Atlas of Knowledge: References

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vi

Contents

References

Beauchesne, Olivier H. 2012. Map of Scientific Collaborations from 2005–2009. Montréal, Canada. Courtesy of http://olihb.com. In “7th Iteration (2011): Science Maps as Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries,” Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Michael J. Stamper. http://scimaps.org.

Dorling, Danny, Mark E. J. Newman, Graham Allsopp, Anna Barford, Ben Wheeler, John Pritchard, and David Dorling. 2006. Ecological Footprint. Sheffield, UK and Ann Arbor, MI, 2006. Courtesy of Universities of Sheffield and Michigan. In “4th Iteration (2008): Science Maps for Economic Decision Makers,” Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

Leydesdorff, Loet. 2010. The Emergence of Nanoscience & Technology. Amsterdam, Netherlands. Courtesy of Loet Leydesdorff, Thomas Schank, and JASIST. In “6th Iteration (2009): Science Maps for Scholars,” Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

Shelley, Ward. 2011. History of Science Fiction. Brooklyn, NY. Courtesy of Ward Shelley Studio. In “7th Iteration (2011): Science Maps as Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries,” Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Michael J. Stamper. http://scimaps.org.

Image Credits

Group photo courtesy of Katy Börner.

Extracted from Leydesdorff 2010.

Extracted from Dorling et al. 2006.

Extracted from Shelley 2011.

Extracted from Beauchesne 2012.

ix

Preface

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Börner, Katy. 2017. Atlas of Forecasts: Predicting and Broadcasting Science. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Börner, Katy, and David E. Polley. 2014. Visual Insights: A Practical Guide to Making Sense of Data. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Tufte, Edward R. 2001. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. 2nd ed. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.

Yau, Nathan. 2011. Visualize This: The FlowingData Guide to Design, Visualization, and Statistics. Indianapolis, IN: Wiley.

x

Acknowledgments

References

Brand, Stewart, ed. 1968. Whole Earth Catalog. Accessed October 30, 2013. http://wholeearth.com/issue-electronic-edition.php?iss=1340.

Dawkins, Richard. 2008. “Growing Up in the Universe.” YouTube. Last modified June 5, 2008. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0R3xIYIjq-4&feature=related.

Gianchandani, Erwin. 2011. “Explaining Why Computing Is Important.” Computing Community Consortium (blog), December 30. Accessed September 15, 2014. http://www.cccblog.org/2011/12/30/explaining-why-computing-is-important.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2013. “Whole Earth Catalog.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed October 30, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whole_Earth_Catalog.

Wright, Alex. 2007. Glut: Mastering Information through the Ages. Washington, DC: Joseph Henry Press.

Image Credits

Group photos courtesy of Katy Börner.

1

Part 1: Science andTechnology Facts

References

Leydesdorff, Loet. 2010. The Emergence of Nanoscience & Technology. Amsterdam, Netherlands. Courtesy of Loet Leydesdorff, Thomas Schank, and JASIST. In “6th Iteration (2009): Science Maps for Scholars,” Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

Goodreads. 2014. “H.James Harrington Quotes.” Accessed October 17, 2014. http://www.goodreads.com/author/quotes/42617.H_James_Harrington.

Image Credits

Extracted from Leydesdorff 2010.

2

Science and Technology from Above

References

Monmonier, Mark. 1999. Air Apparent: How Meteorologists Learned to Map, Predict, and Dramatize Weather. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Science Staff. 2011. “Challenges and Opportunities.” Science 331 (6018): 692-693.

Thomas, James J., and Kristin A. Cook, eds. 2005. Illuminating the Path: The Research and Development Agenda for Visual Analytics. Richland, WA: National Visualization and Analytics Center.

Insight Needs

References

Marburger III, John H. 2005. “Address to the AAAS Forum on Science and Technology Policy, May 2005.” American Institute of Physics. Accessed January 1, 2008. http://www.aip.org/fyi/2007/055.html.

Thomas, James J., and Kristin A. Cook, eds. 2005. Illuminating the Path: The Research and Development Agenda for Visual Analytics. Richland, WA: National Visualization and Analytics Center.

Economic Indicators

References

National Bureau of Economic Research. 2013. Home Page. Accessed October 30, 2013. http://www.nber.org.

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. 2013. Home Page. Accessed October 30, 2013. http://www.oecd.org.

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. 2013. “OECD Stat Extracts.” Accessed October 30, 2013. http://stats.oecd.org.

United States Department of Commerce. 2013. Bureau of Economic Analysis Home Page. Accessed October 30, 2013. http://www.bea.gov.

United States Department of Commerce. 2013. United States Census Bureau Home Page. Accessed October 30, 2013. http://www.census.gov.

United States Department of Labor. 2013. Bureau of Labor Statistics Home Page. Accessed October 30, 2013. http://www.bls.gov.

Science and Technology Indicators

References

Centre for Science and Technology Studies (CWTS). 2013. “CWTS Journal Indicators.” Accessed October 30, 2013. http://www.journalindicators.com.

Chinese Academy of Sciences. 2013. Home Page. Accessed October 30, 2013. http://english.cas.cn.

Cyberinfrastructure for Network Science Center. 2013. “CNS Products.” Accessed October 30, 2013. http://cns.iu.edu/products.html.

Elsevier. 2013. Elsevier Home Page. Accessed October 30, 2013. http://www.elsevier.com.

Expertenkommission Forschung und Innovation. 2013. EFI Home Page. Accessed October 30, 2013. http://www.e-fi.de/index.php?id=1&L=1.

Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago. Chicago Fed National Activity Index (CFNAI). Accessed October 30, 2013. http://www.chicagofed.org/webpages/publications/cfnai.

King, Christopher, and David A. Pendlebury. 2013. Research Fronts 2013: 100 Top-Ranked Specialties in the Sciences and Social Sciences. Philadelphia, PA: Thomson Reuters. Accessed October 30, 2013. http://sciencewatch.com/sites/sw/files/sw-article/media/research-fronts-2013.pdf.

International Monetary Fund. 2013. Home Page. Accessed October 30, 2013. http://www.imf.org/external/index.htm.

National Institute of Science and Technology Policy. 2013. Home Page. Accessed October 30, 2013. http://www.nistep.go.jp/HP_E/researchworks/03_sciencemap.

National Science Foundation. 2013. National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics Home Page. Accessed October 30, 2013. http://www.nsf.gov/statistics.

National Science Foundation. 2013. “Science and Engineering Indicators.” Accessed October 30, 2013. http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/seind12.

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. 2013. “OECD Stat Extracts.” Accessed October 30, 2013. http://stats.oecd.org.

