: A Practitioner’s Handbook for User Interface Design. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Nielsen, Jakob. 1993. Usability Engineering. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Shneiderman, Ben. 2002. Leonardo’s Laptop: Human Needs and the New Computing Technologies. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Conceptualizing Science

No references or credits.

Data Acquisition and Preprocessing

No references or credits.

Data Analysis, Modeling,
and Layout

References

Willinger, Walter, Ramesh Govindan, Sugih Jamin, Vern Paxson, and Scott Shenker. 2002. “Scaling Phenomena in the Internet: Critically Examining Criticality.” PNAS 99, 1: 2573–2580.

Data Communication–
Visualization Layers

References

Shneiderman, Ben. 1996. “The Eyes Have It: A Task by Data Type Taxonomy for Information Visualizations.” Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages, 336–343. Washington, DC: IEEE Computer Society.

Validation and Interpretation

Image Credits

Flowchart: Elisha F. Hardy (design), Katy Börner (concept), Indiana University.

Scholarly Marketplaces

No references or credits.

52

Conceptualizing Science: Basic Anatomy of Science

References

Garfield, Eugene. 1959. “A Unified Index to Science.” Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information, vol. 1. Washington DC: National Academy of Sciences National Research Council. [Quotation, p. 468]

Toward a Science of Science

References

Barnes, Barry, and David Edge, eds. 1982. Science in Context: Readings in the Sociology of Science. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Ben-David, Joseph, and Teresa A. Sullivan. 1975. “Sociology of Science.” Annual Review of Sociology 1: 203–222.

Bernal, John D. 1939. The Social Function of Science. London: Routledge & Kegan Ltd.

Borgman, Christine L., and Jonathan Furner. 2002. “Scholarly Communication and Bibliometrics.” In Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, edited by Blaise Cronin, 36: 3–72. Medford, NJ: Information Today.

de Solla Price, Derek J. 1961. Science Since Babylon. New Haven: Yale University Press.

de Solla Price, Derek J. 1965. Little Science, Big Science. New York: Columbia University Press.

de Solla Price, Derek J. 1965. “Networks of Scientific Papers.” Science 149, 3683: 510–515. 

de Solla Price, Derek J. 1986. Little Science, Big Science … and Beyond. New York: Columbia University Press.

Egghe, Leo, and Ronald Rousseau. 1990. Introduction to Informetrics: Quantitative Methods in Library, Documentation and Information Science. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers.

Garfield, Eugene, Irving H. Sher, and Richard J. Torpie. 1964. “The Use of Citation Data in Writing the History of Science.” Report for Air Force Office of Scientific Research under contract AF49 (638)-1256. Philadelphia, PA: Institute for Scientific Information. http://www.garfield.library.upenn.edu/papers/useofcitdatawritinghistofsci.pdf (accessed September 30, 2009). 

Leydesdorff, Loet. 2005. “The Triple Helix Model and the Study of Knowledge-Based Innovation Systems.”

International Journal of Contemporary Sociology 42, 1: 12–27.

Merton, Robert King. 1973. The Sociology of Science: Theoretical and Empirical Investigations. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Narin, Francis. 1976. Evaluative Bibliometrics: The Use of Publication and Citation Analysis in the Evaluation of Scientific Activity. Cherry Hill, NJ: Computer Horizons, Inc. 

Narin, Francis, and Joy K. Moll. 1977. “Bibliometrics.” In Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, edited by M. E. Williams, 12: 35–58. White Plains, NY: Knowledge Industry Publications.

Small, Henry, and E. Sweeney. 1985. “Clustering the Science Citation Index Using Co-citations. Part I. A Comparison of Methods.” Scientometrics 7, 3–6: 391–409.

Small, Henry, E. Sweeney, and E. Greenlee. 1985. “Clustering the Science Citation Index Using Co-citations. Part II. Mapping Science.” Scientometrics 8, 5–6: 321–340.

Thelwall, M. 2004. Link Analysis: An Information Science Approach. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Thelwall, M., L. Vaughan, and L. Björneborn. 2005. “Webometrics.” In Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, edited by Blaise Cronin, 39: 81–135. Medford, NJ: Information Today/American Society for Information Science and Technology.

van Raan, Anthony F. J., ed. 1988. Handbook of Quantitative Studies of Science and Technology. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers.

White, Howard D., and Katherine W. McCain. 1989. “Bibliometrics.” In Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, edited by M. E. Williams, 24: 119–186. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers.

Wouters, Paul. 1999. “The Citation Culture.” PhD diss., University of Amsterdam. http://garfield. library.upenn.edu/wouters/wouters.pdf (accessed October 30, 2007).

Features and Norms of Science

References

Merton, Robert. 1973. The Sociology of Science. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2009. “Robert K. Merton.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_K._Merton (accessed November 18, 2009). 

Wilson, E. O. 1998. Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge, 53. New York: Knopf.

The Power of Visual Conceptualizations

References

Bernal, John D. 1939. The Social Function of Science. London: Routledge & Kegan Ltd.

de Solla Price, Derek J. 1965. Little Science, Big Science. New York: Columbia University Press.

Garfield, Eugene. 1979. Citation Indexing: Its Theory and Application in Science, Technology, and Humanities. New York: Wiley.

Goffman, William, and V. A. Newill. 1964. “Generalization of Epidemic Theory: An Application to the Transmission of Ideas.” Nature 204: 225–228.

Kuhn, Thomas Samuel. 1962. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Lem, Stanisław. 1997. Filozofia Przypadku. http://english.lem.pl (accessed February 17, 2010).

Otlet, Paul. 1934. Traité de Documentation: Le Livre sur le Livre—Théorie et Pratique. Brussels: Editiones Mundaneum, Palais Mondial, Van Keerberghen & Fils. 

Popper, Karl. 1979. Truth, Rationality, and the Growth of Scientific Knowledge. Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Klostermann.

Wells, Herbert George. 1938. World Brain, 19. New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc.

Yablonskij, Anatolij Ivanovich. 1986. Matematicheskije modeli v issledovanii nauki [Mathematical Models in the Exploration of Science]. Moscow: Nauka.

Image Credits

Growth chart of scientific production, see de Solla Price 1965.

Visual Conceptualization of Science

Image Credits

Science Dynamics: Elisha F. Hardy (design), Katy Börner (concept), Indiana University; incorporated clips of work by Kevin W. Boyack, Richard Klavans (UCSD Map of Science), and Eugene Garfield (HistCite visualization); both used by permission.

(II) Cumulative Structure

References

de Solla Price, Derek J. 1965. Little Science, Big Science. New York: Columbia University Press.

de Solla Price, Derek J. 1965. “Networks of Scientific Papers.” Science 149, 3683: 510–515, fig. 6. 

Merton, Robert King. 1965. On the Shoulders of Giants: A Shandean Postscript, 290. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.

(III) Research Specialty Tubes

References

Kuhn, Thomas Samuel. 1962. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

(IV) Research Frontier Epidermis

References

de Solla Price, Derek J. 1982. “The Parallel Structures of Science and Technology.” In Science in Context: Readings in the Sociology of Science, edited by Barry Barnes and David Edge, 176. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

(VI) Linkages

References

Granovetter, Mark. 1973. “The Strength of Weak Ties.” American Journal of Sociology 78, 1360–1380.

Wouters, Paul. 1999. “The Citation Culture.” PhD diss., University of Amsterdam. http://garfield.library.upenn.edu/wouters/wouters.pdf (accessed October 30, 2007).


(VII) Clustering in Time, Geography,
and Topic Space

References

Batty, M. 2003. “The Geography of Scientific Citation.” Environment and Planning A 35, 5: 761–765.

Börner, Katy, Shashikant Penumarthy, Mark Meiss, and Weimao Ke. 2006. “Mapping the Diffusion of Scholarly Knowledge Among Major U.S. Research Institutions.” Scientometrics 68, 3: 415–426. 

de Solla Price, Derek J. 1965. Little Science, Big Science. New York: Columbia University Press.

Wellman, B., H. D. White, and N. Nazer. 2004. “Does Citation Reflect Social Structure? Longitudinal Evidence from the ‘Globenet’ Interdisciplinary Research Group.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 55: 111–126.

Science Dynamics

References

Menard, Henry W. 1971. Science: Growth and Change, 25. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

54

Conceptualizing Science: Basic Units, Aggregate Units, and Linkages

References

de Solla Price, Derek J. 1965. “Networks of Scientific Papers.” Science 149, 3683: 510–515, fig. 6. [Quotation]

Basic Units

Authors

References

Menard, Henry W. 1971. Science: Growth and Change, 10, 85. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Scientific Papers

References

Otlet, Paul. 1934. Traité de Documentation: Le Livre sur le Livre—Théorie et Pratique. Brussels: Editiones Mundaneum, Palais Mondial, Van Keerberghen & Fils. 

Cronin, Blaise, and Sherrill Weaver-Wozniak. 1992. “An Online Acknowledgment Index: Rationale and Feasibility.” Proceedings of the 16th International Online Meeting, 281–290. London: Oxford Learned Information.

van Raan, Anthony F. J. 2004. “Sleeping Beauties in science.” Scientometrics 59, 3: 461-466.

Journals

References

Beaver, Donald D. 2001. “Reflections on Scientific Collaboration (and Its Study): Past, Present, and Future.” Scientometrics 52, 3: 365–377.

Patents and Technical Reports

References

de Solla Price, Derek J. 1982. “The Parallel Structures of Science and Technology.” In Science in Context: Readings in the Sociology of Science, edited by Barry Barnes and David Edge, 176. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Hardware, Software, Datasets

References

Barabási, A. L., H. Jeong, Z. Néda, E. Ravasz, A. Schubert, and T. Vicsek. 2002. “Evolution of the Social Network of Scientific Collaborations.” Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications 311, 3-4: 590–614.

Ben-David, Joseph. 1971. The Scientist’s Role in Society: A Comparative Study. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Funding

References

de Solla Price, Derek J. 1965. Little Science, Big Science. New York: Columbia University Press.

Irvine, J., and B.R. Martin. 1985. “Evaluating Big Science: CERN’s Past Performance and Future Prospects.” Scientometrics 7, 3–6: 281–308.

Newman, Mark E. J. 2001. “Scientific Collaboration Networks. I. Network Construction and Fundamental Results.” Physical Review E 64, 1: 016131.

