Atlas of Knowledge: References

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22

Foundations and Aspirations

References

Monmonier, Mark. 1996. How to Lie with Maps. 2nd ed. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. 2.

Foundations

References

Bertin, Jacques. 1983. Semiology of Graphics. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.

Cleveland, William S. 1993. Visualizing Data. Summit, NJ: Hobart Press.

Cleveland, William S. 1994. The Elements of Graphing Data. Summit, NJ: Hobart Press.

Playfair, William. 2005 (1786). The Commercial and Political Atlas and Statistical Breviary. Edited by Howard Wainer and Ian Spence. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Tufte, Edward R. 1990. Envisioning Information. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.

Tufte, Edward R. 1997. Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.

Tufte, Edward R. 2001. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. 2nd ed. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.

Tukey, John W. 1977. Exploratory Data Analysis. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Wainer, Howard. 1997. Visual Revelations: Graphical Tales of Fate and Deception from Napoleon Bonaparte to Ross Perot. New York: Copernicus.

Wainer, Howard. 2005. Graphic Discovery: A Trout in the Milk and Other Visual Adventures. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Wainer, Howard. 2009. Picturing the Uncertain World: How to Understand, Communicate, and Control Uncertainty through Graphical Display. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Wilkinson, Leland. 2005. The Grammar of Graphics. New York: Springer.

Embracing the Power

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Darwin, Charles. 1837. "Evolutionary Tree Sketch from First Notebook on Transmutation of Species." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 17, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Darwin_tree.png.

Darwin, Charles. 1859. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. London: John Murray.

Friendly, Michael. 2008. "The Golden Age of Statistical Graphics." DataVis.ca. Accessed February 8, 2014. http://www.datavis.ca/papers/ssc/GoldenAge-SSC-2x2.pdf.

Koch, Tom. 2005. Cartographies of Disease: Maps, Mapping, and Medicine. Redlands, CA: ESRI Press.

ims25. 2008. "Nightingale’s ‘Coxcombs.’" Understanding Uncertainty, May 11. Accessed February 8, 2014. http://understandinguncertainty.org/coxcombs.

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. 2013. "GBD Compare." Accessed December 17, 2013. http://viz.healthmetricsandevaluation.org/gbd-compare.

NASA. 2008. "Earthrise at Christmas" (Taken in 1968). Last modified March 23. http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/imagegallery/image_feature_102.html.

Nightingale, Florence. 1858. "Diagram of the Causes of Mortality in the Army in the East" from Notes on Matters Affecting the Health, Efficiency, and Hospital Administration of the British Army. Wikimedia Commons. Accessed December 17, 2013. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nightingale-mortality.jpg.

Nightingale, Florence. 1858. Mortality of the British Army. London: Harrison and Sons.

Porostocky, Thomas. 2013. "Causes of Untimely Death" (Infographic). In "Want to Save Lives? You Need a Map of What’s Doing Us In" by Lee Simmons. Wired. Accessed December 17, 2013. http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2013/11/infoporn-causes-of-death.

Rehmeyer, Julie. 2008. "Florence Nightingale: The Passionate Statistician." Science News, November 26. Accessed February 7, 2014. https://www.sciencenews.org/article/florence-nightingale-passionate-statistician.

Robertson, Murray, and John Emsley. 2005. Visual Elements Periodic Table. London, UnitedKingdom. Courtesy of the Royal Society of Chemistry Images, © 1999-2006 by Murray Robertson. In "2nd Iteration (2006): The Power of Reference Systems," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Deborah MacPherson. http://scimaps.org.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2014. "Earthrise." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed February 8, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earthrise.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2014. "Florence Nightingale." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed February 8, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Florence_Nightingale.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2014. "John Snow." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed February 8, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Snow_%28physician%29.

Disclaimer

References

Börner, Katy, and David E. Polley. 2014. Visual Insights: A Practical Guide to Making Sense of Data. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Frankel, Felice C., and Angela H. DePace. 2012. Visual Strategies: A Practical Guide to Graphics for Scientists and Engineers. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Hansen, Derek, Ben Shneiderman, and Marc A. Smith. 2010. Analyzing Social Media Networks with NodeXL: Insights from a Connected World. Burlington, MA: Morgan Kaufmann.

Lima, Manuel. 2011. Visual Complexity: Mapping Patterns of Information. New York: Princeton Architectural Press.

McCandless, David. 2009. The Visual Miscellaneum: A Colorful Guide to the World’s Most Consequential Trivia. New York: Harper Design.

Rendgen, Sandra. 2012. Information Graphics. Edited by Julius Wiedemann. Cologne, Germany: Taschen.

Tufte, Edward R. 1990. Envisioning Information. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.

Tufte, Edward R. 1997. Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.

Tufte, Edward R. 2001. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. 2nd ed. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.

Weissman, Jerry. 2009. Presenting to Win: The Art of Telling Your Story. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

Yau, Nathan. 2011. Visualize This: The FlowingData Guide to Design, Visualization, and Statistics. Indianapolis, IN: Wiley.

Tree of Life

Image Credits

Tree of Life reproduced and altered with the kind permission of the Syndics of Cambridge University Library.

Causes of Mortality in the British Military during the Crimean War

References

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010. "Diagram of the Causes of Mortality in the Army in the East." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed September 18, 2010. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nightingale-mortality.jpg.

Image Credits

See Wikimedia 2010.

Spot Map of the Golden Square Cholera Outbreak

References

Wikimedia Foundation. 2005. "Spot Map of the Golden Square Cholera Outbreak." Wikibooks. Accessed September 18, 2014. http://nl.wikibooks.org/wiki/Bestand:Snow-cholera-map.jpg

Image Credits

See Wikimedia Foundation 2005.

The Antibiotic Abacus: Adding Up Drug Resistance

References

McCandless, David. 2014. Knowledge is Beautiful. London: HarperCollins.

Image Credits

The Antibiotic Abacus from http://www.informationisbeautiful.net/visualizations/antibiotic-resistance. Accessed September 18, 2014.

Data Credits

Foundational data for The Antibiotic Abacus is available at http://bit.ly/KIB_Antibiotics. Accessed September 14, 2014.

24

Needs-DrivenWorkflow Design

Visualization Taxonomies and Frameworks

References

Card, Stuart K., and Jock D. Mackinlay. 1997. "The Structure of the Information Visualization Design Space." In Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization, 92–99. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society.

Chi, Ed H. 2000. "A Taxonomy of Visualization Techniques Using the Data State Reference Model." In Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization, 69–75. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society.

Keim, Daniel A. 2001. "Visual Exploration of Large Data Sets." Communications of the ACM 44 (8): 38–44.

Mackinlay, Jock D. 1986. "Automating the Design of Graphical Presentations of Relational Information." ACM Transactions on Graphics 5 (2): 110–141.

Pfitzner, Darius, Vaughan Hobbs, and David Powers. 2003. "A Unified Taxonomic Framework for Information Visualization." In Proceedings of the Asia-Pacific Symposium on Information Visualisation, 24: 57–66. Darlinghurst, Australia: Australian Computer Society, Inc.

Shneiderman, Ben. 1996. "The Eyes Have It: A Task by Data Type Taxonomy for Information Visualizations." In Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages, 336–343. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society.

Image Credits

Redesigned by Perla Mateo-Lujan based on an image from Chi 2000.

Workflow Design

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Reference System Versus Data Overlay

References

Bostock, Michael. 2012. "Non-Contiguous Cartogram." Mbostock’s Blocks (blog), November 11. Accessed March 1, 2014. http://bl.ocks.org/mbostock/4055908. © Copyright 2013 Mike Bostock.

Bostock, Michael. 2013. "Voroni Arc Map." Mbostock’s Blocks (blog), November 22. Accessed March 1, 2014. http://bl.ocks.org/mbostock/7608400.

Ittelson, William H. 1996. "Visual Perception of Markings." Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 3 (2): 171–187.

Image Credits

2012 Political Election Choropleth Map © 2012 M. E. J. Newman.

2012 Political Election Contiguous Cartogram © 2012 M. E. J. Newman.

See Bostock 2012.

See Bostock 2013.

U.S. Map of Contiguous States created by Samuel T. Mills.

Visualization Framework image created by Perla Mateo-Lujan and Tracey Theriault based on a concept by Katy Börner.

Software Credits

U.S. Map of Contiguous States rendered using the Sci2 Tool. http://sci2.cns.iu.edu. Accessed September 18, 2014.

26

Insight Need Types

References

Bertin, Jacques. 1983. Semiology of Graphics. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press. 12.

Burkhard, Remo A. 2004. "Learning from Architects: The Difference between Knowledge Visualization and Information Visualization." In Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Information Visualization (IV‘04), 519–524.

Burkhard, Remo A. 2006. "Learning from Architects: Complementary Concept Mapping Approaches." Information Visualization 5: 225–234.

Card, Stuart K., and Jock D. Mackinlay. 1997. "The Structure of the Information Visualization Design Space." In Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization, 92-99. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society.

Harris, Robert L. 1999. Information Graphics: A Comprehensive Illustrated Reference. New York: Oxford University Press.

Pirolli, Peter, and Stuart Card. 2005. "The Sensemaking Process and Leverage Points for Analyst Technology as Identified through Cognitive Task Analysis." In Proceedings of the International Conference on Intelligence Analysis, 2–4. McLean, VA: MITRE.

Framework

Basic Task Types

References

Bertin, Jacques. 1983. Semiology of Graphics. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.

Few, Stephen C. 2012. Show Me The Numbers: Designing Tables and Graphs to Enlighten. Burlingame, CA: Analytics Press.

Frankel, Felice C., and Angela H. DePace. 2012. Visual Strategies: A Practical Guide to Graphics for Scientists and Engineers. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

IBM. 2013. Many Eyes. Accessed December 18, 2013. http://www-958.ibm.com/software/analytics/manyeyes.

Juice Labs. 2013. Chart Chooser. Accessed December 18, 2013. http://labs.juiceanalytics.com/chartchooser.

Rendgen, Sandra. 2012. Information Graphics. Edited by Julius Wiedemann. Cologne, Germany: Taschen.

Wehrend, Stephen C., and Clayton Lewis. 1990. "A Problem-Oriented Classification of Visualization Techniques. In Proceedings of the 1st Conference on Visualization ‘90, 139–143. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society.

Yau, Nathan. 2011. Visualize This: The FlowingData Guide to Design, Visualization, and Statistics. Indianapolis, IN: Wiley.

Image Credits

Created by Perla Mateo-Lujan, with data provided by Katy Börner.

Interaction Types

References

Keim, Daniel A. 2001. "Visual Exploration of Large Data Sets." Communications of the ACM 44 (8): 38–44.

Shneiderman, Ben. 1996. "The Eyes Have It: A Task by Data Type Taxonomy for Information Visualizations." In Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages, 336–343. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society.

Descriptions and Examples

Categorizing and Clustering

Image Credits

Image created by Perla Mateo-Lujan.

Distribution (also Outliers and Gaps)

Image Credits

Image created by Perla Mateo-Lujan.

Trends

References

Harris, Robert L. 1999. Information Graphics: A Comprehensive Illustrated Reference. New York: Oxford University Press.

Peltier, Jon. 2011. "Chart Busters: Pie Charts Can’t Show Trendlines." Peltier Tech Blog, May 5. Accessed March 1, 2014. http://peltiertech.com/WordPress/chart-busters-pie-charts-cant-show-trendlines.

Image Credits

Time Spent on Weekends adapted by Perla Mateo-Lujan from Harris 1999 © Oxford University Press, 2000; see also Peltier 2011.

Composition (of Objects and of Text)

Image Credits

Image created by Perla Mateo-Lujan.

Software Credits

Network layout rendered using the Sci2 Tool. http://sci2.cns.iu.edu. Accessed September 14, 2014.

Comparison

References

Harris, Robert L. 1999. Information Graphics: A Comprehensive Illustrated Reference. New York: Oxford University Press.

Image Credits

Demographic Pyramid adapted by Perla Mateo-Lujan from Harris 1999 © Oxford University Press, 2000.

Geospatial Location

References

ESRI. 2013. "Within." Accessed December 18, 2013. http://edndoc.esri.com/arcsde/9.1/general_topics/understand_spatial_relations.htm#Within.

Data Credits

IVMOOC 2014 data as of May 29, 2014. http://ivmooc.cns.iu.edu. Accessed September 18, 2014.

Software Credits

Network layout rendered using the Sci2 Tool. http://sci2.cns.iu.edu. Accessed September 18, 2014.

Contributors

Data compiled by Robert P. Light; map rendered by Scott Emmons and redesigned by Perla Mateo-Lujan.

Correlations and Relationships

References

Padgett, John F. 1986. "Florentine Families Dataset." Accessed March 1, 2014. http://www.casos.cs.cmu.edu/computational_tools/datasets/sets/padgett.

Image Credits

Image created by Katy Börner and Perla Mateo-Lujan, using data from Padgett 1986.

Data Credits

See Padgett 1986.

Software Credits

Network layout rendered using the Sci2 Tool. http://sci2.cns.iu.edu. Accessed September 14, 2014.

28

Data Scale Types

References

Cameron, William Bruce. 1963. Informal Sociology: A Casual Introduction to Sociological Thinking. New York: Random House.

Stevens, Stanley S. 1946. "On the Theory of Scales of Measurement." Science 103 (2684): 677–680.

Velleman, Paul F., and Leland Wilkinson. 1993. "Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, and Ratio Typologies Are Misleading." The American Statistician 47 (1): 65–72.

Framework

References

Bertin, Jacques. 1983. Semiology of Graphics. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press. 34.

Dunn, Dana S. 2000. Statistics and Data Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. New York: McGraw-Hill

Harris, Robert L. 1999. Information Graphics: A Comprehensive Illustrated Reference. New York: Oxford University Press.

MacEachren, Alan M. 2004. How Maps Work: Representation, Visualization, and Design. New York: Guilford.

Munzner, Tamara. 2014. Information Visualization: Principles, Techniques, and Practice. Natick, MA: AK Peters.

Stevens, Stanley S. 1946. "On the Theory of Scales of Measurement." Science 103 (2684): 677–680.

Image Credits

© Tamara Munzner, "Visualization Principles," 2011.

Conversions

References

Abelson, Robert P., and John W. Tukey. 1963. "Efficient Utilization of Non-Numerical Information in Quantitative Analysis: General Theory and the Case of Simple Order." The Annals of Mathematical Statistics 34 (4): 1347–1369.

Kruskal, Joseph B. 1964. "Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling: A Numerical Method." Psychometrika 29 (2): 115–129.

Tukey, John W. (1961) 1986. "Data Analysis and Behavioral Science, or Learning to Bear the Quantitative Man’s Burden by Shunning Badmandments." In The Collected Works of John W. Tukey, vol. III, edited by Lyle V. Jones, 391–484. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Inc.

Velleman, Paul F., and Leland Wilkinson. 1993. "Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, and Ratio Typologies Are Misleading." The American Statistician 47 (1): 65–72.

Mathematical Operations

References

Stevens, Stanley S. 1946. "On the Theory of Scales of Measurement." Science 103 (2684): 677–680.

Image Credits

Image adapted from Stevens 1946.

Descriptions and Examples

References

Chrisman, Nicholas R. 1998. "Rethinking Levels of Measurement for Cartography." Cartography and Geographic Information Science 25 (4): 231–242.

Nominal Scale

References

VIVO Project. 2014. "NetSci: Index of Contents." Accessed March 1, 2014. http://vivo-netsci.cns.iu.edu/vivo12/browse.

Data Credits

See VIVO Project 2014.

Ordinal Scale

References

Wikimedia Foundation. 2014. "Example Likert Scale." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 1, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Example_Likert_Scale.svg.

Image Credits

Redesigned with permission under a Creative Commons license from Nicholas Smith, © 2012.

Interval Scale

Image Credits

Image rendered by Perla Mateo-Lujan based on a concept by Katy Börner.

Ratio Scale

References

Stevens, Stanley S. 1946. "On the Theory of Scales of Measurement." Science 103 (2684): 677–680.

30

Visualization Types

References

Bertin, Jacques. 1983. Semiology of Graphics. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.

Harris, Robert L. 1999. Information Graphics: A Comprehensive Illustrated Reference. New York: Oxford University Press.

Heer, Jeffrey, Michael Bostock, and Vadim Ogievetsky. 2010. "A Tour Through the Visualization Zoo." Communications of the ACM 53 (6): 59–67.

Wattenberg, Martin. 2010. Interview. In Journalism in the Age of Data (Video). Accessed January 31, 2014. http://datajournalism.stanford.edu.

Framework

References

Bertin, Jacques. 1983. Semiology of Graphics. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.

Engelhardt, Yuri. 2002. "The Language of Graphics: A Framework for the Analysis of Syntax and Meaning in Maps, Charts, and Diagrams." PhD diss., University of Amsterdam.

Harris, Robert L. 1999. Information Graphics: A Comprehensive Illustrated Reference. New York: Oxford University Press.

Microsoft. 2013. Excel. Accessed December 20, 2013. http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/excel.

Shneiderman, Ben. 1996. "The Eyes Have It: A Task by Data Type Taxonomy for Information Visualizations." In Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages, 336–343. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society.

Image Credits

Visualization Types table designed by Perla Mateo-Lujan.

Descriptions and Examples

References

Harris, Robert L. 1999. Information Graphics: A Comprehensive Illustrated Reference. New York: Oxford University Press.

Tables

Image Credits

Image created by Perla Mateo-Lujan.

Charts

Image Credits

Pie Chart, Doughnut Chart, and Bubble Chart examples by Samuel T. Mills.

Tag Cloud example by Samuel T. Mills and Perla Mateo-Lujan.

Graphs

References

Wikimedia Foundation. 2014. "U.S. First Class Postage Rate." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. September 21, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_United_States_postage_rates#mediaviewer/File:US_Postage_History.svg.

Image Credits

See Wikimedia Foundation 2014.

Parallel Coordinate Graph designed by Perla Mateo-Lujan.

Maps

References

Yunker, Jon. 2007. "Country Codes of the World." Accessed March 1, 2014. http://bytelevel.com/map/ccTLD.html.

Image Credits

Adapted from Yunker 2007.

Solar Light Map of Cambridge, MA © Mapdwell LLC. All rights reserved.

Network Layouts

Trees

Image Credits

Tree View and Force-Directed Layout images by Samuel T. Mills.

Treemap image by Perla Mateo-Lujan.

Networks

References

Krzywinski, Martin. 2011. Hive Plots. Accessed January 30, 2014. http://www.hiveplot.net.

Krzywinski, Martin, Inanc Birol, Steven J. M. Jones, and Marco A. Marra. 2011. "Hive Plots: Rational Approach to Visualizing Networks." Briefings in Bioinformatics 13 (5): 627–644.

Lima, Manuel. 2014. The Book of Trees: Visualizing Branches of Knowledge. New York: Princeton Architectural Press.

Wattenberg, Martin. 2014. The Shape of Song. Accessed January 30, 2014. http://www.turbulence.org/Works/song.

Image Credits

Arc Graph and Force-Directed Layout by Samuel T. Mills.

32

Graphic Symbol Types

References

Harris, Robert L. 1999. Information Graphics: A Comprehensive Illustrated Reference. New York: Oxford University Press. 379.

Klee, Paul. 1964. The Diaries of Paul Klee. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. [Quotation, p. 183].

Framework

References

Bertin, Jacques. 1983. Semiology of Graphics. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.

Börner, Katy. 2017. Atlas of Forecasts: Predicting and Broadcasting Science. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Engelhardt, Yuri. 2002. "The Language of Graphics: A Framework for the Analysis of Syntax and Meaning in Maps, Charts, and Diagrams." PhD diss., University of Amsterdam.

Harris, Robert L. 1999. Information Graphics: A Comprehensive Illustrated Reference. New York: Oxford University Press. 231.

Horn, Robert E. 1998. Visual Language: Global Communication for the 21st Century. Bainbridge Island, WA: MacroVU, Inc.

MacEachren, Alan M. 2004. How Maps Work: Representation, Visualization, and Design. New York: Guilford. 271.

Tufte, Edward R. 1990. Envisioning Information. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.

Tufte, Edward R. 1997. Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.

Tufte, Edward R. 2001. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. 2nd ed. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.

Tufte, Edward R. 2007. Beautiful Evidence. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.

Wilkinson, Leland. 2005. The Grammar of Graphics. New York: Springer.

Instantiation

References

Bertin, Jacques. 1981. Graphics and Graphics Information Processing. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

MacEachren, Alan M. 2004. How Maps Work: Representation, Visualization, and Design. New York: Guilford. 271.