Ranking Web of Universities. 2014. “Methodology.” Accessed January 25, 2014. http://www.webometrics.info/en/Methodology.

Thomson Reuters. 2013. “Essential Science Indicators.” Accessed October 30, 2013. http://thomsonreuters.com/essential-science-indicators.

United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization. 2013. “UNESCO Institute for Statistics.” Accessed October 30, 2013. http://www.uis.unesco.org.

United Nations. 2013. The Millennium Development Goals Report 2013. Accessed October 30, 2013. http://mdgs.un.org/unsd/mdg/Resources/Static/Products/Progress2013/English2013.pdf.

United Nations. 2013. United Nations Statistics Division Home Page. Accessed October 30, 2013. http://unstats.un.org/unsd/default.htm.

Université du Québec à Montréal. 2013. Observatoire des Sciences et des Technologies Home Page. Accessed October 30, 2013. http://www.ost.uqam.ca.

The World Bank Group. 2013. “Data: Data Catalog.” Accessed October 30, 2013. http://datacatalog.worldbank.org.

The World Bank Group. 2013. “Data: Indicators.” Accessed October 30, 2013. http://data.worldbank.org/indicator.

The World Bank Group. 2013. “Data: Science & Technology.” Accessed October 30, 2013. http://data.worldbank.org/topic/science-and-technology.

World Intellectual Property Organization. 2013. WIPO Home Page. Accessed October 30, 2013. http://www.wipo.int/portal/index.html.en.

World Intellectual Property Organization. 2013. “WIPO PATENTSCOPE.” Accessed October 30, 2013. http://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/search.jsf.

Success Stories

References

Central Intelligence Agency. 2014. “Literacy.” The World Fact Book. Accessed September 21, 2014. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2103.html#136.

ChartsBin.com. 2014. “World Literacy Map: Literacy Rate Adult Total of People Ages 15 and Above.” Accessed September 21, 2014. http://chartsbin.com/view/26025.

The World Bank Group. 2014. “Literacy Rate, Adult Total (% of People Ages 15 and Above).” Accessed September 21, 2014. http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.ADT.LITR.ZS.

Image Credits

World Literacy Map created by Michael P. Ginda and Tracey Theriault

Genealogy of Science graph created by Samuel T. Mills and Robert P. Light.

Data Credits

See Central Intelligence Agency 2014; The World Bank 2014.

Software Credits

ChartsBin. http://chartsbin.com. Accessed September 21, 2014. All generated charts or graphs by ChartsBin.com are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

4

Systems ScienceApproach

References

Kabat, Pavel. “Systems Science for Policy Evaluation.” Science 336 (6087): 1398.

Miller, James G. 1978. Living Systems. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Systems Science Examples

References

Kabat, Pavel. “Systems Science for Policy Evaluation.” Science 336 (6087): 1398.

S&T Systems Science

References

Windhager, Florian, Lukas Zenk, and Paolo Federico. 2011. “Visual Enterprise Network Analytics—Visualizing Organizational Change.” In Proceedings of Dynamics of Social Networks: 7th Conference on Applications of Social Network Analysis (ASNA 2010), edited by Thomas N. Friemel, 22:59-68. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier.

Multiple Levels of Abstraction

References

Börner, Katy, Noshir Contractor, Holly J. Falk-Krzesinski, Stephen M. Fiore, Kara L. Hall, Joann Keyton, Bonnie Spring, Daniel Stokols, William Trochim, and Brian Uzzi. “A Multi-Level Systems Perspective for the Science of Team Science.” Science Translational Medicine 2 (49): 1–5.

Eames, Charles, and Ray Eames. 1977. Powers of Ten. Accessed October 30, 2013. http://www.powersof10.com/film.

Image Credits

Image created by Perla Mateo-Lujan.

Different Types of Analysis

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Börner, Katy. 2017. Atlas of Forecasts: Predicting and Broadcasting Science. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Image Credits

The table with illustrations was created by Perla Mateo-Lujan and Samuel T. Mills.

Multimodal Analysis

References

Padgett, John F., and Walter W. Powell, eds. 2012. The Emergence of Organizations and Markets. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Mixed-Methods Approach

References

Börner, Katy, Noshir Contractor, Holly J. Falk-Krzesinski, Stephen M. Fiore, Kara L. Hall, Joann Keyton, Bonnie Spring, Daniel Stokols, William Trochim, and Brian Uzzi. “A Multi-Level Systems Perspective for the Science of Team Science.” Science Translational Medicine 2 (49): 1–5.

Opportunities

References

Liu, Yang-Yu, Jean-Jacques Slotine, and Albert-László Barabási. “Controllability of Complex Networks.” Nature 473 (7346): 167–173.

6

Micro: Individual Level

References

Leydesdorff, Loet. 2011. Personal Communication. August 11.

Personal Analytics

References

Horlings, Edwin, and Thomas Gurney. 2012. “Search Strategies along the Academic Lifecycle.” Scientometrics 94 (3): 1137–1160.

Image Credits

See Horlings and Gurney 2012.

Quantifying Success

References

Forbes Staff. “The Forbes 400: The Richest People in America.” Accessed October 30, 2013. http://www.forbes.com/forbes-400/list.

Kroll, Luisa, and Kerry A. Dolan. 2013. “The World’s Billionaires: The Richest People on the Planet.” Forbes. Accessed October 30, 2013. http://www.forbes.com/billionaires.

Quantified Self Labs. 2013. Home Page. Accessed October 30, 2013. http://quantifiedself.com.

Wolfram Alpha LLC. 2013. Wolfram Alpha Personal Analytics for Facebook. Accessed October 30, 2013. http://www.wolframalpha.com/facebook.

Image Credits

See Wolfram Alpha LLC 2013.

Contextualizing Success

References

Rankin, Bill. 2006. “Average Per Capita Income, by Density and Average Density, by Per Capita Income.” Radical Cartography. Accessed October 30, 2013. http://radicalcartography.net/density-income.png.

Rankin, Bill. 2006. “Age Groups as Percent of Population, by Density and Age Groups as Percent of Population, by Density (normalized to national averages).” Radical Cartography. Accessed October 30, 2013. http://radicalcartography.net/density-age.png.

Rankin, Bill. 2013. Radical Cartography. Accessed December 15, 2013. http://radicalcartography.net.

Image Credits

See Rankin “Average Per Capita Income” and “Age Groups” 2006.

Data Credits

All graphs based on tract-level data from the 2000 census. Data do not include U.S. territories. Formore information, see http://radicalcartography.net/density-tracts.html. Accessed September 18, 2014.