Aggregated Units

References

Beaver, Donald D., and R. Rosen. 1978. “Studies in Scientific Collaboration, Part I. The Professional Origins of Scientific Co-Authorship.” Scientometrics 1: 65–84.

Friedkin, Noah E. 1998. A Structural Theory of Social Influence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Invisible Colleges

References

Crane, Diana. 1972. Invisible Colleges: Diffusion of Knowledge in Scientific Communities. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Menard, Henry W. 1971. Science: Growth and Change. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Newman, Mark E. J. 2001. “Scientific Collaboration Networks. II. Shortest Paths, Weighted Networks, and Centrality.” Physical Review E 64: 016132.

Newman, Mark E. J. 2004. “Coauthorship Networks and Patterns of Scientific Collaboration.” PNAS 101, 1: 5200–5205.

Research Specialties

References

Chen, Chaomei. 2003. Mapping Scientific Frontiers: The Quest for Knowledge Visualization. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Chen, Chaomei. 2004. Information Visualization: Beyond the Horizon. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Crane, Diana. 1972. Invisible Colleges: Diffusion of Knowledge in Scientific Communities. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Kuhn, T. S. 1970. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. 2nd ed. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Thagard, P. 1992. Conceptual Revolutions. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Contributors

Chaomei Chen and Jan Witkowski.


Research Fronts

References

Chen, Chaomei, and S. Morris. 2003. “Visualizing Evolving Networks: Minimum Spanning Trees versus Pathfinder Networks.” Proceedings of IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization 67–74. Seattle, WA: IEEE.

de Solla Price, Derek J. 1965. “Networks of Scientific Papers.” Science 149, 3683: 510–515. 

Garfield, Eugene. 1994. “Scientography: Mapping the Tracks of Science.” Reprinted from Current Contents: Social and Behavioural Sciences 7: 5–10. 

Garfield, Eugene, Irving H. Sher, and Richard J. Torpie. 1964. “The Use of Citation Data in Writing the History of Science.” Report for Air Force Office of Scientific Research under contract AF49 (638)-1256. Philadelphia, PA: Institute for Scientific Information. http://www.garfield.library.upenn.edu/papers/useofcitdatawritinghistofsci.pdf (accessed September 30, 2009). 

Morris, Steven A., Gary G. Yen, Zheng Wu, and Benyam Asnake. 2003. “Time Line Visualization of Research Fronts.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 54, 5: 413–422.

Small, Henry G., and Belver C. Griffith. 1974. “The Structure of Scientific Literatures I: Identifying and Graphing Specialties.” Science Studies 4, 1: 17–40.

Linkages and Derived Networks

Direct Linkages

References

Nicolaisen, Jeppe. 2007. “Citation Analysis.” In Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, edited by Blaise Cronin, 41: 609–641. Medford, NJ: Information Today/American Society for Information Science and Technology.

Image Credits

Aggregate Units: Elisha F. Hardy (design), Katy Börner (concept), Indiana University.

Co-Occurrence Linkages

References

Börner, Katy, Shashikant Penumarthy, Mark Meiss, and Weimao Ke. 2006. “Mapping the Diffusion of Information Among Major U.S. Research Institutions.” Scientometrics 68, 3: 415–426.

Kessler, Michael M. 1963. “Bibliographic Coupling Between Scientific Papers.” American Documentation 14, 1: 10–25.

Wellman, B., H. D. White, and N. Nazer. 2004. “Does Citation Reflect Social Structure? Longitudinal Evidence from the ‘Globenet’ Interdisciplinary Research Group.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 55: 111–126.

Co-Citation Linkages

References

Marshakova, Irina V. 1973. “A System of Document Connections Based on References.” Scientific and Technical Information Serial of VINITI 6: 3–8.

Small, Henry. 1973. “Co-Citation in Scientific Literature: A New Measure of the Relationship Between Publications.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science 24: 265–269.

Small, Henry, and E. Greenlee. 1986. “Collagen Research in the 1970s.” Scientometrics 10, 1–2: 95–117.

56

Conceptualizing Science: Basic Properties, Indexes, and Laws

References

de Solla Price, Derek J. 1982. “The Parallel Structures of Science and Technology.” In Science in Context: Readings in the Sociology of Science, edited by Barry Barnes and David Edge, 176. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. [Quotation]

Basic Properties

Balance of Papers and Citations

References

de Solla Price, Derek J. 1965. “Networks of Scientific Papers.” Science 149, 3683: 510–515, fig. 3. 

Image Credits

de Solla Price, Derek J. 1965. “Networks of Scientific Papers.” Science 149, 3683: 510–515, fig. 3. Reprinted with permission from AAAS.

Author Trajectories

References

Bala, Venkatesh, and Sanjeev Goyal. 2000. “Self-Organization in Communication Networks.” Econometrica 68: 1181-1230.

Braun, Tibor, Wolfgang Glänzel, and András Schubert. 2001. “Publication and Cooperation Patterns of the Authors of Neuroscience Journals.” Scientometrics 51 3: 499-510.

de Solla Price, Derek J. 1986. Little Science, Big Science … and Beyond. New York: Columbia University Press.

de Solla Price, D. 1975. “Studies in Scientometrics I: Transience and Continuance in Scientific Authorship.” Ciência da informação 4, 1: 27.

Katz, J. Sylvan, and Diana Hicks. 2000. “How Much Is a Collaboration Worth? A Calibrated Bibliometric Model.” Scientometrics 40 3: 541–554.

Melin, Göran. 2000. “Pragmatism and Self-Organization: Research Collaboration at the Individual Level.” Research Policy 29 1: 31–40.

Meyrowitz, Joshua. 1985. No Sense of Place: The Impact of Electronic Media on Social Behavior. New York: Oxford University Press.

Image Credits

From Little Science, Big Science by Derek J. de Solla Price, © 1986, Columbia University Press. Reprinted with permission of the publisher.

Scientific Growth

References

Menard, Henry W. 1971. Science: Growth and Change. 19–20, 126. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Indexes

Herfindahl-Hirschman Index, 1945/1950

References

Herfindahl, O. C. 1950. “Concentration in the U.S. Steel Industry.” PhD diss., Columbia University.

Hirschman, A. O. 1945. National Power and the Structure of Foreign Trade. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Hirschman, A. O. 1964. “The Paternity of an Index.” American Economic Review 54, 5: 761–762. 

U.S. Department of Justice. “The Herfindahl-Hirschman Index.” http://www.justice.gov/atr/public/testimony/hhi.htm (accessed March 10, 2010).

Price Index, 1970

References

de Solla Price, Derek J. 1970. Citation Measures of Hard Science, Soft Science, Technology and Non-Science, 3–22. Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath & Co.

Hirsch Index, 2005

References

Barendse, William. 2007. “The Strike Rate Index: A New Index for Journal Quality Based on Journal Size and the h-index of Citations.” Biomedical Digital Libraries 4, 3. http://www.bio-diglib.com/content/4/1/3 (accessed March 1, 2008).

Hirsch, J. E. 2005. “An Index to Quantify an Individual’s Scientific Research Output.” PNAS 102, 46: 16569–16572. 

Manafy, Michell. “Scopus Harnesses the h-Index to Increase the Quality and Reliability of Citation Tracking.” E-Content Magazine. April 2007. http://www.econtentmag.com/Articles/ArticleReader.aspx?ArticleID=35680&CategoryID=17 (accessed March 1, 2008).

Roediger III, Henry L. 2006. “The h Index in Science: A New Measure of Scholarly Contribution.” APS Observer: The Academic Observer 19, 4. http://www.psychologicalscience.org/observer/getArticle.cfm?id=1971 (accessed March 1, 2008).

Saad, Gad. 2006. “Exploring the h-Index at the Author and Journal Levels using Bibliometric Data of Productive Consumer Scholars and Business-Related Journals Respectively.” Scientometrics 69, 1: 117–120.

Van Noorden, Richard. 2007. “Hirsch Index Ranks Top Chemists.” Chemistry World, April. http://www.rsc.org/chemistryworld/News/2007/April/23040701.asp (accessed March 1, 2008).

General Laws

Power Laws

References

Amaral, L. A. N., A. Scala, M. Barthelemy, and H. E. Stanley. 2000. “Classes of Small-World Networks.” PNAS 97: 11149–11152.

Barabási, Albert-László, and Réka Albert. 1999. “Emergence of Scaling in Random Networks.” Science 286, 5349: 509–512. 

Bonitz, M, E. Bruckner, and A. Scharnhorst. 1999. “The Matthew Index—Concentration Patterns and Matthew Core Journals.” Scientometrics 44, 3: 361–378.

de Solla Price, Derek J. 1976. “A General Theory of Bibliometric and other Cumulative Advantage Processes.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science 27, 5: 292–306.

de Solla Price, Derek J. 1986. Little Science, Big Science … and Beyond. New York: Columbia University Press.

D’Souza, Raissa M., Christian Borgs, Jennifer T. Chayes, Noam Berger, and Robert D. Kleinberg. 2007. “Emergence of Tempered Preferential Attachment from Optimization.” PNAS 104, 15: 6112–6117. 

Eggenberger, F., and G. Pólya. 1923. “Über die Statistik Verketteter Vorgänge.” Zeitschrift für Angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik 3: 279–289.

Glänzel, W. 2003. “Bibliometrics as a Research Field: A Course on Theory and Application of Bibliometric Indicators.” Course Handouts. http://www.norslis.net/2004/Bib_Module_KUL.pdf (accessed June 10, 2008).

King, Jean. 1987. “A Review of Bibliometric and other Science Indicators and their Role in Research Evaluation.” Journal of Information Science 13, 5: 261–276.

Merton, Robert K. 1969. “The Matthew Effect in Science. The Reward and Communication Systems of the Science are Considered” Science 159, 3810: 56–63.

Merton, Robert King. 1988. “The Matthew Effect in Science, II: Cumulative Advantage and the Symbolism of Intellectual Property.” ISIS 79: 606–623.

Merton, Robert King. 1995. “The Thomas Theorem and the Matthew Effect.” Social Forces 74, 2: 379–424. http://www.garfield.library.upenn.edu/merton/matthewii.pdf (accessed March 1, 2008).