Image Credits

Image from Bertin 1981, © De Gruyter 1981.

Combinations

References

Turner, Eugene. 1977. Life in Los Angeles. Accessed March 1, 2014. http://media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/originals/11/14/9b/11149b5830447ed2c51c68c61fce1285.jpg.

Wertheimer, Max. 1923. "Untersuchungen zur Lehre von der Gestalt. II." Psychologische Forschung 4 (1): 301–350.

Image Credits

Eugene Turner, 1977. "Life in Los Angeles" California State University Northridge.

Descriptions and Examples

References

Elmer, Martin. 2013. "The Trouble with Chernoff." Map Hugger (blog). Accessed December 20, 2013. http://maphugger.com/post/44499755749/the-trouble-with-chernoff.

Holten, Danny and Jarke J. van Wijk. "A User Study on Visualizing Directed Edges in Graphs." In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 2299-2308. New York: ACM.

Kimerling, A. Jon, Aileen R. Buckley, and Phillip C. Muehrcke. 2009. Map Use: Reading and Analysis. 6th ed. Redlands, CA: ESRI.

Geometric Symbols

Lines

Image Credits

Image created by Perla Mateo-Lujan.

Areas

Image Credits

Image created by Perla Mateo-Lujan.

Surfaces

References

Morris, Steven, Camille DeYong, Zheng Wu, Sinan Salman, Dagmawi Yemenu. 2002. "DIVA: A Visualization System for Exploring Document Databases for Technology Forecasting." Computers and Industrial Engineering 43 (4): 841–862.

Image Credits

Reprinted from Morris et al. 2002 © National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A.

Linguistic Symbols

Image Credits

Typeface examples: Microsoft (Cambria); Monotype (Arial); Adobe (Adobe Caslon).

Proportional and Monospace typeface examples: Adobe (Adobe Garamond); Courier (public domain).

Dingbat examples: Microsoft (Webdings); Adobe (Conventional Dingbats).

Pictorial Symbols

Statistical Glyphs

References

Harris, Robert L. 1999. Information Graphics: A Comprehensive Illustrated Reference. New York: Oxford University Press.

Vande Moere, Andrew. 2013. Information Aesthetics (blog). Accessed December 20, 2013. http://infosthetics.com.

Image Credits

Statistical Glyphs adapted by Perla Mateo-Lujan from Harris 1999 © Oxford University Press, 2000.

Word Count Sparklines courtesy of Andrew Vande Moere. http://infosthetics.com. Accessed September 18, 2014.

Contributors

André Skupin provided expert comments.

34

Graphic Variable Types

References

Bertin, Jacques. 1981. Graphics and Graphics Information Processing. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

Card, Stuart K., and Jock D. Mackinlay. 1997. "The Structure of the Information Visualization Design Space." In Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization, 92–99. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society.

DEVise Development Group. 2010. Home Page. Accessed December 20, 2013. http://pages.cs.wisc.edu/~devise.

Green, Marc. 1998. "Towards a Perceptual Science of Multidimensional Data Visualization: Bertin and Beyond." ERGO/GERO Human Factors Science. Accessed December 20, 2013. http://graphics.stanford.edu/courses/cs448b-06-winter/papers/Green_Towards.pdf.

Kimerling, A. Jon, Aileen R. Buckley, Phillip C. Muehrcke, Juliana O. Muehrcke. 2011. Map Use: Reading, Analysis, Interpretation. 7th ed. Redlands, CA: Esri Press Academic.

Livny, Miron, Raghu Ramakrishnan, Kevin S. Beyer, Guangshun Chen, Donko Donjerkovic, Shilpa Lawande, Jussi P. Myllymaki, and Kent Wenger. 1997. "DEVise: Integrated Querying and Visual Exploration of Large Datasets." In Proceedings of the 1997 ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data, 301–312. New York: ACM.

MacEachren, Alan M. 2004. How Maps Work: Representation, Visualization, and Design. New York: Guilford.

Mackinlay, Jock D. 1986. "Automating the Design of Graphical Presentations of Relational Information." ACM Transactions on Graphics 5 (2): 110–141.

Roth, Steven F., and Mattis, Joe. 1990. "Data Characterization for Intelligent Graphics Presentation." In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 193–200. New York: ACM.

SciencesPo. 2010. "La Graphique, Jacques Bertin 2000." Accessed December 20, 2013. http://cartographie.sciences-po.fr/fr/la_graphique_jacques_bertin2.

Shneiderman, Ben. 1996. "The Eyes Have It: A Task by Data Type Taxonomy for Information Visualizations." In Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages, 336–343. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society.

Stevens, Stanley S. 1946. "On the Theory of Scales of Measurement." Science 103 (2684): 677–680.

Stolte, Chris, and Pat Hanrahan. 2002. "Polaris: A System for Query, Analysis and Visualization of Multi-Dimensional Relational Databases." IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics 8 (1): 62–65.

Treinish, Lloyd A. 1999. "A Function-Based Data Model for Visualization." In Proceedings of IEEE Visualization ‘99: Late Breaking Hot Topics, 73–76. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society.

Wainer, Howard. 1983. Foreword to Semiology of Graphics by Jacques Bertin. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press. ix.

Wilkinson, Leland. 2005. The Grammar of Graphics. New York: Springer.

Framework

References

Bertin, Jacques. 1983. Semiology of Graphics. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.

Bertin, Jacques. 1981. Graphics and Graphics Information Processing. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

Healey, Christopher G., and James T. Enns. 2012. "Attention and Visual Memory in Visualization and Computer Graphics." IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics 18 (7): 1170–1188.

Horn, Robert E. 1998. Visual Language: Global Communication for the 21st Century. Bainbridge Island, WA: MacroVU, Inc.

Jacobson, Robert E., ed. 1999. Information Design. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Kosslyn, Stephen M. 1994. Elements of Graph Design. New York: W.H. Freeman and Co.

MacEachren, Alan M. 2004. How Maps Work: Representation, Visualization, and Design. New York: Guilford. 275–276.

Marriott, Kim, and Bernd Meyer, eds. 1998. Visual Language Theory. New York: Springer.

Mijksenaar, Paul. 1997. Visual Function: An Introduction to Information Design. New York: Princeton Architectural Press.

Mollerup, Per. 1997. Marks of Excellence. London: Phaidon Press.

Wainer, Howard. 1997. Visual Revelations: Graphical Tales of Fate and Deception from Napoleon Bonaparte to Ross Perot. New York: Copernicus.

Ware, Colin. 2000. Information Visualization: Perception for Design. Burlington, MA: Morgan-Kaufman.

Wertheimer, Max. 1923. "Untersuchungen zur Lehre von der Gestalt. II." Psychologische Forschung 4 (1): 301–350.

Wilkinson, Leland. 2005. The Grammar of Graphics. New York: Springer.

Wurman, Richard Saul. 1997. Information Architects. New York: Graphis Inc.

Combinations

References

Wilkinson, Leland. 2005. The Grammar of Graphics. New York: Springer.

Perception Accuracy

References

Cleveland, William S., and Robert McGill. 1984. "Graphical Perception: Theory, Experimentation, and Application to the Development of Graphical Methods." Journal of the American Statistical Association 79 (387): 531–554.

Mackinlay, Jock D. 1986. "Automating the Design of Graphical Presentations of Relational Information." ACM Transactions on Graphics 5 (2): 110–141.

Spence, Robert. 2007. Book Information Visualization: Design for Interaction. 2nd ed. Harlow, UK: Pearson/Prentice.

Image Credits

Image adapted with permission of Jock Mackinlay.

Image courtesy of Robert Spence.

Descriptions and Examples

References

Harris, Robert L. 1999. Information Graphics: A Comprehensive Illustrated Reference. New York: Oxford University Press.

Paper Leaf Design. 2011. "Elements of Design: A Quick Reference Sheet." Paper Leaf (blog). Accessed December 20, 2013. http://www.paper-leaf.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/EoD_White_1440.jpg.

Retinal

References

Wilkinson, Leland. 2005. The Grammar of Graphics. New York: Springer. 317.

Form

References

Börner, Katy. 2017. Atlas of Forecasts: Predicting and Broadcasting Science. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Image Credits

Images from Harris 1999 © Oxford University Press, 1999.

Color

References

Brewer, Cynthia A. 1994. "Color Use Guidelines for Mapping and Visualization." In Visualization in Modern Cartography, edited by Alan M. MacEachren and D. R. Fraser Taylor, 123–147. Oxford, UK: Pergamon.

Brewer, Cynthia A. 1999. "Color Use Guidelines for Data Representation." In Proceedings of the Section on Statistical Graphics, American Statistical Association, 55–60. Alexandria, VA: ASA.

Brewer, Cynthia A., and Mark Harrower. 2013. "ColorBrewer 2.0: Color Advice for Cartography." Accessed December 20, 2013. http://colorbrewer2.org.

Fairchild, Mark D. 1998. Color Appearance Models. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Mersey, Janet E. 1990. "Color and Thematic Map Design: The Role of Colour Scheme and Map Complexity in Choropleth Map Communication." Cartographica 27 (3): 1–167.

Paper Leaf Design. 2014. "Color Theory: Quick Reference Sheet for Designers." Accessed February 10, 2014. http://www.paper-leaf.com/samples/designfreebies/ColorTheory_Print.pdf.

Travis, David. 1991. Effective Color Displays: Theory and Practice. London: Academic Press.

Tufte, Edward R. 1990. "Color and Information." In Envisioning Information. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.

Ware, Colin. 2000. Information Visualization: Perception for Design. Burlington, MA: Morgan-Kaufman.

From Wikimedia Foundation. 2014. "HSV Color Solid Cylinder Alpha Lowgamma." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 1, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:HSV_color_solid_cylinder_alpha_lowgamma.png.

Image Credits

See Wikimedia Foundation 2014.

Texture

References

Caivano, Jose Luis. 1990. "Visual Texture as a Semiotic System." Semiotica 80 (3-4): 239–252.

MacEachren, Alan M. 2004. How Maps Work: Representation, Visualization, and Design. New York: Guilford.

Paper Leaf Design. 2011. "Elements of Design: A Quick Reference Sheet." Paper Leaf (blog). Accessed December 20, 2013. http://www.paper-leaf.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/EoD_White_1440.jpg.

Image Credits

Images from Harris 1999 © Oxford University Press, 1999.

Optics

References

Frankel, Felice C., and Angela H. DePace. 2012. Visual Strategies: A Practical Guide to Graphics for Scientists and Engineers. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. 106.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2013. "Stereoscopic Depth Rendition." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 20, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stereoscopic_depth_rendition.

Image Credits

See Wikimedia Foundation 2013.

Graphic Variable Types Versus Graphic Symbol Types

Image Credits

Four-page table created by Perla Mateo-Lujan and Katy Börner.

40

User Needs Acquisition

References

Markoff, John. 2011. "Steven P. Jobs, 1955–2011: Apple’s Visionary Redefined Digital Age." The New York Times, October 5. Accessed December 20, 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/06/business/steve-jobs-of-apple-dies-at-56.html?pagewanted=all.

General Considerations

Production Versus Consumption

References

Hook, Peter A., and Katy Börner. 2005. "Educational Knowledge Domain Visualizations: Tools to Navigate, Understand, and Internalize the Structure of Scholarly Knowledge and Expertise." In New Directions in Cognitive Information Retrieval, edited by Amanda Spink and Charles Cole, 187–208. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer-Verlag.

Iterative Prototyping and Replication

References

Felix, Elliot. 2010. "Design Strategy." Accessed March 1, 2014. http://elliotfelix.files.wordpress.com/2010/03/elliot-felix-design-strategy1.jpg.

Image Credits

Design Strategy Chart © Elliot Felix 2010.

Users and Needs

User Types

References

Burkhard, Remo A. 2005. Knowledge Visualization: The Use of Complementary Visual Representations for the Transfer of Knowledge. A Model, a Framework, and Four New Approaches. PhD Thesis, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule ETH Zürich.

Demographics

References

Börner, Katy. 2017. Atlas of Forecasts: Predicting and Broadcasting Science. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Needs Acquisition

Surveys

References

SurveyMonkey. 2014. SurveyMonkey Home Page. Accessed January 31, 2014. https://www.surveymonkey.com.

Apprentice Model

Contributors

Bradford W. Paley introduced the concept of an apprentice.

Lead User Analysis

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Lead User Infosite. 2014. Leaduser.com Home Page. Accessed March 1, 2014. http://www.leaduser.com.

Von Hippel, Eric. 1986. "Lead Users: A Source of Novel Product Concepts." Management Science 32 (7): 791-805.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2014. "Lead User." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 1, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lead_user.

Conjoint Analysis

References

Orme, Bryan K. 2005. Getting Started with Conjoint Analysis. Madison, WI: Research Publishers LLC.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2014. "Conjoint Analysis (Marketing)." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 1, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conjoint_analysis_%28marketing%29.

User Mining and Modeling

References

Brody, Tim, Stevan Harnad, and Leslie Carr. 2006. "Earlier Web Usage Statistics as Predictors of Later Citation Impact." JASIST 57 (8): 1060–1072.

Fu, Lawrence, and Constantin Aliferis. 2009. Method for Predicting Citation Counts. US Patent 20090157585 A1, filed November 7, 2008, and issued June 18, 2009.

Meho, Lokman I. 2006. "The Rise and Rise of Citation Analysis." arXiv. Accessed March 1, 2014. http://arxiv.org/abs/physics/0701012.

42

Data Acquisition

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Wells, Robert, and Judith A. Whitworth. 2007. "Assessing Outcomes of Health and Medical Research: Do We Measure What Counts or Count What We Can Measure?" Australia and New Zealand Health Policy, 4:14. Accessed December 20, 2013. http://www.anzhealthpolicy.com/content/4/1/14.

Data Aggregation

References

Harris, Robert L. 1999. Information Graphics: A Comprehensive Illustrated Reference. New York: Oxford University Press.

Matching Data Analysis Types

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Börner, Katy, Richard Klavans, Michael Patek, Angela Zoss, Joseph R. Biberstine, Robert Light, Vincent Lariviére, and Kevin W. Boyack. 2012. "Design and Update of a Classification System: The UCSD Map of Science." PLoS One 7 (7): e39464. Accessed October 31, 2013. http://sci.cns.iu.edu/ucsdmap.

Image Credits

Image created by Katy Börner and Perla Mateo-Lujan.

Software Credits

Images rendered using the Sci2 Tool. http://sci2.cns.iu.edu. Accessed September 14, 2014.

Matching Graphic Variable Types

References

Bertin, Jacques. 1983. Semiology of Graphics. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press. 33, 357.

Börner, Katy. 2017. Atlas of Forecasts: Predicting and Broadcasting Science. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Brewer, Cynthia A., and Mark Harrower. 2013. "ColorBrewer 2.0: Color Advice for Cartography." Accessed December 20, 2013. http://colorbrewer2.org.

Fischer, Eric. 2012. Language Communities of Twitter. Oakland, CA. Courtesy of Eric Fischer. In "8th Iteration (2012): Science Maps for Kids," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Michael J. Stamper. http://scimaps.org.

Harrower, Mark, and Cynthia A. Brewer. 2003. "ColorBrewer.org: An Online Tool for Selecting Colour Schemes for Maps." The Cartographic Journal 40 (1): 27–37.

Slocum, Terry A., Robert B. McMaster, Fritz C. Kessler, and Hugh H. Howard. 1999. Thematic Cartography and Geovisualization. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

44

Statistical Studies

References

BookRags Media Network. 2014. "Evan Davis Quotes." Accessed January 21, 2014. http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/e/evandavis481959.html.

Cleveland, William S. 1993. Visualizing Data. Summit, NJ: Hobart Press.

Cleveland, William S. 1994. The Elements of Graphing Data. Summit, NJ: Hobart Press.

Few, Stephen C. 2012. Show Me The Numbers: Designing Tables and Graphs to Enlighten. Burlingame, CA: Analytics Press.

Tukey, John W. 1977. Exploratory Data Analysis. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Exploratory Versus Confirmatory

References

Börner, Katy. 2017. Atlas of Forecasts: Predicting and Broadcasting Science. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Tukey, John W. 1977. Exploratory Data Analysis. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Data Distributions

References

Anscombe, Francis J. 1973. "Graphs in Statistical Analysis." American Statistician 27 (1): 17–21.

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Börner, Katy, Jeegar T. Maru, and Robert L. Goldstone. 2004. "The Simultaneous Evolution of Author and Paper Networks." PNAS 101 (Suppl. 1): 5266–73.

Redner, Sidney. 1998. "How Popular is Your Paper? An Empirical Study of the Citation Distribution." The European Physical Journal B 4 (2):131–134.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2013. "Frank Anscombe." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 20, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_Anscombe.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2013. "Normal Distribution." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 20, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Normal_distribution.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2014. "Standard Deviation Diagram." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed January 31, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Standard_deviation_diagram.svg.

Image Credits

Image created by Katy Börner and Perla Mateo-Lujan.

Curve Fitting

References

Harris, Robert L. 1999. Information Graphics: A Comprehensive Illustrated Reference. New York: Oxford University Press.

Image Credits

Images adapted from Harris 1999 © Oxford University Press, 1999.

Correlations

References

Playfair, William. 2005 (1786). The Commercial and Political Atlas and Statistical Breviary. Edited by Howard Wainer and Ian Spence. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Staff. 2007. "Worth a Thousand Words." The Economist, December 19. Accessed January 6, 2014. http://www.economist.com/node/10278643?story_id=10278643.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2014. "William Playfair." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed January 6, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Playfair.

Wheat Prices Versus Wages

Image Credits

Chart: Showing at One View the Price of the Quarter of Wheat, and Wages of Labour by the Week, from 1565 to 1821 courtesy of Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University.

Magnet States Versus Sticky States

References

Pew Research Center. 2008. "American Mobility: Who Moves? Who Stays Put? Where’s Home?" Pew Research: Social & Demographic Trends. Accessed January 31, 2014. http://pewsocialtrends.org/files/2011/04/American-Mobility-Report-updated-12-29-08.pdf.

Pew Research Center. 2014. "Map: U.S. Migration Flows." Pew Research: Social & Demographic Trends. Accessed January 6, 2014. http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2008/12/17/u-s-migration-flows.

Data Credits

U.S. Census Bureau Data.

All of Inflation’s Little Parts

References

Bloch, Matthew, Shan Carter, and Amanda Cox. 2008. "All of Inflation’s Little Parts." The New York Times, May 3. Accessed January 6, 2014. http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2008/05/03/business/20080403_SPENDING_GRAPHIC.html.

Data Credits

Bureau of Labor Statistics

Michael Balzer, University of Konstanz (Germany)

Prison Expenditures for Brooklyn, New York City

References

Spatial Information Design Lab. 2008. The Pattern. Published by the Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation of Columbia University, New York, NY.

Image Credits

Prison Expenditure by Census Block, Brooklyn, New York, 2003 by Laura Kurgan, Eric Cadora, David Reinfurt, and Sarah Williams. Million Dollar Blocks Project, 2006, Spatial Information Design Lab, GSAPP, Columbia University.

46

Statistical Visualization Types

References

Carr, Daniel B., and Sarah M. Nusser. 1995. "Converting Tables to Plots: A Challenge from Iowa State." Statistical Computing & Statistical Graphics Newsletter 6: 11–18.

Cleveland, William S. 1993. Visualizing Data. Summit, NJ: Hobart Press.

Cleveland, William S. 1994. The Elements of Graphing Data. Summit, NJ: Hobart Press.

Few, Stephen C. 2012. Show Me The Numbers: Designing Tables and Graphs to Enlighten. Burlingame, CA: Analytics Press.

Friendly, Michael. 2008. "The Golden Age of Statistical Graphics." Statistical Science 23 (4): 502–535.

Gelman, Andrew, Cristian Pasarica, and Rahul Dodhia. 2002. "Let’s Practice What We Preach: Turning Tables into Graphs." The American Statistician 56 (2): 121–130.

Harris, Robert L. 1999. Information Graphics: A Comprehensive Illustrated Reference. New York: Oxford University Press.

Tukey, John W. 1977. Exploratory Data Analysis. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Wainer, Howard. 1984. "How to Display Data Badly." The American Statistician 38 (2): 137–147.

Glyphs

Error Bar

References

NuMBerS Project Team. 2014. "Graphs and Charts." Accessed January 7, 2014. http://web.anglia.ac.uk/numbers/graphsCharts.html.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2014. "Error Bar." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed January 7, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Error_bar.