Academic Products Analytics

References

Bornmann, Lutz, Hermann Schier, Werner Marx, and Hans-Dieter Daniel. 2012. “What Factors Determine Citation Counts of Publications in Chemistry Besides Their Quality?” Journal of Informetrics 6 (1): 11–18.

Didegah, Fereshteh, and Mike Thelwall. 2012. “Predictive Indicators of Research Citation Impact in S&T Fields: A Case Study of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology.” In Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Science and Technology Indicators, Montréal, Canada, September 5–8, 236–246.

Commercial Product Analytics

References

Gartner, Inc. 2013. “IT Glossary: Product Analytics.” Accessed October 30, 2013. http://www.gartner.com/it-glossary/product-analytics.

8

Meso: Local Level

References

Lehrer, Jonah. 2012. “Groupthink: The Brainstorming Myth.” The New Yorker, January 30. Accessed October 30, 2013. http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2012/01/30/120130fa_fact_lehrer#ixzz1kb8PzIzF.

Organizational Types

References

Crane, Diana. 1972. Invisible Colleges: Diffusion of Knowledge in Scientific Communities. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Francisco, Matthew, Staša Milojević, and Selma Šabanović. 2011. “Conference Models to Bridge Micro and Macro Studies of Science.” Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 14 (4): 13.

Wagner, Caroline S. 2008. The New Invisible College: Science for Development. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.

Image Credits

Image adapted by Perla Mateo-Lujan from Francisco et al. 2011.

Teams

Size and Density

References

Barabási, Albert-László. 2005. “Network Theory: The Emergence of the Creative Enterprise.” Science 308 (5722): 639–641.

Börner, Katy, Luca Dall’Asta, Weimao Ke, and Alessandro Vespignani. 2005. “Studying the Emerging Global Brain: Analyzing and Visualizing the Impact of Co-Authorship Teams.” Complexity: Special Issue on Understanding Complex Systems 10 (4): 57–67.

Francisco, Matthew, Staša Milojević, and Selma Šabanović. 2011. “Conference Models to Bridge Micro and Macro Studies of Science.” Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 14 (4): 13.

Guimerà, Roger, Brian Uzzi, Jarrett Spiro, Luis A. Nunes Amaral. 2005. “Team Assembly Mechanisms Determine Collaboration Network Structure and Team Performance.” Science 308 (5722): 697–702.

Wuchty, Stefan, Benjamin F. Jones, and Brian Uzzi. 2007. “The Increasing Dominance of Teams in Production of Knowledge.” Science 316 (5827): 1036–1039.

Zucker, Lynne G., and Michael R. Darby. 1996. “Star Scientists and Institutional Transformation: Patterns of Invention and Innovation in the Formation of the Biotechnology Industry.” PNAS 93 (23): 12709–12716.

Image Credits

Image adapted by Perla Mateo-Lujan from Barabási 2005.

Ideal Spatial Proximity

References

Cummings, Jonathon N., and Sara Kiesler. 2007. “Coordination Costs and Project Outcomes in Multi-University Collaborations.” Research Policy 36 (10): 1620–1634.

Lee, Kyungjoon, John S. Brownstein, Richard G. Mills, and Isaac S. Kohane. 2010. “Does Collocation Inform the Impact of Collaboration?” PLoS One 5 (12): e14279. Accessed October 31, 2013. http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0014279.

Diversity

References

Börner, Katy, and Kevin W. Boyack. 2010. “Mapping Interdisciplinary Research” (sidebar, Systems Science Section). In Oxford Handbook of Interdisciplinarity, Ch. 31, edited by Robert Frodeman, Julie Thompson Klein, and Carl Mitcham, 457–460. New York: Oxford University Press.

Börner, Katy, Richard Klavans, Michael Patek, Angela Zoss, Joseph R. Biberstine, Robert Light, Vincent Larivière, and Kevin W. Boyack. 2012. “Design and Update of a Classification System: The UCSD Map of Science.” PLoS One 7 (7): e39464. Accessed October 31, 2013. http://sci.cns.iu.edu/ucsdmap.

Larivière Vincent, and Yves Gingras. 2010. “On the Relationship between Interdisciplinarity and Scientific Impact.” JASIST 61 (1): 126–131.

Sugimoto, Cassidy R. 2012. Are You My Mentor? Identifying Mentors and Their Roles in LIS Doctoral Education.” Journal of Education for Library and Information Science 53 (1): 2–19.

Sugimoto, Cassidy R., Terrell G. Russell, Lokman I. Meho, and Gary Marchionini. 2008. “MPACT and Citation Impact: Two Sides of the Same Scholarly Coin?” Library & Information Science Research 30 (4): 273–281.

Wagner, Caroline S., J. David Roessner, Kamau Bobb, Julie Thompson Klein, Kevin W. Boyack, Joann Keyton, Ismael Rafols, and Katy Börner. 2011. “Approaches to Understanding and Measuring Interdisciplinary Scientific Research (IDR): A Review of the Literature.” Journal of Informetrics 5 (1): 14–26.

Fostering Creativity

References

Guimerà, Roger, Brian Uzzi, Jarrett Spiro, Luis A. Nunes Amaral. 2005. “Team Assembly Mechanisms Determine Collaboration Network Structure and Team Performance.” Science 308 (5722): 697–702.

Heinze, Thomas, Philip Shapira, Juan D. Rogers, and Jacqueline M. Senker. 2009. “Organizational and Institutional Influences on Creativity in Scientific Research.” Research Policy 38 (4): 610–623.

Parker, John N., and Edward J. Hackett. 2012. “Hot Spots and Hot Moments in Scientific Collaborations and Social Movements.” American Sociological Review 77 (1): 21–44.

Importance of Weak Ties

References

Börner, Katy, and David E. Polley. 2014. Visual Insights: A Practical Guide to Making Sense of Data. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Granovetter, Mark S. 1970. “Changing Jobs: Channels of Mobility Information in a Suburban Population.” PhD diss., Harvard University.

Granovetter, Mark S. 1973. “The Strength of Weak Ties.” American Journal of Sociology 78 (6): 1360–1380.

Padgett, John F., and Walter W. Powell, eds. 2012. The Emergence of Organizations and Markets. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Institutions and Regions

Rankings

References

Aaronson, Becca. 2011. “Interactive: The Demographics of Poverty in Texas.” The Texas Tribune, December 15. Accessed October 31, 2013. http://www.texastribune.org/library/data/demographics-poverty-texas-2011. Indiana Business Research Center. 2013. “Stats America.” Accessed October 31, 2013. http://www.statsamerica.org.