Mitzenmacher, Michael. 2004. “A Brief History of Generative Models for Power Law and Lognormal Distributions.” Internet Mathematics 1, 2: 226–251. 

Newman, Mark E. J. 2001. “The Structure of Scientific Collaboration Networks.” PNAS 98, 2: 404–409.

Newman, Mark E. J. 2005. “Power Laws, Pareto Distributions and Zipf’s Law.” Contemporary Physics, 46, 5: 323–351. 

New Testament. Matthew 25:29.

Simon, Herbert A. 1955. “On a Class of Skew Distribution Functions.” Biometrika 42, 3–4: 425–440.

Yule, G. 1925. “A Mathematical Theory of Evolution Based on the Conclusions of Dr. J. C. Willis.” F.R.S. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 213: 21–87.

Zipf, George K. 1949. Human Behavior and the Principle of Least Effort. Cambridge, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Image Credits

From Little Science, Big Science by Derek J. de Solla Price, © 1986, Columbia University Press. Reprinted with permission of the publisher.

Pareto Principle, 1897

References

The New School. 2010. “Vilfreda Pareto.” History of Economic Thought. http://cepa.newschool.edu/het/profiles/pareto.htm (accessed March 30, 2010).

Pareto, Vilfredo. 1897. Cours d’économie politique professé à l’université de Lausanne, Vol II: 299-334.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2008. “Pareto Principle.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pareto_principle (accessed June 10, 2008).

Lotka’s Law, 1926

References

de Solla Price, Derek J. 1965. Little Science, Big Science. New York: Columbia University Press.

Lotka, A. J. 1926. “The Frequency Distribution of Scientific Productivity.” Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 14: 317–324.


Bradford’s Law, 1934

References

Bradford, S. C. 1934. “Sources of Information on Specific Subjects.” Engineering: An Illustrated Weekly Journal 137: 85–86.

Hjørland, Birger, and Jeppe Nicolaisen. 2005. “Bradford’s Law of Scattering: Ambiguities in the Concept of ‘Subject.’” Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 3507. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. http://www.springerlink.com/content/mp7l1w4jh0gnxd11 (accessed May 21, 2008).

Zipf’s Law, 1949

References

Zipf, George K. 1949. Human Behavior and the Principle of Least Effort. Cambridge, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Moore’s Law, 1965

References

Intel, Inc. 2009. “Moore’s Law: Made Real by Intel Innovation.” http://www.intel.com/technology/mooreslaw (accessed November 18, 2009).

Wikimedia Foundation. 2009. “Moore’s Law.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moore’s_law (accessed November 18, 2009).

Metcalfe’s Law, circa 1980

References

Gilder, George. 1993. “Metcalfe’s Law and Legacy.” Forbes ASAP, September 13.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2009. “Metcalfe’s Law.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metcalfe’s_law (accessed November 18, 2009).

Contributors

Blaise Cronin and Loet Leydesdorff.

58

Conceptualizing Science: Science Dynamics

References

Börner, Katy, Chaomei Chen, and Kevin W. Boyack. 2003. “Visualizing Knowledge Domains.” In Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, edited by Blaise Cronin, vol. 37: 179–255. Medford, NJ: Information Today/American Society for Information Science and Technology.

Chen, Chaomei. 2006. “CiteSpace II: Detecting and Visualizing Emerging Trends and Transient Patterns in Scientific Literature.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 57, 3: 359–377.

Cronin, Blaise, and Carol A. Hert. 1995. “Scholarly Foraging and Network Discovery Tools.” Journal of Documentation 51, 4: 388–403. [Quotation]

Shiffrin, Richard M., and Katy Börner. 2004.“Mapping Knowledge Domains.” PNAS 101, Suppl. 1: 5183–5185.

Ziman, John. 1978. “Dynamic Equilibrium of Science.” Nature 276: 127–128.

Properties of Basic Units

Scholarly Information Foraging

References

Pirolli, P., and S. Card. 1999. “Information Foraging.” Psychological Review 106, 4: 643–675.

Sandstrom, Pamela E. 1994. “An Optimal Foraging Approach to Information Seeking and Use.” Library Quarterly 64: 414–449.

Sandstrom, Pamela E. 1998. “Information Foraging Among Anthropologists in the Invisible College of Human Behavioral Ecology: An Author Co-citation Analysis.” PhD diss., Indiana University.

Hypes, Fads, and Fashions

References

Adar, Eytan, Li Zhang, Lada A. Adamic, and Rajan M. Lukose. 2004. “Implicit Structure and the Dynamics of Blogspace.” Workshop on the Weblogging Ecosystem, 13th International World Wide Web Conference. Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. http://www.blogpulse.com/papers/Adar_blogworkshop2_ppt.pdf (accessed May 21, 2008).

BBC News. 2007. “Fans Snap up Spice Girls Tickets.” October 1. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/7021976.stm (accessed February 14, 2008).

Börner, Katy, Jeegar Maru, and Robert L. Goldstone. 2004. “The Simultaneous Evolution of Author and Paper Networks.” PNAS 101, Suppl. 1: 5266–5273.

Dezsö, Z., E. Almaas, A. Lukács, B. Rácz, I. Szakadát, and A.-L. Barabási. 2005. “Fifteen Minutes of Fame: The Dynamics of Information Access on the Web.” http://arxiv.org/abs/physics/0505087 (accessed March 1, 2008).

Image Credits

Citation Probability, Russell J. Duhon (data preparation), Elisha F. Hardy (design), Katy Börner (concept), Indiana University.

Evolving Networks

The “Rich Get Richer” Effect

References

Albert, R., and A.-L. Barabási. 2002. “Statistical Mechanics of Complex Networks.” Reviews of Modern Physics 74, 1: 47–97.

Barabási, Albert-László, and Réka Albert. 1999. “Emergence of Scaling in Random Networks.” Science 286, 5349: 509–512. 

Dorogovtsev, Serguei N., and J. F. F. Mendes. 2002. “Evolution of Networks.” Advanced Physics 51: 1079–1187. http://arxiv.org/abs/cond-mat/0106144v2 (accessed March 1, 2008).

Dorogovtsev, Serguei N., and J. F. F. Mendes. 2003. Evolution of Networks from Biological Nets to the Internet and WWW. London: Oxford University Press.

Coevolving Author-Paper Networks

References

Börner, Katy, Jeegar Maru, and Robert L. Goldstone. 2004. “The Simultaneous Evolution of Author and Paper Networks.” PNAS 101, Suppl. 1: 5266–5273.

Gilbert, Nigel. 1997. “A Simulation of the Structure of Academic Science.” Sociological Research Online 2, 2. http://www.socresonline.org.uk/2/2/3.html (accessed October 2, 2009).

Dynamics of Innovation Networks

References

Gilbert, Nigel, Andreas Pyka, and Petra Ahrweiler. 2001. “Innovation Networks—A Simulation Approach.” Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 4, 3. http://jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk/4/3/8.html (accessed March 1, 2008).

Diffusion Patterns

References

Chen, Chaomei, and Diana Hicks. 2004. “Tracing Knowledge Diffusion.” Scientometrics 59, 2: 199–211.

Gladwell, Malcolm. 2000. The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference. Boston: Little, Brown.

Mahajan, Vijay, and Robert A. Peterson. 1985. Models for Innovation Diffusion. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Tabah, Albert N. 1999. “Literature Dynamics: Studies on Growth, Diffusion, and Epidemics.” In Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, edited by M. E. Williams, vol. 34: 249–286. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers.

Valente, Thomas W. 2005. “Models and Methods for Innovation Diffusion.” In Models and Methods in Social Network Analysis, edited by Peter J. Carrington, John Scott, and Stanley Wasserman, 98–116. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Diffusion of Innovations

References

Rogers, Everett M. 1962. Diffusion of Innovations. New York: Free Press.

Image Credits

Cumulative Frequency Distribution: Russell J. Duhon (data preparation), Elisha F. Hardy (design), Katy Börner (concept), Indiana University.

Idea Spreading as Epidemic Process

References

Bailey, Norman T. J. 1957. The Mathematical Theory of Epidemics. New York: Hafner Publishing Inc.

Bettencourt, Luís M. A., Carlos Castillo-Chávez, David Kaiser, and David E. Wojick. 2006. “Report for the Office of Scientific and Technical Information: Population Modeling of the Emergence and Development of Scientific Fields.” Office of Scientific and Technical Information, U.S. Department of Energy. http://www.osti.gov/innovation/research/diffusion/epicasediscussion_lb2.pdf (accessed June 2, 2008).

Bettencourt, Luís M. A., Ariel Cintrón-Arias, David I. Kaiser, and Carlos Castillo-Chávez. 2006. “The Power of a Good Idea: Quantitative Modeling of the Spread of Ideas from Epidemiological Models.” Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, 364: 513–536. 

Garfield, Eugene. 1980. “The Epidemiology of Knowledge and the Spread of Scientific Information.” Current Comments 35: 5–10. Reprinted in Essays of an Information Scientist 4, 1979–80, 586–591. http://www.garfield.library.upenn.edu/essays/v4p586y1979-80.pdf (accessed March 1, 2008). 

Goffman, William. 1966. “Mathematical Approach to the Spread of Scientific Ideas—the History of Mast Cell Research.” Nature 212, 5061: 449–452.

Goffman, William, and V. A. Newill. 1964. “Generalization of Epidemic Theory: An Application to the Transmission of Ideas.” Nature 204: 225–228.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information. “Diffusion of Research.” http://www.osti.gov/innovation/research/diffusion/#casestudies; http://www.osti.gov/innovation/research/diffusion/birdflurun2.pdf (accessed March 1, 2008).

Feedback Cycles

Educational Supply and Demand Cycles

References

Menard, Henry W. 1971. Science: Growth and Change. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Symbolic Capital & the Cycle
of Credibility

References

Bourdieu, Pierre. 1986. “The Forms of Capital.” Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education, edited by John G. Richardson, 243–248. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Latour, Bruno, and Steve Woolgar. 1982. “The Cycle of Credibility.” Science in Context: Readings in the Sociology of Science, edited by Barry Barnes and David Edge, 35–43. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Latour, Bruno, and Steve Woolgar. 1986. Laboratory Life: The Construction of Scientific Facts. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Whitley, Richard. 1984. The Intellectual and Social Organization of the Sciences. New York: Oxford University Press.