Image Credits

Image rerendered by Perla Mateo-Lujan from an image by NuMBerS Project Team 2014.

Box-and-Whisker Symbol

References

Harris, Robert L. 1999. Information Graphics: A Comprehensive Illustrated Reference. New York: Oxford University Press.

NuMBerS Project Team. 2014. "Graphs and Charts." Accessed January 7, 2014. http://web.anglia.ac.uk/numbers/graphsCharts.html.

Tukey, John W. 1977. Exploratory Data Analysis. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Image Credits

Image rerendered by Perla Mateo-Lujan from an image by NuMBerS Project Team 2014.

Number of Co-Authors per Year graph: data compiled by Katy Börner; graph rendered by Robert P. Light; design by Perla Mateo-Lujan.

Data Credits

Albert-László Barabási Web of Science data available at http://wiki.cns.iu.edu/display/SCI2TUTORIAL/2.5+Sample+Datasets. Accessed September 18, 2014.

Software Credits

Rendered using the Sci2 Tool. http://sci2.cns.iu.edu. Accessed September 18, 2014.

Sparkline

References

Duggirala, Purna. 2010. "What are Excel Sparklines & How to Use Them." Accessed January 7, 2014. http://chandoo.org/wp/2010/05/18/excel-sparklines-tutorial.

Tufte, Edward R. 2007. Beautiful Evidence. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.

Yaffa, Joshua. 2011. "The Information Sage." The Washington Monthly, May/June.

Image Credits

Image from Duggirala 2010.

Graphs

Comparisons

References

Harris, Robert L. 1999. Information Graphics: A Comprehensive Illustrated Reference. New York: Oxford University Press.

Wong, Dona M. 2010. The Wall Street Journal Guide to Information Graphics: The Dos and Don’ts of Presenting Data, Facts, and Figures. New York: W.W. Norton & Company. 69.

Image Credits

Image adapted from Harris 1999 © Oxford University Press, 1999.

Bar Graph

References

Harris, Robert L. 1999. Information Graphics: A Comprehensive Illustrated Reference. New York: Oxford University Press.

Image Credits

Image adapted from Harris 1999 © Oxford University Press, 1999.

Radar Graph

References

Bertin, Jacques. 1983. Semiology of Graphics. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press. 50.

Guerry, André-Michel. 1829. "Tableau des variations météorologique comparées aux phénomènes physiologiques, d’aprés les observations faites à l’obervatoire royal, et les recherches statistique les plus récentes." Annales d’Hygiène Publique et de Médecine Légale 1: 228.

Nightingale, Florence. 1858. Mortality of the British Army. London: Harrison and Sons.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2014. "Spider Chart." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed January 31, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Spider_Chart.jpg.

Image Credits

See Wikimedia Foundation 2014.

Correlations

Scatter Plot

References

Campbell, Rob. 2010. "Rug Plots." MATLAB Central. Accessed January 17, 2014. http://www.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/27582-rug-plots.

Friendly, Michael. 2008. "The Golden Age of Statistical Graphics." Statistical Science 23 (4): 502–535.

Herschel, John F. W. 1833. "On the Investigation of the Orbits of Revolving Double Stars." Memoirs of the Royal Astronomical Society 5: 171–222.

Image Credits

Image from Campbell 2010.

Distributions

References

Harris, Robert L. 1999. Information Graphics: A Comprehensive Illustrated Reference. New York: Oxford University Press. 124.

Image Credits

Image adapted from Harris 1999 © Oxford University Press, 1999.

Data Credits

MEDLINE data can be linked at http://cnets.indiana.edu/groups/nan/webtraffic/websci14-data. Accessed September 18, 2014.

Dot Graph

References

Harris, Robert L. 1999. Information Graphics: A Comprehensive Illustrated Reference. New York: Oxford University Press.

Image Credits

Image adapted from Harris 1999 © Oxford University Press, 1999.

Stripe Graph

References

Harris, Robert L. 1999. Information Graphics: A Comprehensive Illustrated Reference. New York: Oxford University Press.

Image Credits

Image adapted from Harris 1999 © Oxford University Press, 1999.

Contributors

Andrea Scharnhorst uses a stripe graph to visualize author publications on different topics.

Stem and Leaf Graph

References

Harris, Robert L. 1999. Information Graphics: A Comprehensive Illustrated Reference. New York: Oxford University Press. 370.

Image Credits

Image adapted from Harris 1999 © Oxford University Press, 1999.

Histogram

References

Harris, Robert L. 1999. Information Graphics: A Comprehensive Illustrated Reference. New York: Oxford University Press.

Image Credits

Image adapted from Harris 1999 © Oxford University Press, 1999.

48

Temporal Studies"When"

References

BookRags Media Network. 2014. "Henry David Thoreau Quotes." Accessed January 7, 2014. http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/h/henry_david_thoreau.html.

Monroe, Megan., Rongjian Lan, Juan Morales del Olmo, Ben Shneiderman, Catherine Plaisant, and Jeff Millstein. 2013. "The Challenges of Specifying Intervals and Absences in Temporal Queries: A Graphical Language Approach." In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing, 2349–2358. New York: ACM Press.

Data Preprocessing

Time Zones

References

Dunn, Steve. 2010. "Dealing with Timezones in a Global Environment." Razorleaf. Accessed January 7, 2014. http://razorleaf.com/2010/04/timezones-in-global-plm.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2014. "Time Zones 2008." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed September 21, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Timezones2008.png.

Image Credits

See Wikimedia Foundation 2014.

Time Slicing

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Börner, Katy, and David E. Polley. 2014. Visual Insights: A Practical Guide to Making Sense of Data. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Herr II, Bruce W., Russell Jackson Duhon, Elisha F. Hardy, Shashikant Penumarthy, and KatyBörner. 2007. 113 Years of Physical Review. Bloomington, IN. Courtesy of Indiana University. In "3rd Iteration (2007): The Power of Forecasts," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Julie M. Davis. http://scimaps.org.

Ke, Weimao, Lalitha Visvanath, and Katy Börner. 2004. "Mapping the Evolution of Co-Authorship Networks." Accessed January 9, 2014. http://scimaps.org/maps/map/mapping_the_evolutio_81.

Wattenberg, Martin, and Fernanda B. Viégas. 2006. History Flow Visualization of the Wikipedia Entry "Abortion." Cambridge, Massachusetts. Courtesy of Martin Wattenberg, Fernanda B. Viégas, and IBM Research. In "2nd Iteration (2006): The Power of Reference Systems," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Deborah MacPherson. http://scimaps.org.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2014. "Seven-Day Week." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed January 31, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seven-day_week.

Image Credits

See Börner and Polley 2014.

Trends

References

Australian Bureau of Statistics. 2008. "Time Series Analysis: Seasonal Adjustment Methods." Accessed January 7, 2014. http://www.abs.gov.au/websitedbs/d3310114.nsf/51c9a3d36edfd0dfca256acb00118404/c890aa8e65957397ca256ce10018c9d8!opendocument.

Harris, Robert L. 1999. Information Graphics: A Comprehensive Illustrated Reference. New York: Oxford University Press.

Image Credits

Adapted from Harris 1999 © Oxford University Press, 1999.

Bursts

References

Börner, Katy, and David E. Polley. 2014. Visual Insights: A Practical Guide to Making Sense of Data. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Cyberinfrastructure for Network Science Center. 2010. Scholarly Database. Accessed March 1, 2014. http://sdb.cns.iu.edu.

Kleinberg, Jon M. 2002. "Bursty and Hierarchical Structure in Streams." In Proceedings of the 8th ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, 91–101. New York: ACM Press.

Kleinberg, Jon M. 2002. "Sample Results from a Burst Detection Algorithm." Accessed Jan 9, 2014. http://www.cs.cornell.edu/home/kleinber/kdd02.html.

United States National Library of Medicine. 2014. PubMed. Accessed March 1, 2014. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed.

Data Credits

See Cyberinfrastructure for Network Science Center 2010.

See United States National Library of Medicine 2014.

Contributors

Robert P. Light generated the burst graph; design by Perla Mateo-Lujan.

New York City’s Weather for 1980

References

The New York Times Staff. 1981. "New York City’s Weather for 1980." The New York Times, January 11. Accessed January 9, 2014. http://www.datavis.ca/gallery/images/NYweather.jpg.

Image Credits

From The New York Times © 1980. The New York Times. All rights reserved. Used by permission and protected by the Copyright Laws of the United States. The printing, copying, redistribution, or retransmission of this Content without express written permission is prohibited.

The Beatles: Working Schedule, 1963–1966

References

Deal, Michael. 2011. "The Beatles: Working Schedule 1963–1966." Personal Home Page. Accessed March 7, 2014. http://www.mikemake.com/Charting-the-Beatles.

In Investing, It’s When You Start and When You Finish

References

The New York Times Staff. 2011. "In Investing, It’s When You Start and When You Finish." The New York Times, January 2. Accessed January 31, 2014. http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2011/01/02/business/20110102-metrics-graphic.html?_r=0.

Yau, Nathan. 2011. "In Investing, Timing is Everything." FlowingData (blog), January 13. Accessed January 31, 2014. http://flowingdata.com/2011/01/13/in-investing-timing-is-everything.

Image Credits

From The New York Times, January 2, 2011. © 2011 The New York Times. All rights reserved. Used by permission and protected by the Copyright Laws of the United States. The printing, copying, redistribution, or retransmission of this Content without express written permission is prohibited.

Sankey Graph of Google Analytics Data

References

Yau, Nathan. 2012. "How to Make a Sankey Diagram to Show Flow." FlowingData (blog), April 26. Accessed January 31, 2014. http://flowingdata.com/2012/04/26/how-to-make-a-sankey-diagram-to-show-flow.

Software Credits

© 2012 Google Inc. All rights reserved. Google and Google Analytics are registered trademarks of Google Inc., used with permission.

Contributors

Michael P. Ginda compiled the data and rendered the visualization.

50

TemporalVisualization Types

Trends and Distributions

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Felton, Nicholas. 2010. "The 2010 Feltron Annual Report." Feltron (blog). Accessed January 9, 2014. http://feltron.com/ar10_10.html.

Harris, Robert L. 1999. Information Graphics: A Comprehensive Illustrated Reference. New York: Oxford University Press. 417.

Nissen, Mayo. 2009. "Visualising Household Power Consumption." MOMA: Talk to Me. Accessed March 1, 2014. http://www.moma.org/interactives/exhibitions/2011/talktome/objects/145529.

 

Wikimedia Foundation. 2014. "U.S. First Class Postage Rate." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. September 21, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_United_States_postage_rates#mediaviewer/File:US_Postage_History.svg.

Image Credits

U.S. First Class Postage Rate, see Wikimedia Foundation 2014.

Images adapted from Harris 1999 © Oxford University Press, 1999.

See Nissen 2009.

Comparison

References

Frumin, Michael. 2009. "Spark It Up." Frumination (blog), May 7. Accessed January 31, 2014. http://frumin.net/ation/2009/05/spark_it_up.html.

Koch, Tom. 2005. Cartographies of Disease: Maps, Mapping, and Medicine. Redlands, CA: ESRI Press.

Derivatives

References

Baly, William. 1854. Reports on Epidemic Cholera. Drawn Up at the Desire of the Cholera Committee of the Royal College of Physicians. London: J. Churchill.

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

The Weather Channel. 2013. "Hurricane Gustav." Accessed January 31, 2014. http://www.weather.com/newscenter/hurricanecentral/2008/gustav.html.

Wolfram. 2014. "Visualize Wind Velocity Data." Accessed January 31, 2014. http://www.wolfram.com/products/mathematica/newin7/content/VectorAndFieldVisualization/VisualizeWindVelocityData.html.

Image Credits

See Baly 1854.

Vector and Field Visualizations © 2014 Wolfram Alpha LLC. http://www.wolframalpha.com. Accessed September 18, 2014.

Flows over Time and Space

Flow Map

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Harris, Robert L. 1999. Information Graphics: A Comprehensive Illustrated Reference. New York: Oxford University Press.

Minard, Charles Joseph. 1866. Europe Raw Cotton Imports in 1858, 1864 and 1865. Paris, France. Courtesy of the Library of Congress, Geography and Maps Division. In "4th Iteration (2008): Science Maps for Economic Decision Makers," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

Minard, Charles Joseph. 1869. Napoleon’s March to Moscow. Paris, France. Courtesy of EdwardTufte, Graphics Press, Cheshire, CT. In "1st Iteration (2005): The Power of Maps," Places& Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Deborah MacPherson. http://scimaps.org.

 

Ministère des Travaux Publics. 1879–1897. Album de Statistique Graphique. Paris: Imprimerie Nationale.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2014. "Flow Map." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed January 7, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flow_map.

Image Credits

Images from Harris 1999 © Oxford University Press, 1999.

Space-Time-Cube Map

References

Carlstein, Tommy, Don Parkes, and Nigel J. Thrift. 1978. Human Activity and Time Geography. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Leibniz-Institut für Länderkunde. 2011. "Lebensläufe der Heidelberger Nobelpreisträger für Physik, Chemie und Medizin." Accessed January 9, 2014. http://www.uni-heidelberg.de/md/zentral/universitaet/geschichte/nobel_phys_chem_med.pdf.

Neumann, Andreas. 2005. "Thematic Navigation in Space and Time." Paper presented at the SVG Open 2005 Conference. Accessed January 9, 2014. http://www.svgopen.org/2005/papers/abstract_neumann_thematic_navigation_in_space_and_time.

Image Credits

Space Time Cube Map created by Torsten Hägerstrand from Carlstein, Parkes, Thrift 1978.

52

Geospatial Studies"Where"

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Colizza, Vittoria, Alessandro Vespignani, and Elisha F. Hardy. 2007. Impact of Air Travel on GlobalSpread of Infectious Diseases. Bloomington, IN. Courtesy of Indiana University. In "3rd Iteration (2007): The Power of Forecasts," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Julie M. Davis. http://scimaps.org.

Tobler, Waldo R. 1970. "A Computer Movie Simulating Urban Growth in the Detroit Region." Economic Geography 46 (2): 234–240.

Data Preprocessing

References

iTouchMap. 2014. "Latitude and Longitude of a Point." Accessed January 9, 2014. http://itouchmap.com/latlong.html.

Clustering

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Skupin, André. 2004. In Terms of Geography. New Orleans, Louisiana, 2005. Courtesy of AndréSkupin, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA. In "1st Iteration (2005): The Power of Maps," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Deborah MacPherson. http://scimaps.org.

Zahn, Charles T. 1971. "Graph-Theoretical Methods for Detecting and Describing Gestalt Clusters." IEEE Transactions on Computers, 20 (1): 68–86.

 

Image Credits

Images from Zahn 1971. © 1971 IEEE. Reprinted, with permission, from IEEE Transactions on Computers.

Using Geometric Grids

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Skupin, André. 2004. "The World of Geography: Visualizing a Knowledge Domain with Cartographic Means." PNAS 101 (Suppl. 1): 5274–5278.

Visual Generalization

References

Strebe, Daniel. 2012. "The Impotence of Maps: Or, Deconstructing the Deconstruction of Their Construction." Presentation given at NACIS 2012. Accessed January 9, 2014. http://www.mapthematics.com/Downloads/Impotence%20of%20Maps.pdf.

Töpfer, Friedrich. 1962. "Das Wurzelgesetz und seine Anwendung bei der Reliefgeneralisierung." Vermessungstechnik 10 (2): 37–42.

Töpfer, Friedrich. 1974. Kartographische Generalisierung. Gotha/Leipzig: VEB Herrmann Haack/Geographisch-Kartographische Anstalt.

Töpfer, Friedrich, and Wolfgang Pillewizer. 1966. "The Principles of Selection." The Cartographic Journal 3: 10–16.

Tobler, Waldo A. 1970. "A Computer Movie Simulating Urban Growth in the Detroit Region." Economic Geography 46 (2): 234–240.

Tobler, Waldo A. 1973. "A Continuous Transformation Useful for Districting." Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 219: 215–220.

Image Credits

Visual Generalization Map Examples © 1996 Esri. All rights reserved. Published in the United States of America.

Etsy Sales Map

References

Bragina, Lana (ulaniulani). 2009. "All My Etsy Sales." Flickr. Accessed January 31, 2014. http://www.flickr.com/photos/madame_ulani/3569828622/sizes/l.

Bragina, Lana (Uloni). 2009. "Infographics: One Seller’s Visualization." The Etsy Blog, June 18. Accessed January 9, 2014. http://www.etsy.com/blog/en/2009/infographics-one-sellers-visualization.

 

Bragina, Lana (ulaniulani). 2009. "3 Month Crocheting." Flickr. Accessed January 31, 2014. http://www.flickr.com/photos/madame_ulani/3455161546.

Image Credits

Etsy Sales Map courtesy of Lana Bagina, http://www.ulani.de. Accessed September 18, 2014.

Skitter Internet Map

References

Lima, Manuel. 2002. "AS Internet Graph." Visual Complexity. Accessed January 31, 2014. http://www.visualcomplexity.com/vc/project.cfm?id=20.

CAIDA. 2013. "IPv4 and IPv6 AS Core: Visualizing IPv4 and IPv6 Internet Topology at a Macroscopic

Scale in 2013." Accessed January 31, 2014. http://www.caida.org/research/topology/as_core_network.

Image Credits

Skitter Internet Map © 2000 The Regents of the University of California. All Rights Reserved.

The Debt Quake in the Eurozone

Image Credits

The Debt Quake in the Eurozone courtesy of Morgan Quinn—Intuit Inc., http://mint.com. Accessed September 18, 2014.

In the Shadow of Foreclosures

References

Fairfield, Hannah. 2008. "In the Shadow of Foreclosures." The New York Times, April 5. Accessed February 21, 2014. http://www.nytimes.com/imagepages/2008/04/05/business/20080406_METRICS.html.

Image Credits

From The New York Times. © 2008 The New York Times. All rights reserved. Used by permission and protected by the Copyright Laws of the United States. The printing, copying, redistribution, or retransmission of this Content without express written permission is prohibited.

54

GeospatialVisualization Types

Contributors

André Skupin provided expert comments.

Discrete Space

Dot Density Map

References

McCune, Doug. 2011. "Ethics and the Use of DUI Data." Doug McCune (blog), March 23. Accessed February 16, 2014. http://dougmccune.com/blog/tag/datasf.

Snow, John. 1855. On the Mode of Communication of Cholera. 2nd ed. London: John Churchill.

Image Credits

See McCune 2011.

Proportional Symbol Map

References

Goldsmith, Andrew. 2014. "World Map." Accessed January 10, 2014. http://www.flickr.com/photos/andrewgoldsmith/5076593587/in/photostream.

Starr, Benjamin. 2011. "A Typographical Map of the World." Visual News. Accessed January 10, 2014. http://www.visualnews.com/category/design/maps-infographics/page/10.

Image Credits

See Goldsmith 2014.

Choropleth Map

References

White, Adrian and the National Geographic EarthPulse Team. 2008. A Global Projection of Subjective Well-Being. Washington, DC. Courtesy of National Geographic. In "4th Iteration (2008): Science Maps for Economic Decision Makers," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

The World Bank and The National Geographic Society. 2006. The Millennium Development Goals Map: A Global Agenda to End Poverty. Washington, DC. Courtesy of The World Bank and The National Geographic Society. In "5th Iteration (2009): Science Maps for Science Policy Makers," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

Yau, Nathan. 2009. "How to Make a US County Thematic Map Using Free Tools." FlowingData (blog), November 12. Accessed January 31, 2014. http://flowingdata.com/2009/11/12/how-to-make-a-us-county-thematic-map-using-free-tools.

Image Credits

Image created by Michael P. Ginda using code provided by Nathan Yau of FlowingData. Code is from the Bureau of Labor and Statistics, map from Wikipedia (public domain), and the colors were generated using ColorBrewer.

Dasymetric Map

References

USDA Agricultural Research Service. 2012. "USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map." Accessed March 1, 2014. http://planthardiness.ars.usda.gov/PHZMWeb.

Image Credits

Image created by the Prism Climate Group at Oregon State; USDA.

Cartogram Map

References

Heer, Jeffrey, Michael Bostock, and Vadim Ogievetsky. 2010. "A Tour Through the Visualization Zoo." Communications of the ACM 53 (6): 59–67.

Schlarmann, James. 2012. "Candidate Obama May Turn November into a Landslide Victory." Political Garbage Chute. Accessed February 16, 2014. http://www.politicalgarbagechute.com/candidateobama.