Becher, Tony, and Paul R. Trowler. 2001. Academic Tribes and Territories: Intellectual Enquiry and the Culture of Disciplines. 2nd ed. Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.

Zoss, Angela M., Michael D. Conover, and Katy Börner. 2010. “Where Are the Academic Jobs? Interactive Exploration of Job Advertisements in Geospatial and Topical Space.” In Advances in Social Computing: Third International Conference on Social Computing, Behavioral Modeling and Prediction, edited by Sun-Ki Chai, John Salerno, and Patricia L. Mabry, 238–247. Bethesda, MD: Springer.

Return on Investment

References

Marshall, Eliot, and John Travis. 2011. “U.K. Scientific Papers Rank First in Citations.” Science 334 (6055): 443.

Stephan, Paula. 2012. How Economics Shapes Science Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Venture Capital Dispersion

References

Butler, Declan. 2008. “Swollen with Success.” Nature 455 (7211): 270–271.

National Science Foundation. 2008. “Science and Engineering Indicators 2008.” Accessed October 30, 2013. http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/seind08.

Image Credits

Swollen with Success reprinted by permission from Macmillan Publishers Ltd. Nature. Copyright 2008.

Data Credits

Venture Capital Maps, see National Science Foundation 2008.

Innovation Networks

References

Walshok, Mary L. 2011. “The Role of Social Networks and Boundary Spanning Organizations in Highly Innovative Communities.” Lecture presented as part of the Networks and Complex Systems Talk Series, Indiana University, April. Accessed March 1, 2014. http://cns.iu.edu/docs/netscitalks/Walshok.pdf.

Zucker, Lynne G., and Michael R. Darby. 1996. “Star Scientists and Institutional Transformation: Patterns of Invention and Innovation in the Formation of the Biotechnology Industry.” PNAS 93 (23): 12709–12716.

Scientific Disciplines

References

Börner, Katy, Shashikant Penumarthy, Mark Meiss, and Weimao Ke. 2006. “Mapping the Diffusion of Information among Major U.S. Research Institutions.” Scientometrics 68 (3): 415–426.

Cronin, Blaise, and Stephen Pearson. 1990. “The Export of Ideas from Information Science.” Journal of Information Science 16 (6): 381–391.

Network Centrality and Robustness

References

Rosvall, Martin, and Carl T. Bergstrom. 2008. “Maps of Random Walks on Complex Networks Reveal Community Structure.” PNAS 105 (4): 1118–1123.

Image Credits

Maps of Random Walks on Complex Networks Reveal Community Structure courtesy of PNAS. © 2007, National Academy of Sciences, USA.

Emerging Research Areas

References

Guo, Hanning, Scott B. Weingart, and Katy Börner. 2011. “Mixed-Indicators Model for Identifying Emerging Research Areas.” Scientometrics 89 (1): 421–435.

Leydesdorff, Loet, and Thomas Schank. 2008. “Dynamic Animations of Journal Maps: Indicators of Structural Change and Interdisciplinary Developments.” JASIST 59 (11): 1810–1818.

10

Macro: Global Level

References

Suresh, Subra. 2012. “Remarks.” Speech given at the Integrative Graduate Education Research and Traineeship Project Meeting, Washington, DC, May 31. Accessed September 14, 2014. http://www.nsf.gov/news/speeches/suresh/12/ss120531_igert.jsp.

National Indicators

Population

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. 2–3.

Haub, Carl. 2011. “How Many People Have Ever Lived on Earth?” Population Reference Bureau Online. Accessed October 31, 2013. http://www.prb.org/Publications/Articles/2002/HowManyPeopleHaveEverLivedonEarth.aspx.

Haub, Carl. 2011. “In 2011, World Population Surpasses 7 Billion.” Population Reference Bureau Online. http://www.prb.org/Publications/Articles/2011/world-population-7billion.aspx.

Hendler, James A. 2013. Personal Communication. Spring.

Holt, Richard. 2013. “Twitter in Numbers.” The Telegraph, March 21. Accessed October 31, 2013. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/twitter/9945505/Twitter-in-numbers.html.

Miniwatts Marketing Group. 2012. “The World Population and the Top Ten Countries with the Highest Population.” Internet World Stats. Accessed October 31, 2013. http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats8.htm.

Nordpil. 2013. “World Database of Large Urban Areas, 1950–2050.” Accessed October 31, 2013. http://nordpil.com/go/resources/world-database-of-large-cities.

Tam, Donna. 2013. “Facebook by the Numbers: 1.06 Billion Monthly Active Users.” CNET, January 30. Accessed October 31, 2013. http://news.cnet.com/8301-1023_3-57566550-93/facebook-by-the-numbers-1.06-billion-monthly-active-users.

United Nations. 2008. “World Urbanization Prospects: The 2007 Revision.” New York: United Nations. Accessed November 15, 2013. http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/wup2007/2007WUP_Highlights_web.pdf.

Worldometers. 2013. “World Population.” Accessed October 31, 2013. http://www.worldometers.info/world-population.

Data Credits

See United Nations 2008.

GDP and National Debt

References

BBC News. 2011. “Eurozone Debt Web: Who Owes What to Whom in Europe.” BBC News: Business. November 18. Accessed September 18, 2014. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-15748696.

CNN Money. 2012. “Global 500: Our Annual Ranking of the World’s Largest Corporations.” Accessed November 15, 2013. http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/global500/2012/full_list.

Hall, Ed. 2013. “U.S. National Debt Clock.” Accessed November 6, 2013. http://www.brillig.com/debt_clock.

White, D. Steven. 2012. “The Top 175 Global Economic Entities, 2011.” Personal Home Page. Accessed October 31, 2013. http://dstevenwhite.com/2012/08/11/the-top-175-global-economic-entities-2011.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2013. “List of Countries by GDP (Nominal).” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 15, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_GDP_%28nominal%29.

Image Credits

Image reprinted with permission of the BBC, © 2011, from “Eurozone Debt Web: Who Owes What to Whom in Europe.” BBC News: Business. November 18. Accessed September 18, 2014. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-15748696.

Data Credits

See CNN Money 2012.

See Wikimedia Foundation 2013.

Research Funding

References

Feldman, Michael. 2012. “India Aims to Double R&D Spending for Science.” HPC Wire, January 4. Accessed October 31, 2013. http://www.hpcwire.com/hpcwire/2012-01-04/india_aims_to_double_r_d_spending_for_science.html.

Indiana University Lilly Family School of Philanthropy. 2013. “The Million Dollar List.” Accessed November 9. http://www.milliondollarlist.org.