Image Credits

Image adapted from Latour and Woolgar 1982, “The Cycle of Credibility,” fig. 1, p.35; Elisha F. Hardy (design), Katy Börner (concept), Indiana University.

60

Data Acquisition and Preprocessing

References

Gray, Jim, and Prashant Shenoy. 1999. “Rules of Thumb in Data Engineering.” Proceedings of 16th International Conference on Data Engineering, 3–12. Washington, DC: IEEE Computer Society. http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/um/people/gray; ftp://ftp.research.microsoft.com/pub/tr/tr-99-100.pdf (accessed February 10, 2010).

Sanger, Lawrence M. 2006. “The Future of Free Information.” History and Memory: Present Reflections on the Past to Build Our Future. Macau Ricci Institute Studies, Vol. 5. http://www.riccimac.org/eng/mris/5.htm. (accessed November 19, 2009). [Quotation]

Data Types, Sizes, and Formats

No references or credits.

Data Quality

References

Bar-Ilana, Judit, Mark Leveneb, and Ayelet Lina. 2007. “Some Measures for Comparing Citation Databases.” Journal of Informetrics 1, 1: 26-34.

Buneman, Peter, Sanjeev Khanna, and Wang-Chiew Tan. 2000. “Data Provenance: Some Basic Issues.” Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 1974. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. http://db.cis.upenn.edu/DL/fsttcs.pdf (accessed March 1, 2008).

Hall, Bronwyn H., Adam B. Jaffe, and Manuel Trajtenberg. 2001. “The NBER Patent Citations Data File: Lessons, Insights and Methodological Tools.” CEPR Discussion Papers 3094. http://ideas.repec.org/p/cpr/ceprdp/3094.html (accessed March 1, 2008).

Norris, Michael, and Charles Oppenheim. 2007. “Comparing Alternatives to the Web of Science for Coverage in the Social Sciences’ Literature.” Journal of Informetrics 1: 161-169. 

Wouters, Paul. 1999. “The Citation Culture.” PhD diss., University of Amsterdam, 169. http://garfield.library.upenn.edu/wouters/wouters.pdf (accessed October 30, 2007).

Data Coverage

References

Belew, Richard K. 2005. “Scientific Impact Quantity and Quality: Analysis of Two Sources of Bibliographic Data.” http://arxiv.org/abs/cs.IR/0504036 (accessed February 5, 2010).

Bosman, Jeroen, Ineke van Mourik, Menno Rasch, Eric Sieverts, and Huib Verhoeff. 2006. “Scopus Reviewed and Compared: The Coverage and Functionality of the Citation Database Scopus, Including Comparisons with Web of Science and Google Scholar.” Utrecht University Library. http://igitur-archive.library.uu.nl/DARLIN/2006-1220-200432/Scopus doorgelicht & vergeleken - translated.pdf. (accessed March 1, 2008).

Boyack, Kevin W. 2004. “Mapping Knowledge Domains: Characterizing PNAS.” PNAS 101, Suppl. 1: 5192-5199.

Boyack, Kevin W., and Katy Börner. 2003. “Indicator-Assisted Evaluation and Funding of Research: Visualizing the Influence of Grants on the Number and Citation Counts of Research Papers.” Special Issue (Visualizing Scientific Paradigms), Journal of the American Society of Information Science and Technology 54, 5: 447–461.

de Moya-Anegón, Félix, Zaida Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Benjamín Vargas-Quesada, Elena Corera-Álvarez, Francisco José Muñoz-Fernández, Antonio González-Molina, and Victor Herrero-Solana. 2007. “Coverage Analysis of Scopus: A Journal Metric Approach.” Scientometrics 73, 1: 53–78. 

Elsevier B.V. 2008. Scopus Home Page. http://www.scopus.com/scopus/home.url (accessed June 10, 2008).

Fingerman, Susan. 2006. “Electronic Resources Reviews: Web of Science and Scopus: Current Features and Capabilities.” Issues in Science and Technology Librarianship. http://www.istl.org/06-fall/electronic2.html (accessed March 1, 2008).

Google, Inc. 2008. Google Scholar Beta Home Page. http://scholar.google.com (accessed June 10, 2008).

Hicks, Diana. 1999. “The Difficulty of Achieving Full Coverage of International Social Science Literature and the Bibliometric Consequences.” Scientometrics 44, 2: 193–215.

Meho, Lokman I., and Kiduk Yang. 2007. “Impact of Data Sources on Citation Counts and Rankings of LIS Faculty: Web of Science versus Scopus and Google Scholar.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 58, 13: 2105–2125. 

Nisonger, T. E. 2004. “Citation Autobiography: An Investigation of ISI Database Coverage in Determining Author Citedness.” College & Research Libraries 65, 2: 152–163.

Pauly, Daneil, and Konstantinos I. Stergiou. 2005 “Equivalence of Results from Two Citation Analyses: Thomson ISI’s Citation Index and Google Scholar’s Service.” Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics, 33–35. http://www.int-res.com/articles/esep/2005/E65.pdf (accessed March 1, 2008).

ProQuest LLC. 2008. Ulrichsweb.com Home Page. http://www.ulrichsweb.com/ulrichsweb (accessed June 10, 2008).

Science Policy Support Group. 2010. “SPSG—The PARIS/ISSC Project.” http://www.stage-research.net/SPSG/paris-issc/BerlinHealeyRothman.html (accessed March 16, 2010).

Thomson Reuters. 2008. “Web of Science.” http://scientific.thomsonreuters.com/products/wos (accessed June 10, 2008).

Data Credits

Science Citation Index by Thomson Reuters.

Image Credits

Science map with topic coverage overlay: Russell J. Duhon (data preparation), Elisha F. Hardy (design), Katy Börner (concept), Indiana University, featuring data from Thomson Reuters, Web of Science, and the science paradigm map outline from Boyack and Klavans (2008), used by permission.

Data Acquisition

References

Domingos, Pedro, and Matt Richardson. 2002. “The Intelligent Surfer: Probabilistic Combination of Link and Content Information in PageRank.” Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 14, 1441–1448. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Menczer, Filippo. 2002. “Growing and Navigating the Small World Web by Local Content.” PNAS 99, 22: 14014–14019.

Page, Lawrence, Sergey Brin, Rajeev Motwani, and Terry Winograd. 1998. “The PageRank Citation Ranking: Bringing Order to the Web.” Stanford Digital Library Technologies Project. http://infolab.stanford.edu/~backrub/pageranksub.ps (accessed June 2, 2008).

Data Preprocessing

References

Moed, Henk F. 2005. Citation Analysis in Research Evaluation, 194. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Newman, Mark E. J. 2005. “Power Laws, Pareto Distributions and Zipf’s Law.” Contemporary Physics, 46, 5: 323–351.

Porter, Martin. 2006. “The Porter Stemming Algorithm.” http://tartarus.org/~martin/PorterStemmer (accessed August 16, 2009).

Stevens, S. S. 1946. “On the Theory of Scales of Measurement.” Science 103: 677–680.

Torvik, Vetle I., Marc Weeber, Don R. Swanson, and Nell R. Smalheiser. 2005. “A Probabilistic Similarity Metric for Medline Records: A Model for Author Name Disambiguation.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 56, 2: 140–158.

Wooding, S., K. Wilcox-Jay, G. Lewison, and J. Grant. 2006. “Co-Author Inclusion: A Novel Recursive Algorithmic Method for Dealing with Homonyms in Bibliometric Analysis.” Scientometrics 66, 1: 11–21. 

Data Augmentation

References

Garfield, Eugene. 2005. “The Agony and the Ecstasy—the History and Meaning of the Journal Impact Factor.” Presentation at the International Congress on Peer Review and Biomedical Publication. Chicago, IL, September 16. http://garfield.library.upenn.edu/papers/jifchicago2005.pdf (accessed June 10, 2008).

Software Credits

MelissaData. 2008. “Geocoder (Lat/Long) Lookup.” http://www.melissadata.com/lookups/geocoder.asp (accessed June 10, 2008).

Baseline Statistics

No references or credits.

Data Integration and Federation

References

Bollen, Johan, and Herbert Van de Sompel. 2006. “An Architecture for the Aggregation and Analysis of Scholarly Usage Data.” Proceedings of the 6th ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries 298-307. New York: ACM Press.

Börner, Katy. 2006. “Semantic Association Networks: Using Semantic Web Technology to Improve Scholarly Knowledge and Expertise Management.” In Visualizing the Semantic Web, 2nd ed., edited by Vladimir Geroimenko and Chaomei Chen, 183–198. London: Springer-Verlag.

Deep Web Technologies. 2008. “Explorit™ Research Accelerator.” http://www.deepwebtech.com (accessed June 10, 2008).

Google, Inc. 2008. Google Scholar Beta Home Page. http://scholar.google.com (accessed June 10, 2008).

La Rowe, Sumeet Adinath Ambre, John W. Burgoon, Weimao Ke, and Katy Börner. 2007. “The Scholarly Database and Its Utility for Scientometrics Research.” Proceedings of the 11th Annual Information Visualization International Conference, edited by D. Torres-Salinas and H. F. Moed, 459–464. Washington DC: IEEE Computer Society.

Los Alamos National Laboratory. 2008. “MESUR: Metrics from Scholarly Usage of Resources.” http://www.mesur.org/MESUR.html (accessed June 10, 2008).

Office of Science and Technical Information, U.S. Department of Energy. 2010. “WorldWideScience: The Global Science Gateway.” http://worldwidescience.org (accessed March 30, 2010).

Science.gov. 2010. “USA.gov for Science.” http://www.science.gov (accessed March 16, 2010).

Contributors

Eleanor G. Frierson and Walter L. Warnick.

Evolving Interoperability
Standards and Tools

References

Cyganiak, Richard. 2008. “The Linking Open Data Dataset Cloud.” http://richard.cyganiak.de/2007/10/lod (accessed June 10, 2008).

Geonames.org. 2008. GeoNames Home Page. http://www.geonames.org (accessed June 10, 2008).

International DOI Foundation. 2008. The DOI System Home Page. http://www.doi.org (accessed June 10, 2008).

Library of Congress: Standards. 2007. “IFLA/CDNL Alliance for Bibliographic Standards: Library of Congress Action Area.” http://www.loc.gov/standards/uri/info.html (accessed June 10, 2008).