Image Credits

2012 Electoral Map Cartogram © 2012, Frontloading HQ.

Dorling Cartogram Example created by Jeffrey Heer, Michael Bostock, and Vadim Ogievetsyky.

2012 Political Election Map and Cartogram © 2012 M. E. J. Newman.

Continuous Space

Elevation Map

References

DataSF. 2014. "Terms of Use." Accessed March 1, 2014. http://www.datasf.org/page.php?page=tou&return_url=/datafiles/index.php?dir=Police&by=name&order=asc.

McCune, Doug. 2011. "Ethics and the Use of DUI Data." Doug McCune (blog), March 23. Accessed February 16, 2014. http://dougmccune.com/blog/tag/datasf.

Image Credits

Map from McCune 2011.

Data Credits

See Data SF 2014.

Isarithmic Map

References

McCune, Doug. 2011. "Ethics and the Use of DUI Data." Doug McCune (blog), March 23. Accessed February 16, 2014. http://dougmccune.com/blog/tag/datasf.

Image Credits

Map from McCune 2011.

Isochrone Map

References

Friendly, Michael. 2007. "The Golden Age of Statistical Maps & Diagrams." DataVis.ca. Accessed January 10, 2014. http://www.datavis.ca/papers/maps/GoldenAge2x2.pdf.

Ministère des Travaux Publics. 1879–1897. Album de Statistique Graphique. Paris: Imprimerie Nationale.

Scheidel, Walter, and Elijah Meeks. 2014. "Travel Time to Rome in July." ORBIS: The Stanford Geospatial Network Model of the Roman World. Accessed March 1, 2014. http://orbis.stanford.edu/images/gallery/ttr_800.png.

Image Credits

See Scheidel and Meeks 2014.

Data Credits

ORBIS: The Stanford Geospatial Network Model of the Roman World reconstructs the time, cost, and financial expense associated with a wide range of different types of travel in antiquity around 200 AD. http://orbis.stanford.edu/#introducing. Accessed September 18, 2014.

Vector Fields

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Tobler, Waldo R. 1979. "Smooth Pycnophylactic Interpolation for Geographical Regions." American Statistical Association 74 (367): 519–536.

Tobler, Waldo R. 1981. "A Model of Geographic Movement." Geographical Analysis 13 (1): 1–20.

Tobler, Waldo R. 1983. "Push Pull Migration Laws." Annals of the Association of American Geographers 73 (1): 1–17.

Tobler, Waldo R. 1987. "Experiments in Migration Mapping by Computer." The American Cartographer 14 (2): 155–163.

Tobler, Waldo R. 1995. "Migration: Ravenstein, Thornthwaite, and Beyond." Urban Geography 16 (4): 327–343.

Line Map

References

Corbett, John. 2014. "Ernest George Ravenstein: The Laws of Migration, 1885. Center for SpatiallyIntegrated Social Science. Accessed January 10, 2014. http://www.csiss.org/classics/content/90.

Ravenstein, Ernest George. 1885. "The Laws of Migration." Journal of the Statistical Society of London 48 (2): 167–235.

Subway Map

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Nesbitt, Keith V. 2004. PhD Thesis Map. Newcastle, Australia. Courtesy of IEEE and Keith V. Nesbitt, Charles Sturt University, Australia, © 2004 by IEEE. In "1st Iteration (2005): The Power of Maps," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Deborah MacPherson. http://scimaps.org.

Flow Map

References

Abel, Guy. 2014. "Circular Migration Flow Plots in R." Personal Home Page. Accessed September 14, 2014. http://gjabel.wordpress.com/2014/03/28/circular-migration-flow-plots-in-r.

Abel, Guy J., and Nikola Sander. 2014. "Quantifying Global International Migration Flows." Science 343 (6178): 1520–1522.

Image Credits

Figure from Abel 2014.

Software Credits

See Abel and Sander 2014.

Strip Map

References

Agrawala, Maneesh, and Christ Stolte. 2001. "Rendering Effective Route Maps: Improving Usability through Generalization." In Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques, 241–249. New York: ACM.

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Harris, Robert L. 1999. Information Graphics: A Comprehensive Illustrated Reference. New York: Oxford University Press.

Microsoft Corporation. 2014. "MapPoint." Accessed January 10, 2014. http://mappoint.msn.com.

Image Credits

See Agrawala and Stolte © 2001 Association for Computing Machinery, Inc. Reprinted by permission.

56

Topical Studies—"What"

References

Bloomer, Martin, Phil Hodkinson, and Stephen Billett. 2004. "The Significance of Ontogeny and Habitus in Constructing Theories of Learning." Studies in Continuing Education 26 (1): 19–43.

Porter, Alan L., and Scott W. Cunningham. 2005. Tech Mining: Exploring New Technologies for Competitive Advantage. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Sinclair, John. 1991. Corpus, Concordance, Collocation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Data Preprocessing

Stemming and Stopword Removal

References

Porter, Martin. 2006. "The Porter Stemming Algorithm." Accessed January 14, 2014. http://tartarus.org/~martin/PorterStemmer.

Software Credits

See Porter 2006.

Tokenization

References

Michel, Jean-Baptiste, Yuan Kui Shen, Aviva Presser Aiden, Adrian Veres, Matthew K. Gray, The Google Books Team, Joseph P. Pickett, Dale Hoiberg, Dan Clancy, Peter Norvig, Jon Orwant, Steven Pinker, Martin A. Nowak, Erez Lieberman Aiden. 2010. "Quantitative Analysis of Culture Using Millions of Digitized Books." Science 331 (6014): 176–182.

Image Credits

Image courtesy of Google Books Ngram Viewer, http://books.google.com/ngrams. Accessed September 18, 2014.

Descriptive Term Identification

References

Blei, David M., Andrew Y. Ng, and Michael I. Jordan. 2003. "Latent Dirichlet Allocation." Journal of Machine Learning Research 3 (4–5): 993–1022.

Deerwester, Scott, Susan T. Dumais, George Furnas, Thomas K. Landauer, and Richard Harshman. 1990. "Indexing by Latent Semantic Analysis." Journal of the American Society for Information Science 41 (6): 391-407.

Landauer, Thomas K., Peter W. Foltz, and Darrell Laham, 1998. "Introduction to Latent Semantic Analysis." Discourse Processes 25 (2-3): 259-284.

Salton, Gerald, and C. S. Yang. 1973. "On the Specification of Term Values in Automatic Indexing." Journal of Documentation 29 (4): 351–372.

Distributions

Term Frequency and Distributions

References

Levy, Amun. 2008. "On Words." Good 9 (March/April). Accessed January 14, 2014. http://awesome.good.is/transparency/009/trans009onwords.html.

On Words Concordance

References

Coulter, Ann. 2002. Slander: Liberal Lies About the American Right. New York: Crown Publishers.

Franken, Al. 2003. Lies: And the Lying Liars Who Tell Them. New York: Dutton.

Levy, Amun. 2008. "On Words." Good 9 (March/April). Accessed January 14, 2014. http://awesome.good.is/transparency/009/trans009onwords.html.

Image Credits

On Words Concordance originally published in Good Magazine.

Is Facebook-Is Twitter Phrase Graph

References

Viégas, Fernanda, and Martin Wattenberg. 2009. "Web Seer." Home Page. http://hint.fm/projects/seer.

Image Credits

Image from Viégas and Wattenberg 2009.

Software Credits

http://hint.fm/seer. Accessed September 18, 2014.

Sentiment Analysis of the Bible

References

OpenBible. 2014. Home Page. Accessed January 31, 2014. http://www.openbible.info.

Smith, Stephen. 2011. "Applying Sentiment Analysis to the Bible." OpenBible. Accessed January 31, 2014. http://www.openbible.info/blog/2011/10/applying-sentiment-analysis-to-the-bible.

Smith, Stephen. 2011. "Sentiment Analysis of The Bible." OpenBible. Accessed January 31, 2014. http://a.openbible.info/blog/2011-10-sentiment-full.png.

Image Credits

Sentiment Analysis of the Bible courtesy of http://www.openbible.info. Accessed September 18, 2014.

Data Credits

Raw data available at http://a.openbible.info/blog/2011-10-sentiment-data.zip. Accessed September 18, 2014.

Software Credits

Viralheat Sentiment API: https://app.viralheat.com/developer/sentiment_api. Accessed September 18, 2014.

Editions of Darwin’s On the Origin of Species

References

Darwin, Charles. 1859. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. London: John Murray.

Fry, Ben. 2009. "On the Origin of Species: The Preservation of Favoured Traces." Personal Website. Accessed January 14, 2014. http://benfry.com/traces.

Fry, Ben. 2009. "Watching the Evolution of the ‘Origin of the Species’." Personal Website. Accessed January 14, 2014. http://benfry.com/writing/archives/529.

Reas, Casey, and Ben Fry. 2007. Processing: A Programming Handbook for Visual Designers and Artists. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

van Wyhe, John, ed. 2002. The Complete Work of Charles Darwin Online. Accessed January 14, 2014. http://darwin-online.org.uk.

Image Credits

Editions of Darwin’s The Origin of the Species © 2009 Ben Fry.

Data Credits

See van Wyhe 2002.

Software Credits

Built with Processing; see Reas and Fry 2007.

58

TopicalVisualization Types

Composition and Frequency

Lists

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Börner, Katy, Elisha F. Hardy, Bruce W. Herr II, Todd M. Holloway, and W. Bradford Paley. 2006. Taxonomy Visualization of Patent Data. Bloomington, Indiana and New York, New York. Courtesy of Indiana University and W. Bradford Paley. In "2nd Iteration (2006): The Power of Reference Systems," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Deborah MacPherson. http://scimaps.org.

British National Corpus. 2014. Home Page. Accessed March 1, 2014. http://www.natcorp.ox.ac.uk.

Eick, Stephen G., Joseph L. Steffen, and Eric E. Sumner Jr. 1992. "Seesoft—A Tool for Visualizing Line Oriented Software Statistics." IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering 18 (11): 957–968.

Fry, Ben. 2003. "Revisionist: Visualizing the Evolution of Software Projects." Personal Website. Accessed January 14, 2014. http://benfry.com/revisionist.

Harris, Jonathan. 2003. WordCount. Accessed January 14, 2014. http://www.wordcount.org.

Data Credits

See British National Corpus 2014.

WordCount underlying word frequency list at http://www.number27.org/assets/misc/words.txt. Accessed September 18, 2014.

Tag Cloud

References

Börner, Katy. 2017. Atlas of Forecasts: Predicting and Broadcasting Science. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Castellani, Brian. 2013. Map of Complexity Science. Cleveland, OH. Courtesy of Arts and Science Factory, LLC. In "9th Iteration (2013): Science Maps Showing Trends and Dynamics," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Todd N. Theriault. http://scimaps.org.

Steinbock, Daniel. 2014. TagCrowd. Accessed January 14, 2014. http://tagcrowd.com.

Tagul. 2014. Home Page. Accessed January 14, 2014. http://tagul.com.

Wordle. 2014. Home Page. Accessed January 14, 2014. http://www.wordle.net.

Image Credits

Wordcount © 2003 Jonathan Harris.

Tag cloud example courtesy of TagCrowd. http://tagcrowd.com. Accessed September 18, 2014.

Data Credits

Wordcount rendered using British National Corpus, http://www.natcorp.ox.ac.uk. © 2010 University of Oxford. Accessed September 18, 2014.

Software Credits

Visualization of the opening paragraph computed using TagCrowd; see Steinbock 2014.

Structure

Circular Graph

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Börner, Katy, Richard Klavans, Michael Patek, Angela Zoss, Joseph R. Biberstine, Robert Light, Vincent Lariviére, and Kevin W. Boyack. 2012. "Design and Update of a Classification System: The UCSD Map of Science." PLoS One 7 (7): e39464. Accessed October 31, 2013. http://sci.cns.iu.edu/ucsdmap.

Boyack, Kevin W., and Richard Klavans. 2008. The Scientific Roots of Technology. Albuquerque, NM and Berwyn, PA. Courtesy of SciTech Strategies, Inc. In "4th Iteration (2008): Science Maps for Economic Decision Makers," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

Boyack, Kevin W. and Richard Klavans. 2008. U.S. Vulnerabilities in Science. Berwyn, PA and Albuquerque, NM. Courtesy of SciTech Strategies. In "5th Iteration (2009): Science Maps for Science Policy Makers," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

Paley, W. Bradford. 2006. TextArc Visualization of The History of Science. New York, NY. Courtesyof W. Bradford Paley. In "2nd Iteration (2006): The Power of Reference Systems," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Deborah MacPherson. http://scimaps.org.

Image Credits

Designed by Perla Mateo-Lujan, inspired by the UCSD Map of Science, Richard Klavans and Kevin W. Boyack, SciTech Strategies, Inc. http://www.mapofscience.com. Accessed September 18, 2014.

GRIDL

References

Shneiderman, Ben, David Feldman, Anne Rose, Xavier Ferré. 2000. "Visualizing Digital Library Search Results with Categorical and Hierarchical Axes." In Proceedings of the Fifth ACM Conference on Digital Libraries, 57–66. New York: ACM.

Crossmap

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Morris, Steven A. 2005. Visualizing 60 Years of Anthrax Research. Stillwater, Oklahoma, 2005. Courtesy of Steven A. Morris, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater. In "1st Iteration (2005): The Power of Maps," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Deborah MacPherson. http://scimaps.org.

Morris, Steven, Camille DeYong, Zheng Wu, Sinan Salman, Dagmawi Yemenu. 2002. "DIVA: A Visualization System for Exploring Document Databases for Technology Forecasting." Computers and Industrial Engineering 43 (4): 841–862.

Image Credits

Reprinted from Morris, Steven, Camille DeYong, Zheng Wu, Sinan Salman, Dagmawi Yemenu. 2002. "DIVA: A Visualization System for Exploring Document Databases for Technology Forecasting." Computers and Industrial Engineering 43 (4): 841–862. Copyright 2002 National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A.

Isoline Map

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Quaggiotto, Marco. 2008. Knowledge Cartography. Milano, Italy. Courtesy of the Department of Industrial Design, Art, Communication and Fashion (INDACO), Politecnico di Milano, Italy, and Complex Networks and Systems Group, ISI Foundation, Turin, Italy. In "6th Iteration (2009): Science Maps for Scholars," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

Skupin, André, Mike Conway, Wei Wei, Brian Chapman, and Wendy Chapman. 2014. "In Terms of MIMIC."

Image Credits

Courtesy of André Skupin.

Data Credits

MIMIC-II; see Saeed et al. 2011.

Self-Organizing Map

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Honkela, Timo. 2005. "Von Foerster meets Kohonen: Approaches to Artificial Intelligence, Cognitive Science and Information Systems Development." Kybernetes 34 (1/2): 40-53.

Saeed, Mohammed. Mauricio Villarroel, Andrew T. Reisner, Gari Clifford, Li-Wei Lehman, George Moody, Thomas Heldt, Tin H. Kyaw, Benjamin Moody, and Roger G. Mark. 2011. "Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II (MIMIC-II): A Public-Access Intensive Care Unit Database." Critical Care Medicine 39 (5): 952–960.

Skupin, André. 2004. In Terms of Geography. New Orleans, Louisiana, 2005. Courtesy of AndréSkupin, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA. In "1st Iteration (2005): The Power of Maps," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Deborah MacPherson. http://scimaps.org.

Image Credits

Image from Honkela 2005. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited all rights reserved.

Trends

History Flow

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Wattenberg, Martin, and Fernanda B. Viégas. 2006. History Flow Visualization of the Wikipedia Entry "Abortion." Courtesy of Martin Wattenberg, Fernanda B. Viégas, and IBM Research. In "2nd Iteration (2006): The Power of Reference Systems," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Deborah MacPherson. http://scimaps.org.

Alluvial Graph

References

Blondel, Vincent D., Jean-Loup Guillaume, Renaud Lambiotte, and Etienne Lefebvre. 2008. "Fast Unfolding of Communities in Large Networks." Journal of Statistical Mechanics P10008.

MapEquation. 2014. Home Page. Accessed February 16, 2014. http://www.mapequation.org.

Rosvall, Martin, and Carl T. Bergstrom. 2008. "Maps of Random Walks on Complex Networks Reveal Community Structure." PNAS 105 (4): 1118–1123.

Yau, Nathan. 2012. "How to Make a Sankey Diagram to Show Flow." FlowingData (blog), April 26. Accessed January 31, 2014. http://flowingdata.com/2012/04/26/how-to-make-a-sankey-diagram-to-show-flow.

Image Credits

Image from Rosvall 2008 © 2008 National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A.

Software Credits

See MapEquation 2014.

Stream Graph

References

Byron, Lee, and Martin Wattenberg. 2008. "Stacked Graphs—Geometry and Aesthetics." IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics 14 (6): 1245–1252.

Cui, Weiwei, Shixia Liu, Li Tan, Conglei Shi, Yangqiu Song, Zekai Gao, Xin Tong, and Huamin Qu. 2011."TextFlow: Towards Better Understanding of Evolving Topics in Text." IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics 17 (12): 2412–2421.

Havre, Susan, Beth Hetzler, and Lucy Nowell. 2000. "ThemeRiver: Visualizing Theme Changes over Time." In Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization, 115–123. Washington, DC: IEEE Computer Society.

Leskovec, Jure. 2014. Stanford Network Analysis Project. Accessed March 1, 2014. http://memetracker.org.

Leskovec, Jure, Lars Backstrom, and Jon Kleinberg. 2009. "Meme-tracking and the Dynamics of the News Cycle." In Proceedings of the 15th ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, 497–506. New York: ACM.

Image Credits

Image from Leskovec 2009. © 2009 Association for Computing Machinery, Inc. Reprinted by permission.

Image from Cui 2011. © 2011 IEEE. Reprinted, with permission, from IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics.

Image from Havre 2000. © 2000 IEEE. Reprinted, with permission, from IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization.

Image from Byron 2008. © 2008 IEEE. Reprinted, with permission, from IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics.

Software Credits

See Leskovec 2014.

Relationships

Arc Graph

References

Dittus, Martin. 2006. "IRC Arcs." Accessed January 15, 2010. http://www.visualcomplexity.com/vc/project.cfm?id=403.

Harrison, Chris, and Christoph Römhild. 2008. Visualizing Bible Cross-References. Pittsburgh, PA. Courtesy of Chris Harrison and Christoph Römhild. In "7th Iteration (2010): Science Maps as Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Michael J. Stamper. http://scimaps.org.

Wattenberg, Martin. 2002. "Arc Diagrams: Visualizing Structure in Strings." In Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization, 110–116. Washington, DC: IEEE Computer Society.

Wattenberg, Martin. 2012. "The Shape of Song." Visual.ly. Accessed March 1, 2014. http://visual.ly/shape-song.

Image Credits

See Wattenberg 2012.

60

Network Studies"With Whom"

References

Johnson, Samuel. 1755. A Dictionary of the English Language. London: W. Strahan.

Newman, Mark E. J. 2010. Networks: An Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press.

Newman, Mark E. J., Albert-László Barabási, and Duncan J. Watts. 2006. The Structure and Dynamics of Networks. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Rainie, Lee, and Barry Wellman. 2012. Networked: The New Social Operating System. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Seeing Networks

References

Barabási, Albert-László. 2003. Linked: How Everything Is Connected to Everything Else and What It Means for Business, Science, and Everyday Life. New York: Plume.

Borgatti, Stephen P., Ajay Mehra, Daniel J. Brass, and Giuseppe Labianca. 2009. "Network Analysis in the Social Sciences." Science 323 (5916): 892–895.

Christakis, Nicholas A., and James H. Fowler. 2009. Connected: The Surprising Power of Our Social Networks and How They Shape Our Lives. New York: Little, Brown and Company.

Euler, Leonhard. 1741. "Solutio Problematis ad Geometriam Situs Pertinentis." In Commentarii Academiae Scientiarum Petropolitanae, 128–140. Accessed January 15, 2014. http://www.math.dartmouth.edu/~euler/docs/originals/E053.pdf.

Watts, Duncan J. 2003. Six Degrees: The Science of a Connected Age. New York: Norton.

Image Credits

Euler network graph adapted by Perla Mateo-Lujan from http://physics.weber.edu/carroll/honors/konigsberg.htm. Accessed September 18, 2014.

Network Extraction

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Börner, Katy, and David E. Polley. 2014. Visual Insights: A Practical Guide to Making Sense of Data. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Börner, Katy, Jeegar T. Maru, and Robert L. Goldstone. 2004. "The Simultaneous Evolution of Author and Paper Networks." PNAS 101 (Suppl. 1): 5266–73.