Kay, Luciano. 2011. “How Do Prizes Induce Innovation? Learning from the Google Lunar X-Prize.” Accessed October 31, 2013. http://scienceofsciencepolicy.net/publication/how-do-prizes-induce-innovation-learning-google-lunar-x-prize.

Co-Funding Networks

References

Shapira, Philip, and Jue Wang. 2010. “Comment: Follow the Money. What Was the Impact of the Nanotechnology Funding Boom of the Past Ten Years?” Nature 468 (7324): 627–628.

Image Credits

Cross-Border Funding of Nanotechnology Research reprinted by permission from Macmillan Publishers Ltd. Nature. Copyright 2010.

Return on Investment

References

Hall, Kara L., Daniel Stokols, Brooke A. Stipelman, Amanda L. Vogel, Annie Feng, Beth Masimore, Glen Morgan, Richard P. Moser, Stephen E. Marcus, and David Berrigan. “Assessing the Value of Team Science: A Study Comparing Center- and Investigator-Initiated Grants.” American Journal of Preventive Medicine 42 (2): 157–163.

Education

References

The Financial Times LTD. 2012. “Global MBA Rankings 2012.” Accessed October 31, 2013. http://rankings.ft.com/businessschoolrankings/global-mba-rankings-2012.

Hazelkorn, Ellen. 2011. Rankings and the Reshaping of Higher Education: The Battle for World-Class Excellence. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

International Association of Universities. 2012. International Handbook of Universities. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

International Association of Universities and Palgrave Macmillan. 2013. “World Higher Education Database Online.” Accessed October 31, 2013.http://www.whed-online.com.

Irizarry, Rafa. 2011. “Expected Salary by Major.” Simply Statistics. Accessed October 31, 2013. http://simplystatistics.tumblr.com/post/12599452125/expected-salary-by-major.

Marope, Mmantsetsa, Peter J. Wells, and Ellen Hazelkorn, eds. 2013. Rankings and Accountability in Higher Education: Uses and Misuses. Paris: UNESCO Publishing.

The Partnership for a New American Economy. 2011. The “New American” Fortune 500. Accessed October 31, 2013. http://www.renewoureconomy.org/sites/all/themes/pnae/img/new-american-fortune-500-june-2011.pdf.

Wildavsky, Ben. 2010. The Great Brain Race: How Global Universities Are Reshaping the World. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Yau, Nathan. “Education in the United States: Enrollment and Dropouts.” Flowing Prints. Accessed October 31, 2013. http://flowingprints.com/print1.php.

Flows

References

Committee on Global Approaches to Advanced Computing, Board on Global Science and Technology, Policy and Global Affairs, and National Research Council. 2012. The New Global Ecosystem in Advanced Computing: Implications for U.S. Competitiveness and National Security. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

Collaboration

References

Ye, Fred Y., Susan S. Yu, and Loet Leydesdorff. 2013. “The Triple-Helix of University-Industry-Government Relations at the Country Level, and Its Dynamic Evolution under the Pressures of Globalization.” JASIST 64 (11): 2317–2325.

Communication

References

Medina, Sammy. 2012. “A Designer Overhauls the NSA’s Atrocious Powerpoint Presentation.” Fast Company, June 12. Accessed October 31, 2013. http://www.fastcodesign.com/1672808/a-designer-overhauls-the-nsas-atrocious-powerpoint-presentation?partner=newsletter#1.

Image Credits

From “Dear NSA” by Emiland De Cubber. http://www.emiland.me. Accessed September 18, 2014.

Trade

References

Hausmann, Ricardo, César A. Hidalgo, Sebastián Bustos, Michele Coscia, Sarah Chung, Juan Jimenez, Alexander Simoes, Muhammed A. Yildirim. 2011. The Atlas of Economic Complexity. Boston, MA: Harvard Kennedy School and MIT Media Lab. Accessed August 28, 2013. http://www.cid.harvard.edu/documents/complexityatlas.pdf.

Hidalgo, César A., Bailey Klinger, Albert-László Barabási, and Ricardo Hausmann. 2007. “The Product Space Conditions the Development of Nations.” Science 317 (5837): 482–487.

Hidalgo, César A., Bailey Klinger, Albert-László Barabási, and Ricardo Hausmann. 2008. “The Product Space.” César Hidalgo Home Page. Accessed August 28, 2013. http://www.chidalgo.com/productspace.

Stefaner, Moritz. 2013. “Global Trade Flows.” Personal Home Page. Accessed October 31, 2013. http://moritz.stefaner.eu/projects/global-trade-flows.

United Nations. 2013. UN Comtrade Database. Accessed November 6, 2013. http://comtrade.un.org/db.

United States Department of Commerce. 2013. Foreign Trade. United States Census Bureau Online. Accessed November 6, 2013. http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade.

Image Credits

Global Trade Flows (Image 1) courtesy of Moritz Stefaner for CITI, 2011.

Global Trade Flows (Image 2) courtesy of Moritz Stefaner for CITI, 2011.

Data Credits

See United Nations 2013.

See United States Department of Commerce 2013.

12

Universal: Multilevel

References

Kelly, Kevin. 1997. “New Rules for the New Economy.” Wired 5 (9). Accessed October 31, 2013. http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/5.09/newrules.html.

Metrics

Journal Impact Factor

References

Adler, Robert, John Ewing, and Peter Taylor. 2008. “Citation Statistics. A Report from the International Mathematical Union.” Accessed October 31, 2013. http://www.mathunion.org/publications/report/citationstatistics0.

The American Society for Cell Biology. 2012. San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment (DORA).” Accessed October 31, 2013. http://am.ascb.org/dora.

Editorial Board. 2006. “The Impact Factor Game.” PLoS Medicine 3(6): e291. Accessed October 31, 2013. http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.0030291.

Editorial Board. 2005. “Not-So-Deep Impact.” Nature 435 (7045): 1003–1004.

Rossner, Mike, Heather Van Epps, and Emma Hill. 2007. “Show me the Data.” The Journal of Cell Biology 179 (6): 1091–1092.

Rossner Mike, Heather Van Epps, and Emma Hill. 2008. “Irreproducible Results: A Response to Thomson Scientific.” The Journal of Cell Biology 180 (2): 254–255.

Seglen, Per O. 1997. “Why the Impact Factor of Journals Should Not Be Used for Evaluating Research.” BMJ 314:498–502.

Vanclay, Jerome K. 2012. “Impact Factor: Outdated Artefact or Stepping-Stone to Journal Certification?” Scientometrics 92 (2): 211–238.