National Science Digital Library. 2010. NSDL Home Page. http://nsdl.org (accessed March 16, 2010).

Openarchives.org. 2008. Open Archives Initiative Home Page. http://www.openarchives.org (accessed June 10, 2008).

Open Archives Initiative. 2008. “Object Reuse and Exchange: ORE Specification and User Guide—Table of Contents.” http://www.openarchives.org/ore/0.9/toc (accessed June 10, 2008).

Openarchives.org. 2008. “Registered Data Providers.” http://www.openarchives.org/Register/BrowseSites (accessed June 10, 2008).

Openarchives.org. 2008. “The Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting.” http://www.openarchives.org/OAI/openarchivesprotocol.html (accessed June 10, 2008).

Rodriguez, Marko A., Johan Bollen, and Herbert Van de Sompel. 2007. “Mesur’s OWL RDF/XML Ontology.” http://tweety.lanl.gov/public/schemas/2007-01/mesur.owl (accessed February 5, 2010).

Talis Developer Network. 2008. “The Talis Community Licence” (draft). http://www.talis.com/tdn/tcl (accessed June 10, 2008).

The Trustees of Princeton University. 2010. “About WordNet.” http://wordnet.princeton.edu (accessed March 30, 2010).

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. http://wikipedia.org (accessed February 4, 2010).

Image Credits

Image of Linked Data sets, by Richard Cyganiak, Anja Jetntzsch, and Chris Bizer, using OmniGraffle software: http://www.omnigroup.com/applications/OmniGraffle. See also the evolving linked data sets graphic at http://esw.w3.org/topic/SweoIG/TaskForces/CommunityProjects/LinkingOpenData. See Cyganiak 2008. 

CrossRef Web Services

References

Bizer, Chris, Richard Cyganiak, and Tom Heath. 2007. “How to Publish Linked Data on the Web.” Berlin: Web-based Systems Group, Freie Universität. http://www4.wiwiss.fu-berlin.de/bizer/pub/LinkedDataTutorial (accessed June 10, 2008).

Pila Inc. 2002. “Crossref Metadata Services.” http://www.crossref.org/metadata_services.html (accessed February 10, 2010).

Contributors

Mark Doyle, Duane Degler, and Herbert Van de Sompel.

The W3C SWEO Linking Open Data Community Project

References

Creative Commons. “Share, Remix, Reuse—Legally.” http://creativecommons.org (accessed June 10, 2008).

ESW Wiki. 2010. “LinkingOpenData: W3C SWEO Community Project.” http://esw.w3.org/topic/SweoIG/TaskForces/CommunityProjects/LinkingOpenData (accessed March 30, 2010).

Geonames.org. 2008. GeoNames Home Page. http://www.geonames.org (accessed June 10, 2008).

Ley, Michael. 2008. “The DBLP Computer Science Bibliography.” Universität Trier. http://www.informatik.uni-trier.de/~ley/db (accessed June 10, 2008).

MetaBrainz Foundation. 2008. MusicBrainz Home Page. http://musicbrainz.org (accessed June 10, 2008).

Talis Developer Network. 2008. “The Talis Community Licence” (draft). http://www.talis.com/tdn/tcl (accessed June 10, 2008).

The Trustees of Princeton University. 2010. “About WordNet.” http://wordnet.princeton.edu (accessed March 30, 2010).

W3C: Technology and Society Domain. 2004. “Semantic Web Activity: RDF.” http://www.w3.org/RDF (accessed June 10, 2008).

Wikimedia Foundation. 2009. “OpenURL.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OpenURL (accessed February 5, 2010).

Wikimedia Foundation. 2008. Wikibooks Home Page. http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Main_Page (accessed June 10, 2008).

Practical Ontology of Scholarly Data

References

Rodriguez, Marko A., Johan Bollen, and Herbert Van de Sompel. 2007. “Mesur’s OWL RDF/XML Ontology Description.” http://tweety.lanl.gov/public/schemas/2007-01/mesur.owl. (accessed February 5, 2010).

Rodriguez, Marko A., Johan Bollen, and Herbert Van de Sompel. 2007. “A Practical Ontology for the Large-Scale Modeling of Scholarly Artifacts and Their Usage.” Proceedings of the 7th ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries. New York: ACM Press.

Digitometic Services and Tools

References

Brody, Tim, Simon Kampa, Stevan Harnad, Les Carr, and Steve Hitchcock. 2003. “Digitometric Services for Open Archives Environments.” In Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries (ECDL’03), edited by T. Koch and I. Sølvberg, 207–220. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/7503 (accessed October 30, 2007).

Data Preservation

Contributors

Stacy Kowalczyk, Ying Ding, Nianli Ma, and Herbert Van de Sompel.

62

Data Analysis, Modeling, and Layout

References

Börner, Katy, Chaomei Chen, and Kevin W. Boyack. 2003. “Visualizing Knowledge Domains.” In Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, edited by Blaise Cronin, vol. 37: 179–255. Medford, NJ: Information Today/American Society for Information Science and Technology.

Börner, Katy, Soma Sanyal, and Alessandro Vespignani. 2007. “Network Science.” In Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, edited by Blaise Cronin, vol. 41: 537–607. Medford, NJ: Information Today/American Society for Information Science and Technology.

R. W. Hamming. 1962. Numerical Methods for Scientists and Engineers. New York: McGraw-Hill. [Quotation]

Algorithm Functionality

References

Willinger, Walter, Ramesh Govindan, Sugih Jamin, Vern Paxson, and Scott Shenker. 2002. “Scaling Phenomena in the Internet: Critically Examining Criticality.” PNAS 99, 1: 2573–2580.

Algorithm Scopes

No references or credits.

Algorithm Implementations

No references or credits.

Workflow Design

References

Börner, Katy, Chaomei Chen, and Kevin W. Boyack. 2003. “Visualizing Knowledge Domains.” In Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, edited by Blaise Cronin, vol. 37: 179–255. Medford, NJ: Information Today/American Society for Information Science and Technology.

Callon, M., J. P. Courtial, W. A. Turner, and S. Bauin. 1983. “From Translations to Problematic Networks: An Introduction to Co-Word Analysis.” Social Science Information 22: 191–235.

Cambia, Open Initiative Institute. 2008. Patentlens Home Page. http://www.patentlens.net/daisy/patentlens/patentlens.html (accessed June 10, 2008).

Di Battista, G., P. Eades, R. Tamassia, and I. G Tollis. 1999. Graph Drawing: Algorithms for the Visualization of Graphs. New York: Prentice-Hall.

Elsevier B.V. 2008. Scopus Home Page. http://www.scopus.com/scopus/home.url(accessed June 10, 2008).

Fruchterman, T. M.J., and E. M. Reingold. 1991. “Graph Drawing by Force-Directed Placement.” Software: Practice and Experience 21, 11: 1129–1164.

Google, Inc. 2008. Google Scholar Beta Home Page. http://scholar.google.com (accessed June 10, 2008).

Griffiths, Thomas L., and Mark Steyvers. 2002. “A Probabilistic Approach to Semantic Representation.” Proceedings of the 24th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 381–386. George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, August 7–10.

Kamada, T. and S. Kawai. 1989. “An Algorithm for Drawing General Undirected Graphs.” Information Processing Letters 31: 7–15.

Khosla, Nitin. 2004. “Dimensionality Reduction Using Factor Analysis.” Master’s thesis, Griffith University, Australia.

Kohonen, Teuvo. 1995. Self-Organizing Maps. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. 

Kruskal, J. B., and M. Wish. 1978. Multidimensional Scaling. London: Sage.

Labelle, François. 2003. “Dimensionality Reduction Using Principal Components Analysis.” http://www.cs.mcgill.ca/~sqrt/dimr/dimreduction.html (accessed June 10, 2008).

Landauer, T. K., P. W. Foltz, and D. Laham. 1998. “Introduction to Latent Semantic Analysis.” Discourse Processes 25: 259–284.

Lee, R.C.T., J. R. Slagle, and H. Blum. 1977. “A Triangulation Method for the Sequential Mapping of Points from N-Space to Two-Space.” IEEE Transactions on Computers, 26, 3: 288–292. 

ProQuest LLC. 2010. COS (Community of Science) Home Page. http://www.cos.com (accessed March 16, 2010).

Salton, G., C. Yang, and A. Wong. 1975. “A Vector Space Model for Automatic Indexing.” Communications of the ACM 18, 1: 613–620.

Schvaneveldt, R., ed. 1990. Pathfinder Associative Networks: Studies in Knowledge Organization. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corp.

Thomson Reuters. 2008. “ISI Web of Knowledge.” http://isiwebofknowledge.com (accessed August 14, 2009). 

Tryon, R. C. 1939. Cluster Analysis. New York: McGraw-Hill.

White, H. D., and B. C. Griffith. 1981. “Author Cocitation: A Literature Measure of Intellectual Structure.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science 32, 3: 163–171.

Will, Todd. 1999. “Introduction to the Singular Value Decomposition.” University of Wisconsin, La Crosse. http://www.uwlax.edu/faculty/will/svd (accessed June 10, 2008).

Image Credits

Workflow for Mapping Science, see Börner et al. 2003.

Layout

References

Di Battista, G., P. Eades, R. Tamassia, and I. G Tollis. 1999. Graph Drawing: Algorithms for the Visualization of Graphs. New York: Prentice-Hall. 

Fruchterman, T. M.J., and E. M. Reingold. 1991. “Graph Drawing by Force-Directed Placement.” Software: Practice and Experience 21, 11: 1129–1164.

Kamada, T., and S. Kawai. 1989. “An Algorithm for Drawing General Undirected Graphs.” Information Processing Letters 31: 7–15.

Lee, R.C.T., J. R. Slagle, and H. Blum. 1977. “A Triangulation Method for the Sequential Mapping of Points from N-Space to Two-Space.” IEEE Transactions on Computers 26, 3: 288–292. .

Temporal Analysis

References

Kleinberg, J. M. 2002. “Bursty and Hierarchical Structure in Streams.” Proceedings of the 8th ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, 91–101. New York: ACM Press.

Kleinberg, J. M. 2002. “Sample Results from a Burst Detection Algorithm.” http://www.cs.cornell.edu/home/kleinber/kdd02.html (accessed May 30, 2008).