De Nooy, Wouter, Andrej Mrvar, and Vladimir Batageli. 2011. Exploratory Social Network Analysis with Pajek. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Network Types

Network Graph

References

Barabási, Albert-László. 2002. Linked: The New Science of Networks. Cambridge, MA: Perseus.

Kochen, Manfred, ed. 1989. The Small World. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Lee, Muh-Tian. 2001. "IMAGE." Accessed January 16, 2014. http://www.learner.org/courses/mathilluminated/units/11/textbook/05.php.

Milgram, Stanley. 1967. "The Small World Problem." Psychology Today 1 (1): 61–67.

Nolte, Nick. 2006. "Map of U.S. Route 6." Wikimedia Commons. Accessed January 16, 2013. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:US_6_map.png.

United States Department of Transportation. 2005. "National Highway System." Wikimedia Commons. Accessed March 1, 2014. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:National_Highway_System.jpg.

Watts, Duncan J. 1999. Small Worlds: The Dynamics of Networks between Order and Randomness. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Watts, Duncan J., and Steven H. Strogatz. 1998. "Collective Dynamics of ‘Small-World’ Networks." Nature 393: 440–442.

White, Harrison C. 1970. "Search Parameters for the Small World Problem." Social Forces 49 (2): 259–264.

Image Credits

Airline Routes courtesy of NASA Ames Education Division.

See United States Department of Transportation 2005.

See Nolte 2006.

Network Analysis

Clustering

References

Clauset, Aaron, Christopher Moore, and Mark E. J. Newman. 2008. "Hierarchical Structure and the Prediction of Missing Links in Networks." Nature 453 (7191): 98–101.

Clauset Aaron, Mark E. J. Newman, and Christopher Moore. 2004. "Finding Community Structure in Very Large Networks." Physical Review E 70 (6): 066111.

Fortunato, Santo. 2010. "Community Detection in Graphs." Physics Reports 486:75–174.

Image Credits

Reprinted by permission from Macmillan Publishers Ltd: Nature © 2008.

Kapitalverflechtungen in Deutschland

References

Krempel, Lothar. 2006. "Die Deutschland AG 1996–2004 und die Entflechtung der Kapitalbeziehungen der 100 grössten deutschen Unternehmen." Accessed January 16, 2014. http://www.socio.ethz.ch/modsim/tagungen/plenum06/krempel06slides.pdf.

Quantifying Social Group Evolution

References

Palla, Gergely, Albert-László Barabási, and Tamás Vicsek. 2007. "Quantifying Social Group Evolution." Nature 446 (7136): 664–667.

Image Credits

Reprinted by permission from Macmillan Publishers Ltd: Nature © 2007.

The Risk Interconnection Map, 2013

References

World Economic Forum. 2013. Global Risks 2013. Cologny, Switzerland: World Economic Forum. 53.

U.S. Senate Voting Similarity Networks, 1975–2012

References

Moody, James, and Peter J. Mucha. 2013. "Portrait of Political Party Polarization." Network Science 1 (1): 119–121.

Staff. 2013. "U.S. Political Polarization Charted in New Study." Duke Today, May 20. Accessed February 16, 2014. http://today.duke.edu/2013/05/us-political-polarization-charted-new-study#video.

Image Credits

U.S. Senate Voting Similarity Networks, 1975–2012 available at http://www.soc.duke.edu/~jmoody77/congress/NetScience_pubfinal.pdf.

62

Network Visualization Types

References

Bertin, Jacques. 1983. Semiology of Graphics. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press. 46.

Tree Layout

References

Hanrahan, Pat. 2001. "To Draw a Tree." Accessed January 16, 2014. http://www-graphics.stanford.edu/~hanrahan/talks/todrawatree.

Hanrahan, Pat. 2004. "Trees and Graphs." Accessed January 16, 2014. http://graphics.stanford.edu/courses/cs448b-04-winter/lectures/treesgraphs/tree.graph.pdf.

Tree View

References

Heer, Jeffrey. 2014. "Treeview." Prefuse. Accessed January 16, 2014. http://prefuse.org/gallery/treeview.

Software Credits

See Heer 2014.

Dendogram

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Morris, Steven A. 2005. Visualizing 60 Years of Anthrax Research. Stillwater, Oklahoma, 2005. Courtesy of Steven A. Morris, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater. In "1st Iteration (2005): The Power of Maps," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Deborah MacPherson. http://scimaps.org.

Radial Tree

References

Padgett, John F. 1986. "Florentine Families Dataset." Accessed March 1, 2014. http://www.casos.cs.cmu.edu/computational_tools/datasets/sets/padgett.

Data Credits

See Padgett 1986.

Software Credits

Network layout rendered using the Sci2 Tool. http://sci2.cns.iu.edu. Accessed September 18, 2014.

Link Tree

References

Ciccarelli, Francesca, Tobias Doerks, Christian Von Mering, Christopher J. Creevey, Berend Snel, Peer Bork. 2006. "Toward Automatic Reconstruction of a Highly Resolved Tree of Life." Science 311 (5765): 1283–1287.

Balloon Tree

Software Credits

Network layout rendered using the Sci2 Tool. http://sci2.cns.iu.edu. Accessed September 18, 2014.

Mosaic Graph

References

Friendly, Michael. 2002. "A Brief History of the Mosaic Display." Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics 11 (1): 89–107.

Harris, Robert L. 1999. Information Graphics: A Comprehensive Illustrated Reference. New York: Oxford University Press.

Mayr, George von. 1874. Gutachten über die Anwendung der Graphischen und Geographischen Methoden in der Statistik. München: J. Gotteswinter.

Treemap

References

Bederson, Ben, Ben Shneiderman and Martin Wattenberg. 2002. "Ordered and Quantum Treemaps: Making Effective Use of 2D Space to Display Hierarchies." ACM Transactions on Graphics 21 (4): 833-854.

Bloch, Matthew, Shan Carter, and Amanda Cox. 2008. "All of Inflation’s Little Parts." The New York Times, May 3. Accessed January 16, 2014. http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2008/05/03/business/20080403_SPENDING_GRAPHIC.html.

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

MarketWatch. 2014. "Map of the Market." Accessed March 1, 2014. http://www.marketwatch.com/tools/stockresearch/marketmap.

Shneiderman, Ben. 1992. "Tree Visualization with Tree-Maps: A 2-Dimensional Space Filling Approach." ACM Transactions on Graphics 11 (1): 92–99.

Network Layouts

Adjacency Matrix

References

Bertin, Jacques. 1983. Semiology of Graphics. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.

Börner, Katy, Shashikant Penumarthy, Mark Meiss, and Weimao Ke. 2006. "Mapping the Diffusion of Information Among Major U.S. Research Institutions." Scientometrics 68 (3): 415–426.

Doreian, Patrick, Vladimir Batagelj, and Anuska Ferligoj. 2005. Generalized Blockmodeling. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Harris, Robert L. 1999. Information Graphics: A Comprehensive Illustrated Reference. New York: Oxford University Press.

Circular Graph

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Holten, Danny. 2006. "Hierarchical Edge Bundles: Visualization of Adjacency Relations in Hierarchical Data." IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics 12 (5): 741-748.

Image Credits

Image from Holten 2006. © 2006 IEEE. Reprinted, with permission, from IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics.

Data Credits

Eugene Garfield Web of Science data available at http://wiki.cns.iu.edu/display/SCI2TUTORIAL/2.5+Sample+Datasets. Accessed September 18, 2014.

Software Credits

Circular layout rendered using the Sci2 Tool. http://sci2.cns.iu.edu. Accessed September 18, 2014.

Hive Graph

References

Krzywinski, Martin. 2011. Hive Plots. Accessed January 30, 2014. http://www.hiveplot.net.

Krzywinski, Martin, Inanc Birol, Steven J. M. Jones, and Marco A. Marra. 2011. "Hive Plots: Rational Approach to Visualizing Networks." Briefings in Bioinformatics 13 (5): 627–644.

Image Credits

Hive graph type examples courtesy of Martin Krzywinski, Canada’s Michael Smith Genome Sciences Center.

Node-Link Graph

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Garfield, Eugene, Elisha F. Hardy, Katy Börner, Ludmila Pollock, and Jan Witkowski. HistCiteVisualization of DNA Development. Philadelphia, PA. Courtesy of Eugene Garfield, Thomson Reuters, Indiana University, and Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. In "2nd Iteration (2006): The Power of Reference Systems," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Deborah MacPherson. http://scimaps.org.

Padgett, John F. 1986. "Florentine Families Dataset." Accessed March 1, 2014. http://www.casos.cs.cmu.edu/computational_tools/datasets/sets/padgett.

Data Credits

See Padgett 1986.

Software Credits

Network layout rendered using the Sci2 Tool. http://sci2.cns.iu.edu. Accessed September 18, 2014.

Sankey Graph

References

Phan, Doantam, Ling Xiao, Ron Yeh, Pat Hanrahan, and Terry Winograd. 2005. "Flow Map Layout." In Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization, 219–224. Washington, DC: IEEE Computer Society.

Conceptual Drawings

References

Broder, Andrei, Ravi Kumar, Farzin Maghoul, Prabhakar Raghavan, Sridhar Rajagopalan, Raymie Stata, Andrew Tomkins, and Janet Wiener. 2000. "Graph Structure in the Web." Computer Networks: The International Journal of Computer and Telecommunications Networking 33 (1–6): 309–320.

Network Overlays

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Börner, Katy, Elisha F. Hardy, Bruce W. Herr II, Todd M. Holloway, and W. Bradford Paley. 2006. Taxonomy Visualization of Patent Data. Bloomington, Indiana and New York, New York. Courtesy of Indiana University and W. Bradford Paley. In "2nd Iteration (2006): The Power of Reference Systems," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Deborah MacPherson. http://scimaps.org.

Hennig, Marina, Ulrik Brandes, Jurgen Pfeffer and Ines Mergel. 2013. Studying Social Networks: A Guide to Empirical Research. Frankfurt: Campus Verlag.

Rafols, Ismael, Alan L. Porter, and Loet Leydesdorff. 2010. "Science Overlay Maps: A New Tool for Research Policy and Library Management." JASIST 61 (9): 1971–1887.

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Studying Dynamics

References

Arijon, Daniel. 1976. Grammar of the Film Language. Los Angeles: Silman-James Press.

Cutting, James E. 2002. "Representing Motion in a Static Image: Constraints and Parallels in Art, Science, and Popular Culture." Perception 31: 1165–1194.

Lasseter, John. 1987. "Principles of Traditional Animation Applied to Computer Animation." ACM SIGGRAPH Computer Graphics 21 (4): 35–44, July 1987.

McCloud, Scott. 2003. Understanding Comics. Northampton, MA: Tundra.

ThinkExist. 2014. "Irish Blessings." Accessed January 17, 2014. http://thinkexist.com/quotation/may_you_have_the_hindsight_to_know_where_you-ve/172094.html.

Types of Dynamics

Image Credits

Growth of Boston Map reproduction courtesy of the Norman B. Leventhal Map Center at the Boston Public Library.

Presentation Types

One Static Image

References

Börner, Katy. 2017. Atlas of Forecasts: Predicting and Broadcasting Science. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Nelson, John. 2012. Hurricanes & Tropical Storms—Locations and Intensities since 1851. Lansing, MI. Courtesy of IDV Solutions. In "9th Iteration (2013): Science Maps Showing Trends and Dynamics," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Todd N. Theriault. http://scimaps.org.

Multiple Static Images

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Fairfield, Hannah. 2009. "Labor Lost, and Found." The New York Times, June 7. Accessed January 17, 2014. http://www.nytimes.com/imagepages/2009/06/07/business/economy/20090607_metrics.html.

Klavans, Richard, and Kevin W. Boyack. 2007. Maps of Science: Forecasting Large Trends in Science. Berwyn, PA and Albuquerque, NM. Courtesy of Richard Klavans, SciTech Strategies, Inc. In "3rd Iteration (2007): The Power of Forecasts," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Julie M. Davis. http://scimaps.org.

Minard, Charles Joseph. 1866. Europe Raw Cotton Imports in 1858, 1864 and 1865. 1866. Paris, France. Courtesy of the Library of Congress, Geography and Maps Division. In "4th Iteration (2008): Science Maps for Economic Decision Makers," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

Walsh, John A., David Becker, Bradford Demarest, Theodora Michaelidou, Laura Pence, and Jonathan Tweedy. Literary Empires: Mapping Temporal and Spatial Settings of Victorian Poetry. Bloomington, IN. Courtesy of Indiana University, with content provided by the David Rumsey Historical Map Collection. In "6th Iteration (2009): Science Maps for Scholars," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

Williams, Sarah, Carlo Ratti and Riccardo Maria Pulselli. 2006. Mobile Landscapes: Using Location Data from Cell Phones for Urban Analysis. Cambridge, MA. Courtesy of MIT SENSEable City Laboratory. In "5th Iteration (2009): Science Maps for Science Policy Makers," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

Evolving Reference System

References

Leydesdorff, Loet. 2010. The Emergence of Nanoscience & Technology. Amsterdam, Netherlands. Courtesy of Loet Leydesdorff, Thomas Schank, and JASIST. In "6th Iteration (2009): Science Maps for Scholars," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

Interactive Visualizations

References

Shneiderman, Ben. 1996. "The Eyes Have IT: A Task by Data Type Taxonomy for Information Visualizations." In Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages, 336–343. Washington, DC: IEEE Computer Society.

Gapminder Visualization

Image Credits

Static image of data visualization from Gapminder World, powered by Trendanalyzer from http://www.gapminder.org. Accessed September 18, 2014. "Google" is the registered trademark of Google Inc. Used with permission.

Virtual World User Activity

References

Börner, Katy, and Shashikant Penumarthy. 2003. "Social Diffusion Patterns in Three-Dimensional Virtual Worlds." Information Visualization 2 (3): 182–198.

Börner, Katy, and Shashikant Penumarthy. 2004. "Mapping Virtual Worlds and Their Inhabitants." Accessed March 7, 2014. http://cns.iu.edu/images/pres/2004-borner-mapvwrld-poster.pdf.

Image Credits

Extracted from Börner and Penumarthy 2004.

TTURC NIH Funding Trends

References

Stipelman, Brooke A., Kara L. Hall, Angela Zoss, Janet Okamoto, Daniel Stokols, and Katy Börner. 2014. "Mapping the Impact of Transdisciplinary Research: A Visual Comparison of Investigator- Initiated and Team-Based Tobacco Use Research Publications." The Journal of Translational Medicine and Epidemiology. 2 (2): 1033.

Image Credits

This research was supported in part by the National Cancer Institute at the National Institute of Health (contract number HHSN26100800812).

66

Combination

References

Goodreads. 2014. "Aristotle Quotes." Accessed January 17, 2014. http://www.goodreads.com/author/quotes/2192.Aristotle.

Image Credits

Images from Harris 1999 © Oxford University Press, 1999.

Multiple Views

References

Berghaus, Heinrich Karl Wilhelm. 1852. Physikalischer Atlas: Geographisches Jahrbuch zur Mittheilung aller wichtigern neüen Enforschungen. Gotha, Germany: Justus Perthes.

Small Multiples

References

Harris, Robert L. 1999. Information Graphics: A Comprehensive Illustrated Reference. New York: Oxford University Press. 386.

Tufte, Edward R. 1990. Envisioning Information. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press. 28, 78.

Tabular Display

References

Harris, Robert L. 1999. Information Graphics: A Comprehensive Illustrated Reference. New York: Oxford University Press. 395.

Matrix Display

References

Harris, Robert L. 1999. Information Graphics: A Comprehensive Illustrated Reference. New York: Oxford University Press. 239.

Multilevel Display

References

Town of Bernalillo. 2014. "Geographic Information System." Accessed January 17, 2014. http://www.townofbernalillo.org/depts/gis.htm.

Heights of the Principal Mountains in the World, Lengths of the Principal Rivers in the World

References

Mitchell, Samuel Augustus. 1859. A New Universal Atlas Containing Maps of the Various Empires, Kingdoms, States, and Republics of the World. Philadelphia, PA: Charles Desilver.

Image Credits

Image reproduced from Mitchell 1859, courtesy of the David Rumsey Collection. http://www.davidrumsey.com. Accessed September 18, 2014.

Zoological Geography

References

Johnston, Alexander Keith. 1849. "Geographical Division and Distribution of Aves (Birds) over the World" and "Geographical Division and Distribution of the Birds of Europe." Accessed January 17, 2014. http://libweb5.princeton.edu/visual_materials/maps/websites/thematic-maps/landmark-thematic-atlases/landmark-thematic-atlases.html#Johnston.

Image Credits

Zoological Geography courtesy of the Historic Map Collection, Department of Rare Books and Special Collections, Princeton University Library.

Inter-Institutional Collaboration Explorer

References

Börner, Katy, Michael Conlon, Jon Corson-Rikert, and Ying Ding. 2012. VIVO: A Semantic Approach to Scholarly Networking and Discovery. San Rafael, CA: Morgan & Claypool.

U.S. Healthcare Reform

Image Credits

The U.S. Healthcare Reform map was created by Persistent Systems using their ShareInsights Big Data Analytics Platform, which analyzes conversations from unstructured and structured data sources.

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Interaction

References

Becker, Richard A., and William S. Cleveland. 1987. "Brushing Scatterplots." Technometrics 29 (2): 127–142.

Cleveland, William S., and Marylyn E. McGill, eds. 1988. Dynamic Graphics for Statistics. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole.

Eick, Stephen G. 1994. "Data Visualization Sliders." In Proceedings of the 7th Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology, 119–120. New York: ACM.

Hanrahan, Pat. 2004. "Trees and Graphs." Accessed January 16, 2014. http://graphics.stanford.edu/courses/cs448b-04-winter/lectures/treesgraphs/tree.graph.pdf.

Heer, Jeff, and Ben Shneiderman. 2012. "Interactive Dynamics for Visual Analysis." Communications of the ACM 55 (4): 45-54.

Shneiderman, Ben. 1994. "Dynamic Queries for Visual Information Seeking." IEEE Software 11 (6): 70–77.

Ward, Matthew O., Georges Grinstein, and Daniel Keim. 2010. Interactive Data Visualization: Foundations, Techniques, and Applications. Natick, MA: A. K. Peters.

Interaction Types

References

Chi, Ed. 1999. "A Framework for Visualizing Information." PhD thesis, University of Minnesota.

Visual View Manipulations

Filter

References

Ahlberg, Christopher, and Ben Shneiderman. 1994. "The Alphaslider: A Compact and Rapid Selector." In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing, 365–371. New York: ACM.

Ahlberg, Christopher, and Ben Shneiderman. 1994. "Visual Information Seeking: Tight Coupling of Dynamic Query Filters with Starfield Displays." In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing, 313–317. New York: ACM.

Shneiderman, Ben. 2007. "Dynamic Queries, Starfield Displays and the Path to Spotfire." Accessed January 17, 2014. http://www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/spotfire.

Detail on Demand

References

Furnas, G. W. 1986. "Generalized Fisheye Views." In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 16–23. New York: ACM.

Lamping, John, Ramana Rao, and Peter Pifolli. 1995. "A Focus +Context Technique Based on Hyperbolic Geometry for Visualizing Large Hierarchies." In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 401–408. New York: ACM/Addison-Wesley.

Roberts, Jonathan C. 2007. "State of the Art: Coordinated and Multiple Views in Exploratory Visualization." In Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Coordinated and Multiple Views in Exploratory Visualization, 61–71. Washington, DC: IEEE Computer Society.

Spence, Robert. 2007. Book Information Visualization: Design for Interaction. 2nd ed. Harlow, UK: Pearson/Prentice.

Interaction Support

References

Roberts, Jonathan C. 2007. "State of the Art: Coordinated and Multiple Views in Exploratory Visualization." In Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Coordinated and Multiple Views in Exploratory Visualization, 61–71. Washington, DC: IEEE Computer Society.

GRIDL

References

Shneiderman, Ben, David Feldman, Anne Rose, Xavier Ferré. 2000. "Visualizing Digital Library Search Results with Categorical and Hierarchical Axes." In Proceedings of the Fifth ACM Conference on Digital Libraries, 57–66. New York: ACM.

Image Credits

GRIDL image from the Human-Computer Interaction Lab, University of Maryland, http://www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/west-legal/gridl/images/acm.gif. September 18, 2014.

The Baby Name Wizard

References

Generation Grownup, LLC. 2014. "The Baby Name Wizard." Accessed January 20, 2014. http://www.babynamewizard.com.