The h-Index

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Bornmann, Lutz, Rüdiger Mutz, Sven E. Hug, and Hans-Dieter Daniel. 2011. “A Multilevel Meta-Analysis of Studies Reporting Correlations between the h-index and 37 Different h-index Variants.” Journal of Informetrics 5 (3): 346–359.

Hirsch, J. E. 2005. “An Index to Quantify an Individual’s Scientific Research Output.” PNAS 102 (46): 16569–16572.

Universal Laws

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Garfield, Eugene. 1980. “Bradford’s Law and Related Statistical Patterns.” In Essays of an Information Scientist, Vol. 4, 476–483. Philadelphia, PA: ISI Press.

Helbing, Dirk, and Stefano Balietti. 2011. “From Social Data Mining to Forecasting Socio-Economic Crises.” European Physics Journal Special Topics 195 (1): 3–68.

Redner, Sidney. 1998. “How Popular Is Your Paper? An Empirical Study of the Citation Distribution.’’ European Physics Journal B 4 (2): 131–134.

van Raan. Anthony F. J. 2013. “Universities Scale Like Cities.” PLoS One 8 (3): e59384. Accessed November 2, 2013. http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0059384.

Transportation and Communication

Air and Sea Traffic Flows

References

Ducruet, César, Daniele Ietri, and Céline Rozenblat. 2011. “Cities in Worldwide Air and Sea Flows: A Multiple Networks Analysis.” Cybergeo: European Journal of Geography, document 528. Accessed November 2, 2013. http://cybergeo.revues.org/23603.

Image Credits

© Ducruet, Rozenblat, and Ietri 2010.

Internet Traffic

References

PriMetrica, Inc. 2013. “Global Internet Map.” TeleGeography. Accessed November 2, 2013. http://www.telegeography.com/telecom-maps/global-internet-map/index.html.

Image Credits

Global Internet Map courtesy of TeleGeography. http://www.telegeography.com. Accessed September 18, 2014.

14

S&T Dynamics: Trendsand Bursts of Activity

References

Roco, Mihail C. 2010. “The Long View of Nanotechnology Development: The National Nanotechnology Initiative at 10 Years.” Journal of Nanoparticle Research 13: 427–445.

Seib, Gerald F. 2008. “In Crisis, Opportunity for Obama.” The Wall Street Journal, November 21. Accessed September 14, 2014. http://online.wsj.com/articles/SB122721278056345271.

Trends

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Quealy, Kevin, Gregory Roth, and R. M. Schneiderman. 2009. “How the Government Dealt with Past Recessions.” The New York Times, January 26. Accessed November 2, 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2009/01/26/business/economy/20090126-recessions-graphic.html?ref=business&_r=1&.

Image Credits

From The New York Times, Jan. 26, 2009 © 2009 The New York Times. All rights reserved. Used by permission and protected by the Copyright Laws of the United States. The printing, copying, redistribution, or retransmission of this Content without express written permission is prohibited.

Revenue Performance Growth

References

Austin, Scott. 2009. “How Long Does it Take to Build a Technology Empire?” The Wall Street Journal, August 25. Accessed November 2, 2013. http://blogs.wsj.com/venturecapital/2009/08/25/how-long-does-it-take-to-build-a-technology-empire.

Image Credits

Tale of 100 Entrepreneurs courtesy of Tableau Software, Inc.

Acceleration of Technology Developments

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

OECD. 2013. OECD Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2013: Innovation for Growth. Paris, France: OECD Publishing.

Rogers, Everett M. 1962. Diffusion of Innovations. New York: Free Press.

Image Credits

Acceleration in the Co-development of Patented Technologies, 1996-2001 and 2006-2011 from OECD. 2013. OECD Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2013: Innovation for Growth, p. 171, OECD Publishing. OECD © 2013. http://www.oecd.org/sti/scoreboard-2013.pdf. Accessed September 18, 2014.

Return on Investment Delays

References

Alston, Julian M., Matthew A. Andersen, Jennifer S. James, Philip G. Pardey. 2010. Persistence Pays: U.S. Agricultural Productivity Growth and the Benefits from Public R&D Spending. New York: Springer.

Illinois Institute of Technology Research Institute under Contract NSF-C535. 1968. Technology in Retrospect and Critical Events in Science (TRACES). Washington, DC: NSF.

Narin, Francis. 2013. “Tracing the Paths from Basic Research to Economic Impact.” F&M Scientist, Winter.

National Science Foundation. 1993–present. Science and Engineering Indicators. Arlington, VA: NSF.

Bursts of Activity

References

Mazloumian, Amin, Young-Ho Eom, Dirk Helbing, Sergi Lozano, Santo Fortunato. “How Citation Boosts Promote Scientific Paradigm Shifts and Nobel Prizes.” PLoS One 6 (5): e18975. Accessed November 2, 2013. http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0018975.

Tipping Points

References

Gladwell, Malcolm. 2000. The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference. New York: Little, Brown, and Company.

Schelling, Thomas C. 1978. Micromotives and Macrobehavior. New York: W. W. Norton and Co. 147–155.

Exogenous Shocks and Discontinuities

Fiscal Discontinuities

References

Berg, Jeremy. 2012. “The Best-Laid Plans: It’s Time to Move Forward.” ASBMB Today, September. Accessed November 2, 2013. http://www.asbmb.org/asbmbtoday/asbmbtoday_article.aspx?id=17831.

Biomedical Research Workforce Working Group. 2012. Biomedical Research Workforce Working Group Report. Accessed November 2, 2013. http://acd.od.nih.gov/Biomedical_research_wgreport.pdf.

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Korn, David, Robert R. Rich, Howard H. Garrison, Sidney H Golub, Mary J. C. Hendrix, Stephen J. Heinig, Bettie Sue Masters, and Richard J. Turman. 2002. “The NIH Budget in the ‘Postdoubling’ Era.” Science 296 (5572): 1401–1402.

Image Credits

Trends in Basic Research by Agency, FY 1976-2015 from 2014. AAAS Report XXXIX: Research and Development FY 2015. © 2014 AAAS. Accessed September 18, 2014. http://www.aaas.org/sites/default/files/BasicRes_0.jpg.

Legal Discontinuities

References

Dhar, Deepali, and John His-en Ho. 2009. “Stem Cell Research Policies around the World.” Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine 82 (3): 113–115.

16

S&T Dynamics:Structural Changes

References

Diamond, Jared. 2005. Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed. New York: Viking.

Institut des Systemes Complexes. 2011. Programme for Mining the Digital Traces of Science. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://www.iscpif.fr/tiki-index.php?page=MDTS11programme.