Image Credits

Screen capture of data from The Nielsen Company, 2008. “BlogPulse: a service of Nielsen Buzzmetrics.” http://www.blogpulse.com. Used by permission, all rights reserved.

Geographic Analysis

References

Kraak, Menno-Jan, and Ferjan Ormeling. 2003. Cartography: Visualization of Geospatial Data. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Skupin, A. 2000. “From Metaphor to Method: Cartographic Perspectives on Information Visualization.” Proceedings of InfoVis 2000, 91–97. Salt Lake City, UT: IEEE Computer Society.

Tobler, W. A. 1973. “Continuous Transformation Useful for Districting.” Science 219: 215–220.

Töpfer, F. 1974. Kartographische Generalisierung. Gotha, Germany: VEB Herrmann Haack/Geographisch-Kartographische Anstalt.

Töpfer, F., and W. Pillewizer. 1996. “The Principles of Selection.” Cartographic Journal 3: 10–16.

Data Credits

Science Citation Index by Thomson Reuters.

Image Credits

Understanding Outside Collaborations of the Chinese Academy of Sciences: Russell J. Duhon (data preparation), Elisha F. Hardy (design), Katy Börner (concept), Indiana University.

Contributors

The National Science Library of Chinese Academy of Sciences compiled the Chinese coauthorship data for the Places & Spaces exhibition in Beijing, China.

Topical Analysis

References

Callon, M., J. P. Courtial, W. A. Turner, and S. Bauin. 1983. “From Translations to Problematic Networks: An Introduction to Co-word Analysis.” Social Science Information 22: 191–235.

Callon, M., J. Law, and A. Rip, eds. 1986. Mapping the Dynamics of Science and Technology. London: Macmillan.

Deerwester, S., S. T. Dumais, G. W. Furnas, T. K. Landauer, and R. Harshman. 1990. “Indexing by Latent Semantic Analysis.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science 41, 6: 391–407.

Griffiths, Thomas L., and Mark Steyvers. 2002. “A Probabilistic Approach to Semantic Representation.” Proceedings of the 24th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 381–386. George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, August 7–10.

Griffiths, Thomas L., and Mark Steyvers. 2004. “Finding Scientific Topics.” PNAS 101, Suppl. 1: 5228–5235.

Kohonen, Teuvo. 1995. Self-Organizing Maps. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. 

Kruskal, J. B., and M. Wish. 1978. Multidimensional Scaling. London: Sage.

Landauer, T. K., P. W. Foltz, and D. Laham. 1998. “Introduction to Latent Semantic Analysis.” Discourse Processes 25, 259–284.

Landauer, T. K., and S. T. Dumais. 1997. “A Solution to Plato’s Problem: The Latent Semantic Analysis Theory of the Acquisition, Induction, and Representation of Knowledge.” Psychological Review 104: 211–240.

Porter, Martin. 2006. “The Porter Stemming Algorithm.” http://tartarus.org/~martin/PorterStemmer (accessed August 16, 2009).

Salton, Gerard, and C.S. Yang. 1973. “On the Specification of Term Values in Automatic Indexing.” Journal of Documentation 29: 351–372.

Skupin, André. 2002. “A Cartographic Approach to Visualizing Conference Abstracts.” IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 22, 1: 50–58.

Smith, Lindsay. 2002. “A Tutorial on Principal Components Analysis.” http://www.cs.otago.ac.nz/cosc453/student_tutorials/principal_components.pdf (accessed June 10, 2008).

Image Credits

Visualization of 2,220 Conference Abstracts, see Skupin, 2002. 

Skupin, André. “A Cartographic Approach to Visualizing Conference Abstracts.” IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 22, 1: 50–58, © 2002, IEEE.

Network Analysis

References

Barabási, A.-L. 2002. Linked: The New Science of Networks. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Publishing.

Borgman, Christine L., and Jonathan Furner. 2002. “Scholarly Communication and Bibliometrics.” In Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, edited by Blaise Cronin, 36: 3–72. Medford, NJ: Information Today.

Börner, Katy, Luca Dall’Asta, Weimao Ke, and Alessandro Vespignani. 2005. “Studying the Emerging Global Brain: Analyzing and Visualizing the Impact of Co-Authorship Teams.” Complexity: Special Issue on Understanding Complex Systems 10, 4: 58–67.

Börner, Katy, Soma Sanyal, and Alessandro Vespignani. 2007. “Network Science.” In Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, edited by Blaise Cronin, vol. 41: 537–607. Medford, NJ: Information Today/American Society for Information Science and Technology.

Carrington, P. J., J. Scott, and S. Wasserman, eds. 2005. Models and Methods in Social Network Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lenoir, Timothy. 2002. “Quantitative Foundations for the Sociology of Science: On Linking Blockmodeling with Co-Citation Analysis.” Social Networks: Critical Concepts in Sociology, edited by John Scott. New York: Routledge.

Merton, Robert. 1973. The Sociology of Science. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Monge, Peter R., and Noshir S. Contractor. 2003. Theories of Communication Networks. New York: Oxford University Press.

Narin, Francis, and Joy K. Moll. 1977. “Bibliometrics.” In Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, edited by M. E. Williams, 12: 35–58. White Plains, NY: Knowledge Industry Publications.

Nicolaisen, Jeppe. 2007. “Citation Analysis.” In Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, edited by Blaise Cronin, 41: 609–641. Medford, NJ: Information Today/American Society for Information Science and Technology.

Scott, J. P. 2000. Social Network Analysis: A Handbook. London: Sage Publications.

Thelwall, M., L. Vaughan, and L. Björneborn. 2005. “Webometrics.” In Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, edited by Blaise Cronin, 39: 81–135. Medford, NJ: Information Today/American Society for Information Science and Technology.

Wasserman, Stanley, and K. Faust. 1994. Social Network Analysis: Methods and Applications. Structural Analysis in the Social Sciences 8. New York: Cambridge University Press.

White, Howard D., and Katherine W. McCain. 1989. “Bibliometrics.” In Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, edited by M. E. Williams, 24: 119–186. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers.

Wilson, C. S. 2001. “Informetrics.” In Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, edited by M. E. Williams, vol. 34: 107–286. Medford, NJ: Information Today/American Society for Information Science and Technology.

Image Credits

Weighted coauthor network, see Börner et al. 2005.

64

Data Communication–Visualization Layers

References

Abrams, Janet, and Peter Hall. 2006. Else/Where: Mapping New Cartographies of Networks and Territories. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Design Institute.

Card, Stuart, Jock Mackinlay, and Ben Shneiderman, eds. 1999. Readings in Information Visualization: Using Vision to Think. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann.

Chen, Chaomei. 2004. Information Visualization: Beyond the Horizon. New York: Springer-Verlag.

ESRI. 2008. ESRI Home Page. http://www.esri.com (accessed June 2, 2008).

Frankel, Felice. 2002. Envisioning Science: The Design and Craft of the Science Image. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Harris, Robert L. 2000. Information Graphics: A Comprehensive Illustrated Reference. New York: Oxford University Press.

Kosslyn, Stephen M. 1993. Elements of Graph Design, 89. New York: W. H. Freeman & Company.

MacEachren, Alan M. 2004. How Maps Work: Representation, Visualization, and Design. New York: Guilford Press.

Spence, Robert. 2007. Information Visualization: Design for Interaction. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Thomas, James J., and Kristin A. Cook, eds. 2005. Illuminating the Path: The Research and Development Agenda for Visual Analytics. National Visualization and Analytics Center. http://nvac.pnl.gov/agenda.stm (accessed March 1, 2008).

Tobler, Waldo. 1970. “A Computer Model Simulating Urban Growth in the Detroit Region.” Economic Geography 46, 2: 234–240. [Quotation]

Tollis, Ioannis G., Giuseppe Di Battista, Peter Eades, and Roberto Tamassia. 1998. Graph Drawing: Algorithms for the Visualization of Graphs. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Tufte, Edward R. 1990. Envisioning Information. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.

Tufte, Edward R. 1997. Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.

Tufte, Edward R. 2001. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. 2nd ed. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.

Tufte, Edward R. 2006. Beautiful Evidence. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.

Wurman, Richard Saul. 1997. Information Architects. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications.

Wurman, Richard Saul, and Robert Jacobson. 2000. Information Design. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Visual Perception and
Cognitive Processing

References

Arnheim, Rudolf. 1954. Art and Visual Perception: A Psychology of the Creative Eye. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Arnheim, Rudolf. 1969. Visual Thinking. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly. 1991. Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience. New York: HarperCollins.

Goldstone, Robert L., and Larry Barsalou. 1998. “Reuniting Perception and Conception.” Cognition 65: 231–262.

Healey, Christopher G. 2007. “Perception in Visualization.” North Carolina State University, Department of Computer Science. http://www.csc.ncsu.edu/faculty/healey/PP (accessed March 1, 2008).

Koffka, K. 1935. The Principles of Gestalt Psychology, 720. London: Lund Humphries.

Maeda, John. 2006. The Laws of Simplicity. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Palmer, S. E. 1999. Vision Science: From Photons to Phenomenology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Ware, Colin. 2000. Information Visualization: Perception for Design. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann.

Usable Interfaces and
Flow Experiences

References

Bederson, Benjamin B. 2004. “Interfaces for Staying in the Flow.” Ubiquity 5, 27, Sept. 1-7. http://www.acm.org/ubiquity/views/v5i27_bederson.html (accessed February 5, 2010).

Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly. 1991. Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience. New York: HarperCollins.

Image Credits

Elisha F. Hardy (design), Katy Börner (concept), Indiana University, adapted from source material in Csikszentmihalyi 1991.

Sociable Interfaces

References

Börner, Katy, and Raquel Navarro-Prieto. 2005. “Guest Editors’ Introduction: Special Issue: Collaborative Information Visualization Environments.” Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 14, 1: 3. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Jo Kim, Amy. 2000. Community Building on the Web: Secret Strategies for Successful Online Communities. Berkeley, CA: Peachpit Press.

Preece, Jenny. 1998. “Empathic Communities: Reaching Out Across the Web.” Interactions 5, 2: 32–43.

(Visual) Scalability Issues

References

Eick, Stephen G., and Alan F. Karr. 2000. “Visual Scalability.” Technical Report Number 106, National Institute of Statistical Sciences. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics. 