Image Credits

Image courtesy of BabyNameWizard.com.

Seesoft: A Tool for Visualizing Line Oriented Software Statistics

References

Eick, Stephen G., Joseph L. Steffan, and Eric E. Sumner, Jr. 1992. "Seesoft—A Tool for Visualizing Line Oriented Software Statistics." IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering 18 (11): 957–968.

Image Credits

Image reproduced with permission of Alcatel-Lucent, © 1992

London Travel-Time Map

References

mySociety. 2014. "More Travel-Time Maps and Their Uses." Accessed January 20, 2014. http://www.mysociety.org/2007/more-travel-maps.

Image Credits

Travel time map created by mySociety as part of the Mapumental project, funded and supported by the Department for Transport. © Crown. All rights reserved. Department for Transport 100020237 2006.

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Human–Computer Interface

Needs and Affordances

References

Heilig, Morton L. Sensorama Simulator. US Patent US 3050870 A, filed January 10, 1961, and issued August 28, 1962. Accessed January 20, 2014. http://www.google.com/patents/US3050870.

Payatagool, Chris. 2008. "Theory and Research in HCI: Morton Heilig, Pioneer in Virtual Reality Research." Telepresence Options: Your Guide to Visual Collaboration. Accessed January 20, 2014. http://www.telepresenceoptions.com/2008/09/theory_and_research_in_hci_mor.

Proust, Marcel. 1929. Remembrance of Things Past. Translated by C.K. Scott Moncrieff. New York: Random House.

Robinett, Warren. 1994. "Interactivity and Individual Viewpoint in Shared Virtual Worlds: The Big Screen vs. Networked Personal Displays." ACM SIGGRAPH Computer Graphics 28 (2): 127–130.

Device Properties

Resolution

References

Wikimedia Foundation. 2014. "List of Displays by Pixel Density." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed January 20, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_displays_by_pixel_density.

Apple. 2014. iPad Home Page. Accessed January 20, 2014. http://www.apple.com/ipad.

File Size

References

Risinger, Nick. 2014. Sky Survey. Accessed January 20, 2014. http://skysurvey.org.

Brightness

References

Wikimedia Foundation. 2014. "Lumen (Unit)." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed January 20, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lumen_%28unit%29.

Device Options

Digital Displays

References

EBU. 2012. "4K and 8K UHDTV defined." Accessed August 20, 2014. https://tech.ebu.ch/news/4k-and-8k-uhdtv-defined-16may12.

Stereo Displays

References

Cruz-Neira, Carolina, Daniel J. Sandin, Thomas A. DeFanti. 1993. "Surround-Screen Projection-Based Virtual Reality: The Design and Implementation of the CAVE." In Proceedings of SIGGRAPH ‘93, 135–142. New York: ACM.

Cruz-Neira, Carolina, Daniel J. Sandin, Thomas A. DeFanti, Robert V. Kenyon, and John C Hart. 1992. "The CAVE: Audio Visual Experience Automatic Virtual Environment." Communications of the ACM 35 (6): 65–72.

Czernuszenko, Marek, Dave Pape, Daniel Sandin, Tom DeFanti, Gregory L. Dawe, and Maxine D. Brown. 1997. "The ImmersaDesk and Infinity Wall Projection-Based Virtual Reality Displays." ACM SIGGRAPH Computer Graphics 31 (2): 46 – 49.

Krüger, Wolfgang, and Bernd Fröhlich. "The Responsive Workbench." IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 14 (3): 12–15.

Illuminated Diagram Display

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Paley, W. Bradford. 2002. "Illuminated Diagrams: Using Light and Print to Comparative Advantage." TextArc. Accessed January 20, 2014. http://www.textarc.org/appearances/InfoVis02/InfoVis02_IlluminatedDiagrams.pdf.

Augmented Reality and Wearables

References

Azuma, Ronald, Yohan Baillot, Reinhold Behringer, Steven Feiner, Simon Julier, and Blair MacIntyre. 2001. "Recent Advances in Augmented Reality." IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 21 (6): 34–47.

Morton L. Heilig’s Sensorama

References

Heilig, Morton L. Sensorama Simulator. US Patent US 3050870 A, filed January 10, 1961, and issued August 28, 1962. Accessed January 20, 2014. http://www.google.com/patents/US3050870.

Payatagool, Chris. 2008. "Theory and Research in HCI: Morton Heilig, Pioneer in Virtual Reality Research." Telepresence Options: Your Guide to Visual Collaboration. Accessed January 20, 2014. http://www.telepresenceoptions.com/2008/09/theory_and_research_in_hci_mor.

Sakane, Itsuo. 2011. "Morton Heilig’s Sensorama (Interview).mov." YouTube. Accessed August 20, 2014. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vSINEBZNCks.

Image Credits

Image from the Morton Heilig website: "Inventor in the Field of Virtual Reality." Accessed March 1, 2014. http://www.mortonheilig.com/InventorVR.html.

Indiana University’s Virtual Reality Theater

Image Credits

Chauncey Frend, the Advanced Visualization, a unit of the Research Technologies division of University Information Technology Services, © the Trustees of Indiana University. This content is released under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0. Accessed September 18, 2014.

Software Credits

Interactive walkthrough application was created at Indiana University using a combination of Rhino 3D and 3DVia Virtools.

Contributors

Mike Boyles kindly provided this image.

Giant Geo-Cosmos OLED Display

References

Yau, Nathan. 2012. "Giant Globe Display." FlowingData (blog), February 24. Accessed March 1, 2014. http://flowingdata.com/2012/02/24/giant-globe-display.

Image Credits

Image courtesy of Ingo Günther.

Contributors

Ingo Günther provided expert comments.

200 Countries, 200 Years, 4 Minutes

Image Credits

The Joy of Stats © Wingspan Productions Ltd 2011.

72

Validation andInterpretation

References

Kant, Immanuel. 1781. Critik der reinen Vernunft. Riga: Johann Friedrich Hartknoch.

Kimerling, A. Jon, Aileen R. Buckley, Phillip C. Muehrcke, and Juliana O. Muehrcke. 2012. Map Use: Reading, Analysis, Interpretation. 7th ed. Redlands, CA: ESRI Press.

Contributors

Colin Allen’s quote is an adaptation of Kant’s famous dictum (1781): "Thoughts without content are empty; intuitions without conceptions are blind."

Validation Criteria

References

McCandless, David. 2009. The Visual Miscellaneum: A Colorful Guide to the World’s Most Consequential Trivia. New York: Harper Design.

Tufte, Edward R. 1990. Envisioning Information. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.

Tufte, Edward R. 1997. Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.

Tufte, Edward R. 2001. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. 2nd ed. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.

Contributors

W. Bradford Paley provided expert comments.

Function

Utility

References

Bateson, Gregory. 1973. Steps to an Ecology of Mind. Frogmore, St. Albans: Paladin. 428.

MacKay, Donald M. 1969. Information, Mechanism and Meaning. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Shannon, Claude E. 1948. "A Mathematical Theory of Communication." The Bell System Technical Journal 27: 379–423, 623–656.

Shannon, Claude E., and Warren Weaver. 1949. The Mathematical Theory of Communication. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.

Effectiveness

References

Frankel, Felice C., and Angela H. DePace. 2012. Visual Strategies: A Practical Guide to Graphics for Scientists and Engineers. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Tukey, John W. 1990. "Data-Based Graphics: Visual Display in the Decades to Come." Statistical Science 5:327–339.

Scalability

References

Eick, Stephen G., and Alan F. Karr. 2002. "Visual Scalability." Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics 1 (11): 22–43.

Light, Robert P., David E. Polley, and Katy Börner. 2014. "Open Data and Open Code for Big Science of Science Studies." Scientometrics, February 19. Accessed March 7, 2014. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11192-014-1238-2.

Aesthetics

Accuracy

References

MacEachren, Alan M. 1994. SOME Truth with Maps: A Primer in Symbolization and Design. Washington, DC: Association of American Geographers.

Sebrechts, Marc M., John V. Cugini, Sharon J. Laskowski, Joanna Vasilakis, and Michael S. Miller. 1999. "Visualization of Search Results: A Comparative Evaluation of Text, 2D, and 3D Interfaces." In the Proceedings of the 22nd Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval, 3–10. New York: ACM.

Validation Methods

References

Carpendale, Sheelagh. 2008. "Evaluating Information Visualizations." In Information Visualization: Human-Centered Issues and Perspectives, edited by Andreas Kerren, John T. Stasko, Jean-Daniel Fekete, Chris North, 19–45. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

User Studies

References

Nielsen, Jakob. 2006. "F-Shaped Pattern for Reading Web Content." Nielsen Norman Group. Accessed January 20, 2014. http://www.nngroup.com/articles/f-shaped-pattern-reading-web-content.

Human (Expert) Validation

References

North, Chris. 2006. "Toward Measuring Visualization Insight." IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 26 (3): 6–9.

Skupin, André, Joseph R. Biberstine, and Katy Börner. 2013. "Visualizing the Topical Structure of the Medical Sciences: A Self-Organizing Map Approach." PLoS One 8 (3): e58779. Accessed March 6, 2014. http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0058779.

Controlled Experiments on Benchmark Tasks

References

Chen, Chaomei, and Yue Yu. 2000. "Empirical Studies of Information Visualization: A Meta-Analysis," International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 53 (5): 851–866.

Crowdsourcing Evaluation

References

Heer, Jeffrey, and Michael Bostock. 2010. "Crowdsourcing Graphical Perception: Using Mechanical Turk to Assess Visualization Design." In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 203–212. New York: ACM.

Interpretation

References

Harley, John B. 1988. "Silences and Secrecy: The Hidden Agenda of Cartography in Early Modern Europe." Imago Mundi 40: 57–76.

Harley, John B. 1989. "Deconstructing the Map." Cartographica 26 (2): 1–20.

Harley, John B. 1990. "Cartography, Ethics, and Social Theory." Cartographica 27 (2): 1–23.

Harley, John B. 1991. "Can There Be a Cartographic Ethics?" Cartographic Perspectives 10: 9–16.

Huff, Darrell. 1954. How to Lie with Statistics. New York: Norton.

Descriptions and Examples

Scales

References

Wikimedia Foundation. 2014. "Population Growth." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 1, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Population_growth.

Image Credits

See Wikimedia Foundation 2014.

Distortions

References

Huff, Darrell. 1954. How to Lie with Statistics. New York: Norton.

Regressions

References

Harris, Robert L. 1999. Information Graphics: A Comprehensive Illustrated Reference. New York: Oxford University Press.

Projections

References

Wikimedia Foundation. 2014. "Scale (Map)." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 1, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scale_%28map%29.

Image Credits

See Wikimedia Foundation 2014.

Dimensions

References

Huff, Darrell. 1954. How to Lie with Statistics. New York: Norton.

Perspective

References

Staff. 1979. "The Shrinking Family Doctor." Los Angeles Times, August 5, 3.

Image Credits

The Shrinking Family Doctor by Bob Allen and Pete Bentajova. Copyright © 1979. Los Angeles Times. Reprinted with permission.

75

Part 3: Science Maps in Action

References

Otlet, Paul. 1934. Traité de documentation, le livre sur le livre: théorie et pratique. Bruxelles: Mundaneum.

Shelley, Ward. 2011. History of Science Fiction. Brooklyn, NY. Courtesy of Ward Shelley Studio. In "7th Iteration (2011): Science Maps as Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Michael J. Stamper. http://scimaps.org.

Image Credits

Extracted from Shelley 2011.

Places & Spaces: Mapping Science

Introduction to the Exhibit

References

Cyberinfrastructure for Network Science Center. 2013. "Places & Spaces: Mapping Science Exhibit Annual Report." Accessed March 1, 2014. http://scimaps.org/exhibit/docs/AnnualReport_2012_web.pdf.

Contributors

Todd N. Theriault co-authored this section.

Elizabeth Record compiled counts.

Image Credits

National Academy of Sciences images courtesy of Katy Börner.

Science Express Train image courtesy of the Max Plank Society.

"Places and Spaces Exhibit" courtesy North Carolina State University Libraries.

Makevention image courtesy of Katy Börner.

Image courtesy University of North Texas College.

ACM Web Science Conference image courtesy of Fillipo Menczer.

San Diego State University image courtesy of André Skupin.

Political Networks Conference image courtesy of Tracey Theriault.

Musée Mundaneum image courtesy of Delphine Jenart.

Copyright by World Economic Forum.

Northeastern University image courtesy of Katy Börner.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development image courtesy of Katy Börner.

World Maps created by Perla Mateo-Lujan and Katy Börner (data compilation) using the Sci2 Tool. http://sci2.cns.iu.edu.

Organization of Part Three

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

78

Fourth Iteration (2008): Science Maps for Economic Decision Makers

80

Europe Raw Cotton Imports in 1858, 1864, and 1865

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Corbett, John. 1967. "Charles Joseph Minard: Mapping Napoleon’s March, 1861." Center for Spatially Integrated Social Science. Accessed August 1, 2013. http://www.csiss.org/classics/content/58.

Finley, Dawn, and Virginia Tufte. 2002. "Minard’s Sources." Edward Tufte: New ET Writings, Artworks & News. Accessed August 28, 2013. http://www.edwardtufte.com/tufte/minard.

Minard, Charles Joseph. 1866. Europe Raw Cotton Imports in 1858, 1864 and 1865. 1866. Paris, France. Courtesy of the Library of Congress, Geography and Maps Division. In "4th Iteration (2008): Science Maps for Economic Decision Makers," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

Minard, Charles Joseph. 1869. Napoleon’s March to Moscow. Paris, France. Courtesy of EdwardTufte, Graphics Press, Cheshire, CT. In "1st Iteration (2005): The Power of Maps," Places& Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Deborah MacPherson. http://scimaps.org.

Robinson, Arthur H. 1967. "The Thematic Maps of Charles Joseph Minard." Imago Mundi: A Review of Early Cartography 21: 95–108.

82

Shrinking of Our Planet

References

Applewhite, E. J., and R. Buckminster Fuller. 1975. Synergetics: Explorations in the Geometry of Thinking. New York: Macmillan.

Buckminster Fuller Institute. 2010. "World Game." Accessed August 1, 2013. http://bfi.org/about-bucky/buckys-big-ideas/world-game.

Fuller, R. Buckminster. 1969. Operating Manual for Spaceship Earth. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.

Fuller, R. Buckminster. 1973. Earth, Inc. Garden City, NY: Anchor Press.

Fuller, R. Buckminster. 1981. Critical Path. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Fuller, R. Buckminster, and Anwar Dil. 1983. Humans in Universe. New York: Mouton.

Fuller, R. Buckminster, and John McHale. 1965. Shrinking of Our Planet. Carbondale, IL. Courtesy of the Estate of R. Buckminster Fuller. In "4th Iteration (2008): Science Maps for Economic Decision Makers," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

McHale, John. 1965. The Ten Year Program [Document 4]. In World Design Science Decade, 1965–1975, Phase I by R. Buckminster Fuller and John McHale. Carbondale: World Resources Inventory, Southern Illinois University. Accessed August 30, 2013. http://challenge.bfi.org/sites/challenge.bfi.org/files/pdf_files/wdsd_phase1_doc4.pdf.

McHale, John. 1967. The Ecological Context: Energy and Materials [Document 6]. In World Design Science Decade, 1965–1975, Phase II by R. Buckminster Fuller and John McHale. Carbondale: World Resources Inventory, Southern Illinois University. Accessed August 30, 2013.http://challenge.bfi.org/sites/challenge.bfi.org/files/pdf_files/wdsd_phase2_doc6.pdf.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2013. "Buckminster Fuller." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 1, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buckminster_Fuller.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2013. "John McHale (artist)." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 1, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_McHale_%28artist%29.

Zung, Thomas T. K. 2001. Buckminster Fuller: Anthology for the New Millenium. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Image Credits

Images courtesy of the Estate of R. Buckminster Fuller and the Estate of John McHale.

Contributors

Bonnie DeVarco proposed this map.

84

Tracing of Key Events in the Development of the Video Tape Recorder

References

Benn, George, and Francis Narin. 1969. Tracing of Key Events in the Development of the Video Tape Recorder. Chicago, IL. Courtesy of the IIT Research Institute. In "4th Iteration (2008): Science Maps for Economic Decision Makers," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

Broad, William J. 1997. "Study Finds Public Science is Pillar of Industry." The New York Times, May 13. http://www.nytimes.com/1997/05/13/science/study-finds-public-science-is-pillar-of-industry.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm.

Illinois Institute of Technology Research Institute under Contract NSF-C535. 1968. Technology in Retrospect and Critical Events in Science (TRACES). Washington, DC: NSF.

Moll, Joy K., and Francis Narin. 1977. "Bibliometrics." ARIST 12: 35–38.

Narin, Francis. 1976. Evaluative Bibliometrics: The Use of Publication and Citation Analysis in the Evaluation of Scientific Activity. Cherry Hill, NJ: Computer Horizons, Inc.

Narin, Francis, Kimberly S. Hamilton, and Dominic Olivastro. 1997. "The Increasing Linkage between U.S. Technology and Public Science." Research Policy 26 (3): 317–330.

86

World Finance Corporation, Miami, Florida, ca. 1970–1979 (6th Version)

References

The Art Reserve. 2013. "Mark Lombardi: Index at Pierogi Gallery." Accessed August 27, 2013. http://theartreserve.com/mark-lombardi-index-at-pierogi-gallery.

Hobbs, Robert. 2004. Mark Lombardi: Global Networks. New York: Independent Curators International.

Lombardi, Mark. 1999. World Finance Corporation, Miami, Florida, ca. 1970–79 (6th Version). New York, NY. Courtesy of David Lombardi and Pierogi Gallery. In "4th Iteration (2008): Science Maps for Economic Decision Makers," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

Pierogi Gallery. 2013. "Mark Lombardi Artist’s Page." Accessed August 1, 2013. http://www.pierogi2000.com/artists/mark-lombardi.

Image Credits

World Finance Corporation, Miami, Florida, ca. 1970–79 (6th Version). 1999. Graphite and colored pencil on paper. 35 ½ x 46 1/4 inches.

Image courtesy of David Lombardi and Pierogi Gallery.

Lombardi portrait courtesy of John Berens.

Contributors

Susan Swenson, Pierogi Gallery, and Donald Lombardi.

Text was adopted from pages 66–71 in Hobbs 2004.

88

Examining the Evolution and Distribution of Patent Classifications

References

Kutz, Daniel O. 2004. "Examining the Evolution and Distribution of Patent Classifications." In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Information Visualisation, 983–988. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society.

Kutz, Daniel O., Katy Börner, and Elisha F. Hardy. 2004. Examining the Evolution and Distribution of Patent Classifications. Bloomington, IN. Courtesy of Indiana University. In "4th Iteration (2008): Science Maps for Economic Decision Makers," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

Image Credits

Image courtesy of Daniel O. Kutz, http://danieloliver.com. Accessed September 18, 2014.

Hardy portrait courtesy of Elisha F. Allgood.

Kutz portrait courtesy of Daniel O. Kutz, http://danieloliver.com. Accessed September 18, 2014.

Contributors

Daniel O. Kutz co-authored the description of this map.

90

Ecological Footprint

References

Dorling, Danny, Mark E. J. Newman, and Anna Barford. 2010. The Atlas of the Real World: Mapping the Way We Live. Revised and expanded. London: Thames & Hudson.

Dorling, Danny, Mark E. J. Newman, Graham Allsopp, Anna Barford, Ben Wheeler, John Pritchard and David Dorling. 2006. Ecological Footprint. Sheffield, UK and Ann Arbor, MI. Courtesy of the Universities of Sheffield and Michigan. In "4th Iteration (2008): Science Maps for Economic Decision Makers," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

Gastner, Michael, and Mark E. J. Newman. 2004. "Diffusion-Based Method for Producing Density-Equalizing Maps." PNAS 101 (20): 7499–7504.

The SASI Group (University of Sheffield) and Mark E. J. Newman (University of Michigan). 2006. Ecological Footprint. Worldmapper. Accessed August 28, 2013. http://www.worldmapper.org/display.php?selected=322.

Image Credits

Image courtesy of http://www.worldmapper.org. Accessed September 18, 2014.

Portrait of Danny Dorling courtesy of Alison Dorling.

Portrait of John Pritchard © SASI Group (University of Sheffield) and Mark E. J. Newman.