United States Department of Health and Human Services. 2007. Investing in Discovery: National Institute of General Medical Sciences—Strategic Plan 2008–2012. Accessed November 2, 2013. http://publications.nigms.nih.gov/strategicplan/strategicplan.pdf.

Evolving Geography

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

European Union. 2013. “European Union: Countries.” Accessed November 2, 2013. http://europa.eu/about-eu/countries.

Fuller, R. Buckminster, and John McHale. 1965. Shrinking of Our Planet. Carbondale, IL. Courtesy of the Estate of R. Buckminster Fuller. In “4th Iteration (2008): Science Maps for Economic Decision Makers,” Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

Gilgtc. 2007. “Political Borders of Europe from 1519 to 2006.” YouTube, November 6. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nq0KNfS_M44.

Minard, Charles Joseph. 1866. Europe Raw Cotton Imports in 1858, 1864 and 1865. Paris, France. Courtesy of the Library of Congress, Geography and Maps Division. In “4th Iteration (2008): Science Maps for Economic Decision Makers,” Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

Image Credits

Maps of Europe (1519, 1941, 1805, 2006) courtesy of Gerard von Hebel.

Evolving S&T Landscape

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Klavans, Richard, and Kevin W. Boyack. 2007. Maps of Science: Forecasting Large Trends in Science. Berwyn, PA and Albuquerque, NM. Courtesy of Richard Klavans, SciTech Strategies, Inc. In “3rd Iteration (2007): The Power of Forecasts,” Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Julie M. Davis. http://scimaps.org.

Menard, Henry W. 1971. Science: Growth and Change. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Sun, Xiaoling, Jasleen Kaur, Staša Milojević, Alessandro Flammini, and Filippo Menczer. 2013. “Social Dynamics of Science.” Scientific Reports 3 (1069). Accessed September 10, 2014. http://www.nature.com/srep/2013/130115/srep01069/full/srep01069.html.

Genealogy of Science

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Börner, Katy, Richard Klavans, Michael Patek, Angela Zoss, Joseph R. Biberstine, Robert Light, Vincent Lariviére, and Kevin W. Boyack. 2012. “Design and Update of a Classification System: The UCSD Map of Science.” PLoS One 7 (7): e39464. Accessed October 31, 2013. http://sci.cns.iu.edu/ucsdmap.

Klavans, Richard, and Kevin W. Boyack. 2007. Maps of Science: Forecasting Large Trends in Science. Berwyn, PA and Albuquerque, NM. Courtesy of Richard Klavans, SciTech Strategies, Inc. In “3rd Iteration (2007): The Power of Forecasts,” Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Julie M. Davis. http://scimaps.org.

Zeller, Daniel. 2007. Hypothetical Model of the Evolution and Structure of Science. New York, NY. Courtesy of Daniel Zeller. In “3rd Iteration (2007): The Power of Forecasts,” Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Julie M. Davis. http://scimaps.org.

Alluvial Maps of Science

References

Map Equation. 2013. “The Alluvial Generator.” Accessed November 15. http://mapequation.org/apps/AlluvialGenerator.html.

Rosvall, Martin, and Carl T. Bergstrom. 2010. “Mapping Change in Large Networks.” PLoS One 5 (1): e8694. Accessed November 4, 2013. http://mapequation.org/assets/publications/PLoSONE2010Rosvall.pdf.

Image Credits

Mapping Change in Science courtesy of Martin Rosvall and http://www.mapequation.org/apps/AlluvialGenerator.html. Accessed September 18, 2014.

Software Credits

MapEquation. http://mapequation.org/apps/AlluvialGenerator.html. Accessed September 18, 2014.

The Phylomemy of Science

References

Börner, Katy. 2017. Atlas of Forecasts: Predicting and Broadcasting Science. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Chavalarias, David, and Jean-Philippe Cointet. 2013. “Phylometric Patterns in Science Evolution—The Rise and Fall of Scientific Fields.” PLoS ONE 8 (2): e54847. Accessed November 4, 2013. http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0054847&representation=PDF.

Hyper-Streams

Image Credits

Thematic Domination of Media Framing by David Chavalarias (1,2), Jean-Phillipe Cointet (2,3), Lise Cornilleau (2,7), Tam Kien Duong (2,3,4), Andreï Mogoutov (3), Camille Roth (2,5), Thierry Savy (2), Lionel Villard (3,6). 1 - Centre d’Analyse et de Mathématique Sociales, CNRS; 2 - Institut des Systèmes Complexes de Paris Île-de-France; 3 - Inra-SenS - CorText - IFRIS; 4 - Formism; 5 - Centre March Bloch Berlin, CNRS-MAE; 6 Université Paris-Est, ESIEE - LATTS; 7 - Sciences-Po, Centre de Sociologie des Organisations. This work has been supported by The Complex Systems Institute of Paris Île-de-France (ISC-PIF, http://www.iscpif.fr) and The Institute for Research, Innovation and Society (IFRIS, http://www.ifris.org). Both sites accessed September 18, 2014.

Scientific Revolutions

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Chen, Chaomei. 2003. Mapping Science Frontiers: The Quest for Knowledge Visualization. London: Springer-Verlag.

Chen, Chaomei, and Jasna Kuljis. 2003. “The Rising Landscape: A Visual Exploration of Superstring Revolutions in Physics.” JASIST 54(5): 435–446.

Kuhn, Thomas S. 1962. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago, IL: The University ofChicago Press.

Wegener, Alfred. (1929) 1966. The Origin of Continents and Oceans. Translated from the 4th Revised German Edition by John Biram. Reprint, New York: Dover Publications, Inc.

Zeller, Daniel. 2007. Hypothetical Model of the Evolution and Structure of Science. New York, NY. Courtesy of Daniel Zeller. In “3rd Iteration (2007): The Power of Forecasts,” Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Julie M. Davis. http://scimaps.org.

Evolving Collaboration Patterns

References

Tuckman, Bruce. 1965. “Developmental Sequence in Small Groups.” Psychological Bulletin 63 (6): 384–99.

Zanetti, Marcelo Serrano, Emre Sarigöl, Ingo Scholtes, Claudio Juan Tessone, and Frank Schweitzer. 2012. “A Quantitative Study of Social Organisation in Open Source Software Communities.” In Proceedings of ICCSW. Accessed November 5, 2013. http://www.sg.ethz.ch/research/topics/social-se/oss-communities.

Image Credits

Image redesigned by Tracey Theriault from Zanetti et al. 2012.