Shneiderman, Ben. 2002. Leonardo’s Laptop: Human Needs and the New Computing Technologies. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Modular Visualization Design

References

Adobe Systems, Inc. 2008. Adobe Photoshop Home Page. http://www.adobe.com/products/photoshop (accessed June 10, 2008).

Adobe Systems, Inc. 2008. Dreamweaver Home Page. http://www.adobe.com/products/dreamweaver/?sdid=CKIQP (accessed May 30, 2008).

Alexander, Christopher, S. Ishikawa, and M Silverstein. 1977. A Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings, Construction. Center for Environmental Structure Series 2. New York: Oxford University Press. 

ESRI. 2008. ESRI Home Page. http://www.esri.com (accessed June 2, 2008).

Shneiderman, Ben, Gerhard Fischer, Mary Czerwinkski, Mitch Resnick, Brad Myers, Linda Candy, Ernest Edmonds, Mike Eisenberg, Elisa Giaccardi, Tom Hewett, Pamela Jennings, and Bill Kules, et al. 2006. “Creativity Support Tools: Report From a US National Science Foundation Sponsored Workshop.” International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction 20, 2: 61–77.

Communication Versus Exploration

References

MacEachren, Alan M. 2004. How Maps Work: Representation, Visualization, and Design. New York: Guilford Press.

Interpretation

References

Huff, Darell. 1954. How to Lie with Statistics. New York: Norton.

Jones, Gerald E. 1995. How to Lie with Charts. San Francisco: Sybex.

Monmonier, Mark, and H. J. de Blij. 1996. How to Lie with Maps. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Visualization Layers

Reference System

References

Fabrikant, Sara Irina, Daniel R. Montello, and David M. Mark. 2006. “The Distance-Similarity Metaphor in Region-Display Spatializations.” Special Issue on Exploring Geovisualization: IEEE Computer Graphics & Application, edited by T. M. Rhyne, A. MacEachren, and J. Dykes, vol. 26, 4: 34–44. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society Press.

Fabrikant, S. I., D. R. Montello, M. Ruocco, and R. S. Middleton. 2004. “The Distance-Similarity Metaphor in Network-Display Spatializations.” Cartography and Geographic Information Science 31, 4: 237–252.

Tobler, Waldo. 1970. “A Computer Model Simulating Urban Growth in the Detroit Region.” Economic Geography 46, 2: 234–240.

Projection / Distortion

References

Furnas, George W., and Benjamin B. Bederson. 1995. “Space-Scale Diagrams: Understanding Multiscale Interfaces.” In Human Factors in Computing Systems CHI ’95 Conference Proceedings, 234–241. New York: ACM Press.

Leung, Y. K., and M. D. Apperley. 1994. “A Review and Taxonomy of Distortion-Oriented Presentation Techniques.” ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI) 1, 2: 126–160.

Aggregation and Clustering

References

Schvaneveldt, R., ed. 1990. Pathfinder Associative Networks: Studies in Knowledge Organization. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corp.

Combination

References

Tufte, Edward R. 1990. Envisioning Information. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.

Interaction 

References

Shneiderman, Ben. 1996. “The Eyes Have It: A Task by Data Type Taxonomy for Information Visualizations.” Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages, 336–343. Washington, DC: IEEE Computer Society.

Deployment

Image Credits

Data Communication Visualization Layers: Elisha F. Hardy (design), Katy Börner (concept), Indiana University.

66

Exemplification

References

Börner, Katy, Jeegar Maru, and Robert L. Goldstone. 2004. “The Simultaneous Evolution of Author and Paper Networks.” PNAS 101, Suppl 1: 5266–5273.

Börner, Katy, Shashikant Penumarthy, Mark Meiss, and Weimao Ke. 2006. “Mapping the Diffusion of Information among Major U.S. Research Institutions.” Scientometrics 68, 3: 415–426. 

Mane, Ketan, and Katy Börner. 2004. “Mapping Topics and Topic Bursts in PNAS.” PNAS 101, Suppl. 1: 5287–5290. 

Quotation popularized by Benjamin Franklin in the United States, attributed to a Chinese proverb.

Data Acquisition

Image Credits

PNAS Papers: Elisha F. Hardy (design), Katy Börner (concept), Indiana University.

Data Preparation

References

NCBI. 2008. MeSH Home Page. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=mesh (accessed June 10, 2008).

Data Analysis, Modeling,
and Layout

References

Adobe Systems. 2008. Photoshop CS3 Home Page. http://www.adobe.com/products/photoshop (accessed June 10, 2008).

Callon, Michel, John Law, and Arie Rip, eds. 1986. Mapping the Dynamics of Science and Technology: Sociology of Science in the Real World. London: The Macmillan Press.

Fruchterman, T.M.J., and E. M. Reingold. 1991. “Graph Drawing by Force-Directed Placement.” Software: Practice and Experience 21, 11: 1129–1164.

Kleinberg, J. M. 2002. “Bursty and Hierarchical Structure in Streams.” Proceedings of the 8th ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, 91–101. New York: ACM Press.

Schvaneveldt, R. W., ed. 1990. Pathfinder Associative Networks: Studies in Knowledge Organization. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Vlado, Andrej, and Vladimir Batagelj. 2008. “Networks/Pajek: Program for Large Network Analysis.” http://vlado.fmf.uni-lj.si/pub/networks/pajek (accessed June 10, 2008).

Data Communication–
Visualization Layers

References

Adobe Systems. 2008. Photoshop CS3 Home Page. http://www.adobe.com/products/photoshop (accessed June 10, 2008).

Barabási, A. L., H. Jeong, Z. Néda, E. Ravasz, A. Schubert, and T. Vicsek. 2002. “Evolution of the Social Network of Scientific Collaborations.” Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications 311, 3-4: 590–614.

Börner, Katy, Jeegar Maru, and Robert L. Goldstone. 2004. “The Simultaneous Evolution of Author and Paper Networks.” PNAS 101, Suppl. 1: 5266–5273.

Börner, Katy, Shashikant Penumarthy, Mark Meiss, and Weimao Ke. 2006. “Mapping the Diffusion of Information Among Major U.S. Research Institutions.” Scientometrics 68, 3: 415–426. 

Callon, Michel, John Law, and Arie Rip, eds. 1986. Mapping the Dynamics of Science and Technology: Sociology of Science in the Real World. London: The Macmillan Press.

Fruchterman, T.M.J., and E. M. Reingold. 1991. “Graph Drawing by Force-Directed Placement.” Software: Practice and Experience 21, 11: 1129–1164.

Mane, Ketan, and Katy Börner. 2004. “Mapping Topics and Topic Bursts in PNAS.” PNAS 101, Suppl. 1: 5287–5290. 

Newman, Mark E. J. 2001. “Scientific Collaboration Networks. I. Network Construction and Fundamental Results.” Physical Review E 64, 1: 016131.

Newman, Mark E. J. 2001. “The Structure of Scientific Collaboration Networks.” PNAS 98, 2: 404–409.

Redner, S. 1998. “How Popular Is Your Paper? An Empirical Study of the Citation Distribution.” The European Physical Journal B 4, 2: 131–134.

Vlado, Andrej, and Vladimir Batagelj. 2008. “Networks/Pajek: Program for Large Network Analysis.” http://vlado.fmf.uni-lj.si/pub/networks/pajek (accessed June 10, 2008).

Data Credits

PNAS data set provided by the PNAS for the Arthur M. Sackler Colloquium, “Mapping Knowledge Domains,” May 9–11, 2003.

Image Credits

I(a–c) and II(a–b): Russell J. Duhon (data preparation), Elisha F. Hardy (design), Katy Börner (concept), Indiana University; adapted from Börner et al. 2006.

II(a–b): Russell J. Duhon (data preparation), Elisha F. Hardy (design), Katy Börner (concept), Indiana University.

II(c): See Mane and Börner 2004. © 2004, National Academy of Sciences. U.S.A.

III(a–c): Elisha F. Hardy (design), Katy Börner (concept), Indiana University; adapted from Börner et al. 2004.

Interpretation

Study (I) Mapping Knowledge Diffusion and the Importance of Space

References

Batty, M. 2003. “The Geography of Scientific Citation.” Environment and Planning A 35, 5: 761–765. 

Börner, Katy, Shashikant Penumarthy, Mark Meiss, and Weimao Ke. 2006. “Mapping the Diffusion of Information among Major U.S. Research Institutions.” Scientometrics 68, 3: 415–426. 

Katz, J. S. 1994. “Geographical Proximity and Scientific Collaboration.” Scientometrics 31: 31–43.

Thelwall, M. 2002. “Evidence for the Existence of Geographic Trends in University Web Site Interlinking.” Journal of Documentation 58: 563–574.

Study (II) Identifying Research
Topics and Trends

References

Mane, Ketan, and Katy Börner. 2004. “Mapping Topics and Topic Bursts in PNAS.” PNAS 101, Suppl. 1: 5287–5290.

Study (III) Modeling the Co-Evolution
of Author-Paper Networks

References

Börner, Katy, Jeegar Maru, and Robert L. Goldstone. 2004. “The Simultaneous Evolution of Author and Paper Networks.” PNAS 101, Suppl 1: 5266–5273.

68

Scholarly Marketplaces

References

Harnad, Stevan, Tim Brody, Les Carr, Yves Gingras, Chawki Hajjem, and Alma Swan. 2007. “Incentivizing the Open Access Research Web.” CTWatch Quarterly 3, 3. http://www.ctwatch.org/quarterly/articles/2007/08/incentivizing-the-open-access-research-web (accessed March 1, 2008).

Shulman, Polly. 2007. “The Player.” Smithsonian, October. http://www.smithsonianmag.com/specialsections/innovators/von-ahn.html (accessed May 30, 2008). [Quotation from interview and profile of Luis von Ahn]

Designing Vibrant Marketplaces

Using a Million Minds

References

Facebook. 2010. Facebook Home Page. http://www.facebook.com (accessed April 14, 2010).

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010. Wikipedia Home Page. http://wikipedia.org (accessed April 14, 2010).

Yahoo!, Inc. 2010. Flickr Home Page. http://flickr.com (accessed April 14, 2010).

YouTube, LLC. 2010. Youtube Home Page. http://wwww.youtube.com (accessed April 14, 2010).

Moveon Political Action. 2010. “MoveOn.org: Democracy in Action.” http://www.moveon.org (accessed April 14, 2010).