92

The Product Space

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Hausmann, Ricardo, César A. Hidalgo, Sebastián Bustos, Michele Coscia, Sarah Chung, Juan Jimenez, Alexander Simoes, Muhammed A. Yildirim. 2011. The Atlas of Economic Complexity. Boston, MA: Harvard Kennedy School and MIT Media Lab. Accessed August 28, 2013. http://www.cid.harvard.edu/documents/complexityatlas.pdf.

Hidalgo, César A., Bailey Klinger, Albert-László Barabási, and Ricardo Hausmann. 2007. The Product Space. Boston, MA. Courtesy of Harvard Kennedy School, Northeastern University, and University of Notre Dame. In "4th Iteration (2008): Science Maps for Economic Decision Makers," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

Hidalgo, César A., Bailey Klinger, Albert-László Barabási, and Ricardo Hausmann. 2007. "The Product Space Conditions the Development of Nations." Science 317 (5837): 482–487.

Hidalgo, César A., Bailey Klinger, Albert-László Barabási, and Ricardo Hausmann. 2008. "The Product Space." César Hidalgo Home Page. Accessed August 28, 2013. http://www.chidalgo.com/productspace.

Image Credits

See Hidalgo et al. 2007.

94

4D. The Structured Visual Approach to Business-Issue Resolution

References

Caswell, John, Tiffany Hazel, and Ian Francis. 2008. 4D. The Structured Visual Approach to Business Issue Resolution. Mayfair, UK. Courtesy of Group Partners. In "4th Iteration (2008): Science Maps for Economic Decision Makers," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

Group Partners. 2013. Blueprint: Changing the Way Business Thinks & Works. Accessed August 28, 2013. http://issuu.com/johncaswell/docs/gp_blueprint_v11_lr?e=1157835/4494577#222222.

Group Partners. 2013. Creativity Meets Consulting. Accessed August 28, 2013. http://issuu.com/johncaswell/docs/creativity_doc7_v2lr?e=1157835/3169466#222222.

Group Partners. 2013. Group Partners Home Page. Accessed August 28, 2013. http://www.grouppartnerswiki.net.

Contributors

John Caswell and Sarah Gall coauthored the biographies as well as the description of the map.

96

The Scientific Roots of Technology

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Boyack, Kevin W., and Richard Klavans. 2008. "Measuring Science-Technology Interaction Using Rare Inventor-Author Names." Journal of Informetrics 2 (3): 173–182.

Boyack, Kevin W., and Richard Klavans. 2008. The Scientific Roots of Technology. Albuquerque, NM and Berwyn, PA. Courtesy of SciTech Strategies, Inc. In "4th Iteration (2008): Science Maps for Economic Decision Makers," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

Klavans, Richard, and Kevin W. Boyack. 2007. Maps of Science: Forecasting Large Trends in Science. Berwyn, PA and Albuquerque, NM. Courtesy of Richard Klavans, SciTech Strategies, Inc. In "3rd Iteration (2007): The Power of Forecasts," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Julie M. Davis. http://scimaps.org.

Klavans, Richard, and Kevin W. Boyack. 2010. "Toward an Objective, Reliable and Accurate Method for Measuring Research Leadership." Scientometrics 82 (3): 539–553.

Contributors

Fact checking by Kevin W. Boyack.

98

A Global Projection of Subjective Well-Being

References

Abdallah, Saamah, Juliet Michaelson, Sagar Shah, Laura Stoll, Nic Marks. 2012. The Happy Planet Index: 2012 Report. London: New Economics Foundation. Accessed August 28, 2013. http://www.neweconomics.org/publications/entry/happy-planet-index-2012-report.

Marks, Nic, Saamah Abdallah, Andrew Simms, and Sam Thompson. 2006. The (un)Happy Planet Index: An Index of Human Well-Being and Environmental Impact. London: New Economics Foundation. Accessed August 28, 2013. http://dnwssx4l7gl7s.cloudfront.net/nefoundation/default/page/-/files/The_Happy_Planet_Index.pdf.

White, Adrian G. 2007. "A Global Projection of Subjective Well-being: A Challenge To Positive Psychology?" Psychtalk 56 (March): 17–20.

White, Adrian and the National Geographic EarthPulse Team. 2008. A Global Projection of Subjective Well-Being. Washington, DC. Courtesy of National Geographic. In "4th Iteration (2008): Science Maps for Economic Decision Makers," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

Image Credits

Figure from The Happy Planet Index: 2012 Report, published by the New Economics Foundation (Abdallah et al., 2012).

100

Fifth Iteration (2009):Science Maps for SciencePolicy Makers

102

Science and Society in Equilibrium

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Martino, Joseph P. 1969. "Science and Society in Equilibrium." Science 165 (3895): 769–772.

Martino, Joseph P. 1969. Science and Society in Equilibrium. Holloman Air Force Base, NM. Courtesy of AAAS. In "5th Iteration (2009): Science Maps for Science Policy Makers," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

Martino, Joseph P. 1993. Technological Forecasting for Decision Making. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Martino, Joseph P. 1995. Research and Development Project Selection. Wiley Series in Engineering and Technology Management. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

National Science Board. 2012. Science and Engineering Indicators 2012. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation (NSB 12–01). Accessed August 28, 2013. http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/seind12/start.htm.

National Science Foundation. 2012. "R&D: National Trends and International Comparisons." Science and Engineering Indicators 2012. Accessed August 29, 2013. http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/seind12/figures.htm#c4.

The World Bank Group. 2013. "GNI per Capita, Atlas Method (Current US$)." The World Bank. Accessed August 29, 2013. http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAfCD.

Image Credits

Accompanying figure courtesy of Katy Börner (data compilation) and Perla Mateo-Lujan (design).

Data Credits

See National Science Foundation 2012.

See The World Bank Group. 2013.

Software Credits

Microsoft Excel.

Contributors

David E. Polley digitized Science and Society in Equilibrium data.

Kei Koizumi provided expert advice.

104

Networks of Scientific Communications

References

Dumenton, Georgiy G. 1965. Obshchenie i rasselenie priperekhode k kommunizmu [Communication and Population Distribution in the Transition to Communism]. PhD Thesis, Moscow Institute of the National Economy.

Dumenton, Georgiy G. 1987. Seti naucnych kommunikacij i organizacija fundamental’nych issledovanij [Networks of Scientific Communication and the Organization of Fundamental Research]. Moscow: Nauka.

Dumenton, Georgiy G. 1987. Networks of Scientific Communication. Moscow, Russia. Courtesy of Nauka and Georgiy G. Dumenton. In "5th Iteration (2009): Science Maps for Science Policy Makers," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

Contributors

Translation from Russian by Klaus Scharnhorst. For Cyrillic letters, the Library of Congress transcription scheme has been applied.

106

Realigning the Boston Traffic Separation Scheme to Reduce the Risk of Ship Strike to Right and Other Baleen Whales

References

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 2013. "Marine Mammals: Right Whales and Ship Strikes." NOAA Office of the General Counsel. Accessed August 28, 2013. http://www.gc.noaa.gov/gcil_mm_right_whales.html.

Scardina, Julie, and Jeff Flocken. 2012. Wildlife Heroes: 40 Leading Conservationists and the Animals They Are Committed to Saving. Philadelphia, PA: Running Press.

Wiley, David N., Michael A. Thompson, and Richard Merrick. 2006. Realigning the Boston Traffic Separation Scheme to Reduce the Risk of Ship Strike to Right and Other Baleen Whales. Scituate, MA and Woods Hole, MA. Courtesy of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. In "5th Iteration (2009): Science Maps for Science Policy Makers," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

108

Mobile Landscapes: Using Location Data from Cell Phones for Urban Analysis

References

Pulselli, Riccardo M., and Enzo Tiezzi. 2009. City Out of Chaos: Urban Self-organization and Sustainability. Southampton, UK: WIT Press.

Ratti, Carlo, Sarah Williams, Dennis Frenchman, and Riccardo M. Pulselli. 2006. "Mobile Landscapes: Using Location Data from Cell Phones for Urban Analysis." Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 33: 727–748.

Williams, Sarah, Carlo Ratti and Riccardo Maria Pulselli. 2006. Mobile Landscapes: Using Location Data from Cell Phones for Urban Analysis. Cambridge, MA. Courtesy of MIT SENSEable City Laboratory. In "5th Iteration (2009): Science Maps for Science Policy Makers," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

Image Credits

Portrait of Carlo Ratti courtesy of Lars Krüger. http://www.lumivere.com. Accessed September 18, 2014.

Accompanying figure Mobile Landscapes is courtesy of Sarah Williams.

110

Death and Taxes 2009

References

Bachman, Jess. 2009. Death and Taxes 2009. Ontario, Canada. Courtesy of http://www.wallstats.com. In "5th Iteration (2009): Science Maps for Science Policy Makers," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

Bachman, Jess. 2013. Death and Taxes: 2014. Accessed August 28, 2013. http://www.timeplots.com/collections/catalog/products/death-and-taxes-poster-2014.

112

Chemical R&D Powers the U.S. Innovation Engine

References

Council for Chemical Research in cooperation with the Chemical Heritage Foundation. Phase I. 2001. Measuring Up: Research and Development Counts for the Chemical Industry. Washington, DC: Council for Chemical Research. Accessed August 28, 2013. http://www.ccrhq.org/innovate/publications/phase-i-study.

Council for Chemical Research. Phase II. 2005. Measure for Measure: Chemical R&D Powers the U.S. Innovation Engine. Washington, DC: Council for Chemical Research. Accessed August 28, 2013. http://www.ccrhq.org/innovate/publications/phase-ii-study.

Council for Chemical Research. 2009. Chemical R&D Powers the U.S. Innovation Engine. Washington, DC. Courtesy of the Council for Chemical Research. In "5th Iteration (2009): Science Maps for Science Policy Makers," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

Link, Albert N., and the Council for Chemical Research. Phase III. 2010. Assessing and Enhancing the Impact of Science R&D in the United States: Chemical Sciences. Accessed August 28, 2013. http://www.ccrhq.org/innovate/publications/phase-iii-study.

Image Credits

Chemical R&D Powers the U.S. Innovation Engine © The Council for Chemical Research.

CCR Logo © The Council for Chemical Research.

114

A Topic Map of NIH Grants 2007

References

Herr II, Bruce W., Katy Börner, Russell J. Duhon, Elisha F. Hardy, and Shashikant Penumarthy. 2008. NIH Topic Maps: Topic and Map-Based Clustering Analysis of NIH Grants. Accessed September 18, 2014. http://nihmaps.org.

Herr II, Bruce W., Edmund M. Talley, Gully A. P. C. Burns, David Newman, and Gavin LaRowe. 2009. "NIH Visual Browser: An Interactive Visualization of Biomedical Research." In Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Information Visualisation, 505–509.

Herr II, Bruce W., Gully A. P. C. Burns, David Newman, and Edmund Talley. 2009. A Topic Map of NIH Grants 2007. Bloomington, IN. Courtesy of ChalkLabs, Indiana University & Information Sciences Institute, University of California, Irvine. In "5th Iteration (2009): Science Maps for Science Policy Makers," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

Talley, Edmund M., David Newman, David Mimno, Bruce W. Herr II, Hanna M. Wallach, Gully A. P. C. Burns, A. G. Miriam Leenders, and Andrew McCallum. 2011. "Database of NIH Research Using Machine-Learned Categories and Graphical Clustering." Nature Methods 8 (6): 443–444.

116

A Clickstream Map of Science

References

Bollen, Johan, Lyudmila Balakireva, Luís Bettencourt, Ryan Chute, Aric Hagberg, Marko A. Rodriguez, and Herbert Van de Sompel. 2008. A Clickstream Map of Science. Los Alamos, NM. Courtesy of Los Alamos National Laboratory. In "5th Iteration (2009): Science Maps for Science Policy Makers," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

Bollen, Johan, Lyudmila Balakireva, Luís Bettencourt, Ryan Chute, Aric Hagberg, Marko A. Rodriguez, and Herbert Van de Sompel. 2009. "Clickstream Data Yields High-Resolution Maps of Science." PLoS One 4 (3): 1–11.

118

U.S. Vulnerabilities in Science

References

Boyack, Kevin W. and Richard Klavans. 2008. U.S. Vulnerabilities in Science. Berwyn, PA and Albuquerque, NM. Courtesy of SciTech Strategies. In "5th Iteration (2009): Science Maps for Science Policy Makers," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

Klavans, Richard, and Kevin W. Boyack. 2010. "Toward an Objective, Reliable and Accurate Method for Measuring Research Leadership." Scientometrics 82 (3): 539–553.

120

The Millennium Development Goals Map

References

Department of Public Information, United Nations. 2010. We Can End Poverty 2015: Millennium Development Goals. Accessed September 18, 2014. http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals.

The World Bank Group. 2011. "The Millennium Development Goals Map: Charting Progress toward a Better World." Data & Research. Accessed August 28, 2013. http://go.worldbank.org/GQXIWINE20.

The World Bank and The National Geographic Society. 2006. The Millennium Development Goals Map: A Global Agenda to End Poverty. Washington, DC. Courtesy of The World Bank and The National Geographic Society. In "5th Iteration (2009): Science Maps for Science Policy Makers," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

122

Sixth Iteration (2010): Science Maps for Scholars

124

Tree of Life

References

Bork, Peer, Francesca Ciccarelli, Berend Snel, Christian von Mering, and Chris Creevey. 2006. Tree of Life. Heidelberg, Germany. Courtesy of European Molecular Biology Laboratory. In "6th Iteration (2009): Science Maps for Scholars," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

Ciccarelli, Francesca, Tobias Doerks, Christian Von Mering, Christopher J. Creevey, Berend Snel, Peer Bork. 2006. "Toward Automatic Reconstruction of a Highly Resolved Tree of Life." Science 311 (5765): 1283–1287.

126

The Human Connectome

References

Hagmann, Patric, Leila Cammoun, Xavier Gigandet, Reto Meuli, Christopher J. Honey, Van J. Wedeen, and Olaf Sporns. 2008. "Mapping the Structural Core of Human Cerebral Cortex." PLoS Biology 6 (7): 1479–1493.

Sporns, Olaf. 2010. Networks of the Brain. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Sporns, Olaf. 2012. Discovering the Human Connectome. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Sporns, Olaf, and Patric Hagmann. 2008. The Human Connectome. Boston, MA. Courtesy of Little, Brown and Company, Patric Hagmann, and Olaf Sporns. In "6th Iteration (2009): Science Maps for Scholars,"

Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

Image Credits

Exhibit map courtesy of Patric Hagmann, University of Lausanne (UNIL-CHUU), Lausanne, Switzerland.

Portrait of Hagmann courtesy of Patric Hagmann, University of Lausanne (UNIL-CHUU), Lausanne, Switzerland.

Portrait of Olaf Sporns courtesy of Indiana University.

128

Diseasome: The Human Disease Network

References

Bastien, Mathieu, and Sébastien Heymann. 2009. Diseasome. Paris, France. Courtesy of INIST-CNRS and Linkfluence. In "6th Iteration (2009): Science Maps for Scholars," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

Goh, Kwang-Il, Michael E. Cusick, David Valle, Barton Childs, Marc Vidal, and Albert-László Barabási. 2007. "The Human Disease Network." PNAS 104 (21): 8685–8690.

130

Human Speechome Project

References

Cognitive Machines Group. 2013. "The Human Speechome Project." Cognitive Machines. Accessed August 28, 2013. http://www.media.mit.edu/cogmac/projects/hsp.html.

Roy, Deb, Philip DeCamp, Michael Fleischman, Peter Gorniak, Jethran Guinness, Rony Kubat, Michael Levit, Nikolaos Mavridis, Rupal Patel, Brandon Roy, Alexia Salata, and Stefanie Tellex. 2006. "The Human Speechome Project." In Proceedings of the 28th Annual Cognitive Science Conference, 2059–2064.

Shaw, George, Phillip Decamp, and Deb Roy. 2010. Human Speechome Project. Cambridge, MA. Courtesy of Cognitive Machines Group, MIT Media Lab. In "6th Iteration (2009): Science Maps for Scholars," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

Image Credits

Roy photo courtesy of Philip DeCamp and Deb Roy.

132

Mapping the Archive: Prix Ars Electronica

References

Offenhuber, Dietmar. 2009. "Prix Arts Electronica: Mapping the Archive." Personal Home Page. Accessed August 28, 2013. http://offenhuber.net/prix-ars-electronica-mapping-the-archive/.

Offenhuber, Dietmar, Evelyn Münster, Moritz Stefaner, Gerhard Dirmoser, and Jaume Nualart. 2008. Mapping the Archive: Prix Ars Electronica. Linz, Austria. Courtesy of Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Media.Art.Research and Ars Electronica. In "6th Iteration (2009): Science Maps for Scholars," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

Yavuz, Mahir. 2009. "Mapping the Archive: 30 Years of Ars Electronica Visualized in Huge Scale." Information Aesthetics (blog). Accessed August 28, 2013. http://infosthetics.com/archives/2009/09/mapping_the_archive_30_years_of_ars_electronica.html.

Image Credits

Mapping the Archive: Prix Ars Electronica courtesy of http://offenhuber.net/prix-ars-electronica-mapping-the-archive. Accessed September 18, 2014.

Portrait of Gerhard Dirmoser courtesy of Ars Electronica.

134

Knowledge Cartography

References

Quaggiotto, Marco. 2008. "Knowledge Atlas: A Cartographic Approach to the Social Structures of Knowledge." Paper presented at the Analogous Spaces Conference, Ghent, Belgium, May 14–17. Accessed August 28, 2013. http://www.knowledgecartography.org/PDF/knowledge-atlas.pdf.

Quaggiotto, Marco. 2008. "Knowledge Cartographies: Tools for the Social Structures of Knowledge." Paper presented at the Changing the Change Conference, Turin, Italy, July 10–12. Accessed August 28, 2013. http://www.knowledgecartography.org/PDF/knowledge-cartographies.pdf.

Quaggiotto, Marco. 2008. Knowledge Cartography. Milano, Italy. Courtesy of the Department of Industrial Design, Art, Communication and Fashion (INDACO), Politecnico di Milano, Italy, and Complex Networks and Systems Group, ISI Foundation, Turin, Italy. In "6th Iteration (2009): Science Maps for Scholars," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

Quaggiotto, Marco. 2010. "This is Knowledge Cartography." Accessed August 28, 2013. http://www.knowledgecartography.org.

136

Literary Empires: Mapping Temporal and Spatial Settings of Victorian Poetry

References

Quin, Edward. 1830. A.D. 337. At The Death of Constantine. London, England. Courtesy of the David Rumsey Map Collection, Cartography Associates, San Francisco.

Walsh, John A., David Becker, Bradford Demarest, Theodora Michaelidou, Laura Pence, and Jonathan Tweedy. Literary Empires: Mapping Temporal and Spatial Settings of Victorian Poetry. Bloomington, IN. Courtesy of Indiana University, with content provided by the David Rumsey Historical Map Collection. In "6th Iteration (2009): Science Maps for Scholars," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

Walsh, John, ed. 2012. The Algernon Charles Swinburne Project. Accessed August 28, 2013. http://webapp1.dlib.indiana.edu/swinburne.

138

The Emergence of Nanoscience & Technology

References

Leydesdorff, Loet. 2001. The Challenge of Scientometrics: The Development, Measurement, and Self-Organization of Scientific Communications. Boca Raton, FL: Universal Publishers.

Leydesdorff, Loet. 2001. A Sociological Theory of Communication: The Self-Organization of the Knowledge-Based Society. Boca Raton, FL: Universal Publishers.

Leydesdorff, Loet. 2006. The Knowledge-Based Economy: Modeled, Measured, Simulated. Boca Raton, FL: Universal Publishers.

Leydesdorff, Loet, and Thomas Schank. 2008. "Dynamic Animations of Journal Maps: Indicators of Structural Change and Interdisciplinary Developments." JASIST 59 (11):1810–1818.

Leydesdorff, Loet. 2010. The Emergence of Nanoscience & Technology. Amsterdam, Netherlands. Courtesy of Loet Leydesdorff, Thomas Schank, and JASIST. In "6th Iteration (2009): Science Maps for Scholars," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

140

Weaving the Fabric of Science

References

Börner, Katy, Richard Klavans, Michael Patek, Angela Zoss, Joseph R. Biberstine, Robert Light, Vincent Lariviére, and Kevin W. Boyack. 2012. "Design and Update of a Classification System: The UCSD Map of Science." PLoS One 7 (7): e39464. Accessed August 28, 2013. http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0039464.