18

S&T Dynamics: Diffusionand Feedback Patterns

References

Madison, James. 1825. “James Madison to George Thompson, June 30.” Sea of Liberty. Accessed September 14, 2014. https://seaofliberty.org/explore/james-madison-george-thompson-quote/171.

Human Migration

Migration Trajectories

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Hausmann, Ricardo, César A. Hidalgo, Sebastián Bustos, Michele Coscia, Sarah Chung, Juan Jimenez, Alexander Simoes, Muhammed A. Yildirim. 2011. The Atlas of Economic Complexity. Boston, MA: Harvard Kennedy School and MIT Media Lab. Accessed August 28, 2013. http://www.cid.harvard.edu/documents/complexityatlas.pdf.

Hidalgo, César A., Bailey Klinger, Albert-László Barabási, and Ricardo Hausmann. 2007. “The Product Space Conditions the Development of Nations.” Science 317 (5837): 482–487.

Mager, Christoph. 2012. Heidelberg Nobel Prize Winners.” In Wissenschaftsatlas of Heidelberg University: Spatio-Temporal Relations of Academic Knowledge Production, edited by Peter Meusburger and Thomas Schuch, 250–253. Knittlingen, Germany: Bibliotheca Palatina.

Skupin, André, and Ron Hagelman. 2005. “Visualizing Demographic Trajectories with Self-Organizing Maps.” GeoInformatica 9 (2): 159–179.

Image Credits

The Atlantic Slave Trade by Philip D. Curtin © 1969 by the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System. Reprinted by permission of the University of Wisconsin Press.

Nobelpreisträger, für Physik, Chemie, und Medizin from Mager 2012.

Brain Circulation

References

Johnson, Jean M., and Mark C. Regets. 1998. International Mobility of Scientists and Engineers to the United States: Brain Drain or Brain Circulation, National Science Foundation (NSF 98–316).

Salmi, Jamil. 2012. “Attracting Talent in a Global Academic World: How Emerging Research Universities Can Benefit from Brain Circulation.” Brain Circulation 2 (1). Accessed September 5, 2014. http://academicexecutives.elsevier.com/articles/attracting-talent-global-academic-world-how-emerging-research-universities-can-benefit.

Saxenian, Anna Lee. 2002. “Brain Circulation: How High Skilled Immigration Makes Everyone Better Off.” The Brookings Review 20 (1): 28–31.

Productivity

References

Department of Business, Innovation and Skills. International Comparative Performance of the UK Research Base – 2011. Accessed November 5, 2013. http://www.bis.gov.uk/assets/biscore/science/docs/i/11-p123-international-comparative-performance-uk-research-base-2011.

Image Credits

Image © Crown 2011, licensed under the Open Government Licence v2.0.

Trade Networks

Global Trade Ecology

References

Minard, Charles Joseph. 1866. Europe Raw Cotton Imports in 1858, 1864 and 1865. Paris, France. Courtesy of the Library of Congress, Geography and Maps Division. In “4th Iteration (2008): Science Maps for Economic Decision Makers,” Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

R&D Investment Dependencies

References

Chartered Institute of Management Accountants. 2012. Managing Inter-Firm Interdependencies in R&D Investment: Insights from the Semiconductor Industry 8 (3). Accessed November 5, 2013. http://www.cimaglobal.com/Documents/Thought_leadership_docs/Organisational%20management/RD-invest-report.pdf.

Shifts in Technology’s Center of Gravity

References

Quah, Danny. 2011. “World’s Center of Economic Gravity Shifts East.” CNN Online. Accessed November 5, 2013. http://globalpublicsquare.blogs.cnn.com/2011/04/07/worlds-center-of-economic-gravity-shifts-east.

Thibodeau, Patrick. 2012. “U.S. Sees Tech’s ‘Center of Gravity’ Shifting to Asia.” Computerworld. Accessed November 5, 2013. http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/9234640/U.S._sees_tech_s_center_of_gravity_shifting_to_Asia?pageNumber=1.

Diffusion of Knowledge

Geospatial and Topical Diffusion

References

Chen, Chaomei, Weizhong Zhu, Brian Tomaszewski, and Alan MacEachren. 2007. “Tracing Conceptual and Geospatial Diffusion of Knowledge.” In Proceedings of HCI International 2007, Beijing, China, July 22–27. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 4564: 265–274. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Viral Marketing

References

Hinz, Oliver, Bernd Skiera, Christian Barrot, and Jan U. Becker. 2011. “Seeding Strategies for Viral Marketing: An Empirical Comparison.” Journal of Marketing 75 (6).

Diffusion of Reputation

References

Hauke, Sascha, Martin Pyka, Markus Borschbach, Dominik Heider. 2010. “Reputation-Based Trust Diffusion in Complex Socio-Economic Networks.” In Information Retrieval and Mining in Distributed Environments, edited by Alessandro Soro, Eloisa Vargiu, Giuliano Armano, Gavino Paddeu, 21–40. Berlin: Springer Verlag.

Radicchi, Fillipo, Santo Fortunato, Benjamin Markines, and Alessandro Vespignani. 2009. “Diffusion of Scientific Credits and the Ranking of Scientists.” Physical Review 80 (5).

Feedback Cycles and Science Models

References

Barabási, Albert-László, and Réka Albert. 1999. “Emergence of Scaling in Random Networks.” Science 286 (5349): 509–512.

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Börner, Katy. 2017. Atlas of Forecasts: Predicting and Broadcasting Science. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Council for Chemical Research. 2009. Chemical R&D Powers the U.S. Innovation Engine. Washington, DC. Courtesy of the Council for Chemical Research. In “5th Iteration (2009): Science Maps for Science Policy Makers,” Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

Latour, Bruno, and Steve Woolgar. 1982. “The Cycle of Credibility.” In Science in Context: Readings in the Sociology of Science, edited by Barry Barnes and David Edge, 35–43. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Martino, Joseph P. 1969. Science and Society in Equilibrium. Holloman Air Force Base, NM. Courtesy of AAAS. In “5th Iteration (2009): Science Maps for Science Policy Makers,” Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

Martino, Joseph P. 1969. “Science and Society in Equilibrium.” Science 165 (3895): 769–772.

Whitley, Richard. 1984. The Intellectual and Social Organization of the Sciences. New York: Oxford University Press.

Acknowledgements: This exhibit is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. IIS-0238261, CHE-0524661, IIS-0534909 and IIS-0715303, the James S. McDonnell Foundation; Thomson Reuters; the Cyberinfrastructure for Network Science Center, University Information Technology Services, and the School of Library and Information Science, all three at Indiana University. Some of the data used to generate the science maps is from the Web of Science by Thomson Reuters and Scopus by Elsevier. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.