Digg, Inc. 2010. Digg Home Page. http://digg.com (accessed April 14, 2010). 

Spikesource, Inc. 2010. Spikesource Home Page. http://www.spikesource.com (accessed April 14, 2010). 

Zopa, Ltd. 2005. “Zopa: Loans from People, not Banks.” http://uk.zopa.com/ZopaWeb (accessed April 14, 2010). 

eBay, Inc. 2010. eBay Home Page. http://www.ebay.com (accessed April 14, 2010). 

Online Data Services, Ltd. 2010. “IdeaConnection: Build on the Genius of Others.” http://www.ideaconnection.com (accessed April 14, 2010). 

Linden Research, Inc. 2010. “Second Life.” http://secondlife.com (accessed April 14, 2010). 

Williams, Anthony. 2010. “The New Alexandrians: Sharing for Science and The Science of Sharing.” Wikinomics. http://www.socialtext.net/wikinomics/index.cgi?the_new_alexandrians (accessed April 14, 2010). 

Amazon Web Services LLC. 2010. “Amazon Web Services.” http://aws.amazon.com (accessed April 14, 2010). 

Amazon Web Services LLC. 2010. “Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2).” http://aws.amazon.com/ec2 (accessed April 14, 2010).

IBM Corporation. 2010. “Many Eyes beta: for shared visualization and discovery.” http://manyeyes.alphaworks.ibm.com/manyeyes (accessed April 14, 2010).

Swivel, LLC. 2010. “Swivel: See, understand & share numbers.” http://www.swivel.com (accessed April 14, 2010).

Google, Inc. 2010. “Google Image Labeler.” http://images.google.com/imagelabeler (accessed April 14, 2010). 

Software Bazaars and Crowdsourcing

References

Howe, Jeff. 2006. “The Rise of Crowdsourcing.” Wired, June 14. http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/14.06/crowds.html (accessed May 30, 2008).

Page, Scott E. 2007. The Difference: How the Power of Diversity Creates Better Groups, Firms, Schools and Societies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Raymond, Eric S. 2000. The Cathedral and the Bazaar. Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly Media, Inc. Online at http://catb.org/~esr/writings/cathedral-bazaar/cathedral-bazaar (accessed November 3, 2009). [Quotation; mages was changed to magi]

Travis, John. 2008. “Science and Commerce: Science by the Masses.” Science 319, 5871: 1750–1752.

Social Engineering

Understanding Human Needs

References

Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly. 1991. Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience. New York: HarperCollins.

Maslow, Abraham. 1954. Motivation and Personality. New York: HarperCollins.

Maslow, Abraham. 1971. The Farther Reaches of Human Nature. New York: Viking Press.

Image Credits

“Needs” adapted from Maslow’s hierarchy: Elisha F. Hardy (design), Katy Börner (concept), Indiana University.

Contributors

Ying Ding and Linda Stone. 

Socio-Technical Cloud Design

No references or credits.

Internet

References

Geobytes, Inc. 2003. Geobytes Home Page. http://www.geobytes.com/IpLocator.htm. (accessed June 10, 2008).

Storage Clouds

References

Amazon Web Services LLC. 2010. “Amazon Simple Storage Service.” http://aws.amazon.com/s3 (accessed March 11, 2010).

Gilheany, Steve. 2010. “Paper Sizes and Paper Weight: Metric and US Standards.” Archives Builders, Inc. Manhattan Beach, CA. http://www-tcad.stanford.edu/~goojs/REFERENCES/paper_standard.html (accessed May 30, 2010). 

Compute Clouds

References

Allen, Bruce. 2008. LIGO Scientific Collaboration. “Einstein@Home.” http://einstein.phys.uwm.edu (accessed May 30, 2008).

Amazon Web Services LLC. 2010. “Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud.” http://aws.amazon.com/ec2 (accessed March 10, 2010).

Astropulse. 2008. Astropulse Home Page. http://www.astropulse.com (accessed May 30, 2008).

Gray, Jim. 2003. Distributed Computing Economics. Technical Report MSR-TR-2003-24, Microsoft Research. http://research.microsoft.com/apps/pubs/default.aspx?id=70001 (accessed February 10, 2010).

Grid.org. 2008. Grid.org Home Page. http://grid.org (accessed May 30, 2008).

IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center. 2006. “Deep Thunder: Precision Forecasting for Weather-Sensitive Business Operations.” http://www.research.ibm.com/weather/DT.html (accessed May 30, 2008).

INRIA/IN2P3. 2008. XtremWeb Home Page. http://www.xtremweb.net (accessed May 30, 2008).

Pande, Vijay. 2008. Stanford University. “Folding@Home: Distributed Computing.” http://folding.stanford.edu (accessed May 30, 2008).

University of California. 2010. “SETI@Home.” http://setiathome.berkeley.edu (accessed March 19, 2010).

Cyberinfrastructures

References

Atkins, Daniel E., Kelvin K. Droegemeier, Stuart I. Feldman, Hector Garcia-Molina, Michael L. Klein, David G. Messerschmitt, Paul Messina, Jeremiah P. Ostriker, and Margaret H. Wright. 2003. “Revolutionizing Science and Engineering Through Cyberinfrastructure: Report of the National Science Foundation Blue-Ribbon Advisory Panel on Cyberinfrastructure.” National Science Foundation. http://www.nsf.gov/od/oci/reports/atkins.pdf (accessed March 25, 2008).

Berman, Fran, Geoffrey Fox, and Anthony J. G. Hey, eds. 2003. Grid Computing: Making the Global Infrastructure a Reality. New York: Wiley.

Service Oriented Architectures

References

OSGi Alliance. 2008. OSGi Alliance Home Page. http://www.osgi.org (accessed June 10, 2008).

Herr II, Bruce W., Weixia (Bonnie) Huang, Shashikant Penumarthy, and Katy Börner. 2007. “Designing Highly Flexible and Usable Cyberinfrastructures for Convergence.” Progress in Convergence—Technologies for Human Wellbeing, edited by William S. Bainbridge and Mihail C. Roco, 1093: 161–179. Boston: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.

ProgrammableWeb.com. 2010. ProgrammableWeb Home Page. http://www.programmableweb.com (accessed March 16, 2010).

ProgrammableWeb.com. 2010. “API Dashboard.” http://www.programmableweb.com/apis (accessed March 16, 2010).

Web Services

References

IP Address Locator. 2010. What Is My IP Address? Home Page. http://www.ip-adress.com (accessed March 12, 2010).

ProgrammableWeb.com. 2010. ProgrammableWeb Home Page. http://www.programmableweb.com (accessed March 16, 2010).

Application Design

The Wiki Way

References

Giles, Jim. 2007. “Key Biology Databases Go Wiki.” Nature 445: 691–691.

Google, Inc. 2010. Google Maps Home Page. http://maps.google.com (accessed March 11, 2010).

Koriakine, Alexandre, and Evgeniy Saveliev. Wikimapia Home Page. http://wikimapia.org (accessed March 1, 2008).

Mons, Albert. 2007. WikiProfessional Home Page. https://www.wikiprofessional.org/portal (accessed October 30, 2007).

Mons, Barend, Michael Ashburner, Christine Chicester, Erik van Mulligen, Marc Weeber, Johan den Dunnen, Gert-Jane van Ommen, Mark Musen, Matthew Cockerill, Henning Hrmjakob, Albert Monds, Abel Pakcer, Robert Pacheco, Suzanna Lewis, Alfred Berkeley, William Melton, Nikolas Barris, Jimmy Wales, Gerard Meijssen, Erik Moeller, Peter Jan Roes, Katy Börner, and Amos Bairoch. 2008. “Calling on a Million Minds for Community Annotation in WikiProteins.” Genome Biology 9: R89. 

OpenStreetMap. 2010. “The Free Wiki World Map.” http://www.openstreetmap.org (accessed March 16, 2010).

Science News. 2007. “Mapmaking for the Masses: User-Generated Content Can Profoundly Impact Geographic Information Systems.” Science Daily, December 31. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/12/071203111251 (accessed May 30, 2008).

Tapscott, Don, and Anthony D. Williams. 2006. Wikinomics: How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything. New York: Portfolio/Penguin.

ConceptWiki. 2010. “WikiProteins.” http://proteins.wikiprofessional.org/index.php/WikiProteins (accessed March 30, 2010).

Gapminder, Swivel and Many Eyes

References

Creative Commons. 2010. Gapminder Home Page. http://www.gapminder.org (accessed March 11, 2010).

Heer, Jeffrey, and Maneesh Agrawala. 2006. “Software Design Patterns for Information Visualization.” IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics (TVCG) 12, 5: 853-860.

IBM, Inc. 2008. Many Eyes Beta Home Page. http://services.alphaworks.ibm.com/manyeyes/home (accessed October 30, 2007).

MarketWire Incorporated. 2010. “Swivel Launches Swivel Geography.” http://www.marketwire.com/mw/rel.jsp?id=738241 (accessed March 15, 2010).

Swivel, LLC. 2010. Swivel Home Page. http://www.swivel.com (accessed March 16, 2010).

Plug-and-Play Data and Software

References

Herr II, Bruce W., Weixia (Bonnie) Huang, Shashikant Penumarthy, and Katy Börner. 2007. “Designing Highly Flexible and Usable Cyberinfrastructures for Convergence.” Progress in Convergence—Technologies for Human Wellbeing, edited by William S. Bainbridge and Mihail C. Roco, 1093: 161–179. Boston: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.

NWB Team. 2006. “Network Workbench Tool.” Indiana University, Northeastern University, and University of Michigan. http://nwb.slis.indiana.edu (accessed March 15, 2010).

NWB Team. 2008. “Network Workbench Community Wiki.” https://nwb.slis.indiana.edu/community (accessed March 30, 2010).

Data Credits

UN. 2009. “Avianan Influenza and the Pandemic Threat.” http://www.un-influenza.org (accessed March 30, 2010).

Image Credits

Cloud architecture: Elisha F. Hardy (design), Katy Börner (concept), Indiana University.

Screen capture of Network Workbench Tool, see NWB Team 2006.

Screen capture of Flu Season data, courtesy of Swivel and Swoodie (graph creator).

Contributors

Bruce W. Herr II and Weixia (Bonnie) Huang.