Boyack, Kevin W., and Richard Klavans. 2010. Weaving the Fabric of Science. Albuquerque, NM & Berwyn, PA. Courtesy of Kevin W. Boyack and Richard Klavans, SciTech Strategies, Inc. In "6th Iteration (2009): Science Maps for Scholars," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

142

U.S. Job Market: Where Are the Academic Jobs?

References

Zoss, Angela, and Katy Börner. 2010. U.S. Job Market: Where Are the Academic Jobs? Bloomington, IN. Courtesy of Indiana University. In "6th Iteration (2009): Science Maps for Scholars," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

Zoss, Angela, Michael D. Conover, and Katy Börner. 2010. "Where Are the Academic Jobs? Interactive Exploration of Job Advertisements in Geospatial and Topical Space." In Advances in Social Computing: Third International Conference on Social Computing, Behavioral Modeling and Prediction, edited by Sun-Ki Chai, John Salerno, and Patricia L. Mabry, 238–247. Bethesda, MD: Springer.

144

Seventh Iteration (2011):Science Maps asVisual Interfaces toDigital Libraries

146

Mondothèque. Multimedia Desk in a Global Internet

References

Heuvel, Charles van den. 2008. "Building Society, Constructing Knowledge, Weaving the Web: Otlet’s Visualizations of a Global Information Society and His Concept of a Universal Civilization." In European Modernism and the Information Society, edited by W. Boyd Rayward, 127–153. London: Ashgate Publishers.

Heuvel, Charles van den. 2009. "Web 2.0 and the Semantic Web in Research from a Historical Perspective: The Designs of Paul Otlet (1868–1944) for Telecommunication and Machine Readable Documentation to Organize Research and Society." Knowledge Organization 36 (4): 214–226.

Otlet, Paul. 1934. Traité de documentation, le livre sur le livre: théorie et pratique. Bruxelles: Mundaneum.

Otlet, Paul. 1936. Mondothèque: A Multi-Media Work Station Connected to a Paper Internet. Brussels, Belgium. Courtesy of Mundaneum. In "7th Iteration (2010): Science Maps as Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Michael J. Stamper. http://scimaps.org.

Rayward, W. Boyd. 1975. The Universe of Information: The Work of Paul Otlet for Documentation and International Organisation. Moscow: FID –VINITI.

Rayward, W. Boyd. 1990. "International Organisation and Dissemination of Knowledge." In Selected Essays of Paul Otlet, translated and edited with an introduction by W. Boyd Rayward, FID 684. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Rayward, W. Boyd. 2010. "Paul Otlet: Encyclopédiste, Internationaliste, Belge." In Paul Otlet, (1868–1944) Fondateur du Mondaneum: Architect du savoir, Artisan de paix, edited by Jacques Gillen, 15–50. Bruxelles: Editions nouvelles.

Wright, Alex. 2014. Cataloging the World: Paul Otlet and the Birth of the Information Age. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Image Credits

Image of Cellula Mundaneum courtesy of Collections of the Museum Mundaneum.

Portrait of Paul Otlet courtesy of Collections of the Museum Mundaneum.

Contributors

Initial design and text coauthored by Charles van den Heuvel and W. Boyd Rayward. Stéphanie Manfroid, Responsable des Archives at the Mundaneum provided access to Otlet’s works and his portrait.

148

Two Charts Illustrating Some of the Relations between the Branches of Natural Science and Technology

References

Ellingham, H. J. T. 1948. Two Charts Illustrating Some of the Relations between the Branches of Natural Science and Technology. London, UK. Courtesy of The Royal Society. In "7th Iteration (2010): Science Maps as Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Michael J. Stamper. http://scimaps.org.

Ellingham, H. J. T. 1948. "Divisions of Natural Science and Technology." In Report and Papers Submitted to The Royal Society Scientific Information Conference. London: Burlington House.

Greenwood, Norman N., and Alan Earnshaw. 1984. Chemistry of the Elements. Oxford: Pergamom Press. 326–28.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2013. "Harold Ellingham." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 1, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harold_Ellingham.

Ellingham, H. J. T. 1944. "Reducibility of Oxides and Sulphides in Metallurgical Processes." Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry 63 (5): 125–133.

Image Credits

Portrait provided by David Allen, Library Collections Coordinator Royal Society of Chemistry, Burlington House Piccadilly, London, UK.

Contributors

Map description coauthored by Peter A. Hook.

Ellingham biography benefits greatly from the H. J. T. Ellingham Wikipedia entry.

150

Visualizing Bible Cross-References

References

Evangelical Church in Germany (EKD). 2013. "Geistreich." Accessed August 28, 2013. http://www.geistreich.de.

Harrison, Chris, and Christoph Römhild. 2008. Visualizing Bible Cross-References. Pittsburgh, PA. Courtesy of Chris Harrison and Christoph Römhild. In "7th Iteration (2010): Science Maps as Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Michael J. Stamper. http://scimaps.org.

Image Credits

Portrait of Harrison courtesy of Chris Harrison.

Portrait of Römhild courtesy of Pastor Christoph Römhild.

Biblical Social Network (People and Places) courtesy of Chris Harrison, Carnegie Mellon University.

152

Finding Research Literature on Autism

References

Robison, Rex. 2009. Finding Research Literature on Autism. Bethesda, MD. Courtesy of National Institutes of Health Library. In "7th Iteration (2010): Science Maps as Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Michael J. Stamper. http://scimaps.org.

154

Design Vs. Emergence: Visualization of Knowledge Orders

References

Otlet, Paul. "Encyclopedia Mundaneum Universalis." Unfinished Manuscript.

Otlet, Paul. 1935. Monde; Essai d’Universalisme. Brussels: Editions Mundaneum.

Salah, Alkim Almila Akdag, Cheng Gao, Andrea Scharnhorst, and Krzysztof Suchecki. 2011. Design vs. Emergence: Visualisation of Knowledge Orders. Amsterdam, Netherlands. Courtesy of The Knowledge Space Lab—A Project of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts. In "7th Iteration (2010): Science Maps as Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Michael J. Stamper. http://scimaps.org.

Salah, Alkim Almila Akdag, Cheng Gao, Andrea Scharnhorst, and Krzysztof Suchecki. 2012. "Need to Categorize: A Comparative Look at the Categories of Universal Decimal Classification System and Wikipedia." Leonardo 45 (1): 84–5.

Suchecki, Krzysztof, Alkim Almila Akdag Salah, Cheng Gao, and Andrea Scharnhorst. 2012. "Evolution of Wikipedia’s Category Structure." Advances in Complex Systems 15 (supp01): 1250068–1.

156

Map of Scientific Collaborations from 2005–2009

References

Beauchesne, Olivier H. 2011. Map of Scientific Collaborations from 2005 to 2009. Accessed August 28, 2013. http://collabo.olihb.com.

Beauchesne, Olivier H. 2012. Map of Scientific Collaborations from 2005–2009. Montréal, Canada. Courtesy of http://olihb.com. In "7th Iteration (2010): Science Maps as Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Michael J. Stamper. http://scimaps.org.

Butler, Paul. 2010. "Visualizing Friendships." Facebook. Last modified December 13, 2010. http://www.facebook.com/note.php?note_id=469716398919.

Holten, Danny, and Jarke J. van Wijk. 2009. "Force-Directed Edge Bundling for Graph Visualization." In Proceedings of Eurographics/IEEE-VGTC Symposium on Visualization 2009 28 (3): 983–990.

Image Credits

Visualizing Friendships. 2010 © Facebook. Reprinted with permission.

Software Credits

See Holten and van Wijk 2009.

158

The Census of Antique Works of Art and Architecture Known in the Renaissance, 1947–2005

References

Schich, Maximilian. 2010. "Revealing Matrices." In Beautiful Visualization: Looking at Data through the Eyes of Experts, edited by Julie Steele and Noah Lliinsky, 227–254. Sebastopol, CA: O‘Reilly.

Schich, Maximilian. 2009. Rezeption und Tradierung als Komplexes Netzwerk. Der CENSUS und visuelle Dokumente zu den Thermen in Rom. Munich: Biering & Brinkmann.

Schich, Maximilian. 2011. The Census of Antique Works of Art and Architecture Known in the Renaissance, 1947–2005. Boston, MA. Courtesy of Maximilian Schich. In "7th Iteration (2010): Science Maps as Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Michael J. Stamper. http://scimaps.org.

Image Credits

The Census of Antique Works of Art and Architecture Known in the Renaissance, 1947–2005 © Maximilian Schich, 2010 (maximilian@schich.info).

160

Seeing Standards: A Visualization of the Metadata Universe

References

Becker, Devin and Jenn L. Riley. 2010. Seeing Standards: A Visualization of the Metadata Universe. Bloomington, IN. Courtesy of University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and University of Idaho. In "7th Iteration (2010): Science Maps as Visual

Interfaces to Digital Libraries," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Michael J. Stamper. http://scimaps.org.

Becker, Devin, and Jenn Riley. 2010. "Seeing Standards: A Visualization of the Metadata Universe." D-Lib Magazine 16 (7/8). Accessed August 28, 2013. http://www.dlib.org/dlib/july10/07contents.html.

Institute for Enabling Geospatial Scholarship. 2011. "Cleaning Wikileaks Data for Use in Google Mapping Applications (Part 1 of 2)." Spatial Humanities. Accessed August 28, 2013. http://spatial.scholarslab.org/cleaning-wikileaks-data-for-use-in-google-mapping-applications-part-1-of-2.

Landesman, Betty. 2011. "Review of ‘Seeing Standards: A Visualization of the Metadata Universe.’" Technical Services Quarterly 28 (4): 459–460.

Library of Congress. 2010. "Putting Metadata on the Map." Library of Congress Digital Preservation Newsletter (July). Accessed August 2, 2013. http://www.digitalpreservation.gov/news/2010/20100726news_article_infographic.html.

Mosher, Dave. 2011. "Data as Art: 10 Striking Science Maps." Wired Science. Last modified March 8, 2011. http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2011/03/best-science-maps/?pid=1049.

162

MACE Classification Taxonomy

References

Stefaner, Moritz. 2010. "The Design of X by Y." In Beautiful Visualization: Looking at Data through the Eyes of Experts, edited by Julie Steele and Noah Lliinsky, 205–226. Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly Media.

Stefaner, Moritz. 2011. MACE Classification Tree. Potsdam, Germany. Courtesy of Moritz Stefaner. In "7th Iteration (2010): Science Maps as Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Michael J. Stamper. http://scimaps.org.

Wolpers, Martin, Martin Memmel, and Moritz Stefaner. 2010. "Supporting Architecture Education Using the MACE System." International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning 2 (½): 132–144.

164

History of Science Fiction

References

Shelley, Ward. 2011. History of Science Fiction. Brooklyn, NY. Courtesy of Ward Shelley Studio. In "7th Iteration (2010): Science Maps as Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Michael J. Stamper. http://scimaps.org.

Shelley, Ward. 2013. Personal Home Page. Accessed August 26, 2013. http://www.wardshelley.com.

Contributors

Ward Shelley contributed to the map description.

167

Part 4: Outlook

References

Beauchesne, Olivier H. 2012. Map of Scientific Collaborations from 2005–2009. Montréal, Canada. Courtesy of http://olihb.com. In "7th Iteration (2011): Science Maps as Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Michael J. Stamper. http://scimaps.org.

Image Credits

Extracted from Beauchesne 2012.

168

S&T Trends

References

Furrier, John. 2012. "Big Data Is Big Market & Big Business—$50 Billion Market by 2017." Forbes, February 17. Accessed October 3, 2013. http://www.forbes.com/sites/siliconangle/2012/02/17/big-data-is-big-market-big-business.

Kelly, Jeff, David Vellante, and David Floyer. 2013. "Big Data Market Size and Vendor Revenues." Wikibon. Accessed October 5, 2013. http://wikibon.org/wiki/v/Big_Data_Market_Size_and_Vendor_Revenues.

Weinberger, David. 2011. Too Big to Know: Rethinking Knowledge Now That Facts Aren’t the Facts, Experts Are Everywhere, and the Smartest Person in the Room Is the Room. New York: Basic Books. 102.

Microscopes, Telescopes, and Macroscopes

References

Anthony, Piers. 1969. Macroscope. New York: Avon Books.

Börner, Katy. 2011. "Plug-and-Play Macroscopes." Communications of the ACM 54 (3): 60–69.

Ciuccarelli, Paolo. 2011. "Macroscopes and Visualization (Again): A Circular Path." DensityDesign. Accessed October 5, 2013. http://www.densitydesign.org/2011/04/macroscopes-and-visualization-again-a-circular-path.

de Rosnay, Joël. 1979. The Macroscope: A New World Scientific System. New York: Harper & Row. 73.

Graham, Shawn, Ian Milligan, and Scott Weingart. 2013. The Historian’s Macroscope: Big Digital History. Under contract with Imperial College Press, London. Open Draft Version. Accessed March 1, 2014. http://www.themacroscope.org.

Manzini, Ezio. 1989. The Materials of Invention: Materials and Design. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Sula, Chris Alen. 2012. "Philosophy through the Macroscope: Technologies, Representations, and the History of the Profession." Journal of Interactive Technology and Pedagogy 1. Accessed November 6, 2013. http://jitp.commons.gc.cuny.edu/philosophy-through-the-macroscope-technologies-representations-and-the-history-of-the-profession.

Image Credits

Adapted from de Rosnay 1979.

Plug-and-Play Macroscopes

References

Börner, Katy, and David E. Polley. 2014. Visual Insights: A Practical Guide to Making Sense of Data. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

OSGi™ Alliance. 2013. OSGi™ Alliance Home Page. Accessed October 5, 2013. http://www.osgi.org/Main/HomePage.

Changes in the S&T Landscape

References

de Solla Price, Derek J. 1965. Little Science, Big Science. New York: Columbia University Press.

de Solla Price, Derek J. 1986. Little Science, Big Science…and Beyond. New York: Columbia University Press.

Approach

Hypothesis Driven –> Data Driven

References

Anderson, Chris. 2008. "The End of Theory: The Data Deluge Makes the Scientific Method Obsolete." Wired 16 (7). Accessed October 3, 2013. http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/magazine/16-07/pb_theory.

Gianchandani, Erwin. 2012. "NIST’s BIG DATA Workshop: Too Much Data, Not Enough Solutions." The Computing Community Consortium Blog. Accessed October 5, 2013. http://www.cccblog.org/2012/06/21/nists-big-data-workshoptoo-much-data-not-enough-solutions.

Star Scientist –> Research Teams

References

Börner, Katy, Luca Dall’Asta, Weimao Ke, and Alessandro Vespignani. 2005. "Studying the Emerging Global Brain: Analyzing and Visualizing the Impact of Co-Authorship Teams." In "Understanding Complex Systems," special issue, Complexity 10 (4): 57–67.

Russell, Andy. 2012. "3 Ways to Design Toys That Boost Kids’ Creativity." Fast Company Design. Accessed October 5, 2013. http://www.fastcodesign.com/1669691/3-ways-to-design-toys-that-boost-kids-creativity.

Wuchty, Stefan, Benjamin F. Jones, and Brian Uzzi. 2007. "The Increasing Dominance of Teams in Production of Knowledge." Science 316 (2827): 1036–1039.

Image Credits

Image was designed by Perla Mateo-Lujan.

Elite Science –> Citizen Science

References

Audubon and Cornell Lab of Ornithology. 2013. eBird. Accessed November 7, 2013. http://ebird.org.

Galaxy Zoo Team. 2013. Galaxy Zoo Home Page. Accessed October 5, 2013. http://www.galaxyzoo.org.

McNally, Jess. 2010. "Asteroid Crater Hunting from Your Home." Wired. Accessed October 5, 2013. http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2010/08/crater-hunting.

Project Noah. 2013. Project Noah Home Page. Accessed October 5, 2013. http://www.projectnoah.org.

Data

Local –> Global

References

Ostrom, Elinor, Roy Gardner, and James Walker. 1994. Rules, Games, and Common Pool Resources. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

Editorial Control –> Collective Curation

References

comScore, Inc. 2013. comScore Home Page. Accessed September 5, 2014. http://www.comscore.com.

eBizMBA. 2013. "Top 15 Most Popular Websites." Accessed September 5, 2014. http://www.ebizmba.com/articles/most-popular-websites.

Science Data –> Citizen Data

References

Mons, Barend, Michael Ashburner, Christine Chicester, Erik Van Mulligen, Marc Weeber, Johan den Dunnen, Gert-Jan van Ommen, Mark Musen, Matthew Cockerill, Henning Hermjakob, Albert Mons, Abel Packer, Roberto Pacheco, Suzanna Lewis, Alfred Berkeley, William Melton, Nicolas Barris, Jimmy Wales, Gerard Meijssen, Erik Moeller, Peter Jan Roes, Katy Börner, and Amos Bairoch. 2008. "Calling on a Million Minds for Community Annotation in WikiProteins." Genome Biology 9 (5): R89.

PatientsLikeMe. 2013.Home Page. Accessed November 7, 2013. http://www.patientslikeme.com.

Shneiderman, Ben. "Science 2.0." Science 319 (5868): 1349–1350.

Surowiecki, James. 2005. The Wisdom of Crowds. New York: Anchor Books.

United States Government. 2013. Data.Gov. Accessed November 7, 2013. http://www.data.gov.

Wikimedia. 2013. Wikispecies. Accessed November 7, 2013. http://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Main_Page.

Wikimedia. 2013 Wiki Professional. Accessed November 7, 2013. http://wikiprofessional.org.

Little Data –> Big Data

References

Manyika, James, Michael Chui, Brad Brown, Jacques Bughin, Richard Dobbs, Charles Roxburgh, and Angela Hung Byers. 2011. Big Data: The Next Frontier for Innovation, Competition, and Productivity. New York: The McKinsey Global Institute.

Tools

Memory: Expensive –> Cheap

References

Gantz, John, and David Reinsel. 2011. Extracting Value from Chaos. Framingham, MA: IDC. Accessed October 3, 2013. http://www.emc.com/collateral/analyst-reports/idc-extracting-value-from-chaos-ar.pdf.

Komorowski, Matthew. 2013. "A History of Storage Cost." Personal Web Page. Accessed October 3, 2013. http://www.mkomo.com/cost-per-gigabyte.

Kurzweil, Ray. 2013. "Microprocessor Clock Speed." Accessed December 20, 2013. http://www.singularity.com/charts/page61.html.

Kurzweil, Ray. 2013. "Microprocessor Cost Per Transistor Cycle." Accessed December 20, 2013. http://www.singularity.com/charts/page62.html.

Pease, Arthur F. 2013. "Zettabyte Gold Mine." Siemens Home Page. Accessed October 5, 2013. http://www.siemens.com/innovation/apps/pof_microsite/_pof-spring-2011/_html_en/trends-zettabyte-gold-mine.html.

Smith, Ivan. 2013. "Cost of Hard Drive Storage Space." Accessed March 1, 2014. http://ns1758.ca/winch/winchest.html.

Image Credits

Image was designed by Perla Mateo-Lujan.

Data Credits

See Komorowski 2013.

See Kurzweil, "Microprocessor Clock Speed" and "Microprocessor Cost Per Transistor Cycle." 2013.

See Smith 2013.

Microprocessors: Slow –> Fast

References

Berndt, Ernst R., and Neal J. Rappaport. 2001. "Price and Quality of Desktop and Mobile Personal Computers: A Quarter-Century Historical Overview." The American Economic Review 91 (2): 268-273.

Committee on Global Approaches to Advanced Computing, Board on Global Science and Technology, Policy and Global Affairs, and National Research Council. 2012. The New Global Ecosystem in Advanced Computing: Implications for U.S. Competitiveness and National Security. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

Kurzweil, Ray. 2006. The Singularity is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology. New York: Penguin.

Image Credits

Image was designed by Perla Mateo-Lujan.

Data Credits

Data from 1976–1999: Berndt and Rappaport 2001. http://www.nber.org/~confer/2000/si2000/berndt.pdf. Accessed September 18, 2014.

Data from 2001–2016: ITRS, 2002 Update, On-Chip Local Clock in Table 4c: Performance and Package Chips: Frequency On-Chip Wiring Levels—Near-Term Years, p. 167.

Products and Services

Factual Analysis –> Sentiment Analysis

References

Bollen, Johan, Huina Mao, and Xiao-Jun Zeng. 2011. "Twitter Mood Predicts the Stock Market." Journal of Computational Science 2 (1): 1–8.

Golder, Scott A., and Michael W. Macy. 2011. "Diurnal and Seasonal Mood Vary with Work, Sleep, and Daylength across Diverse Cultures." Science 333 (6051): 1878–1881.

Permanent Article –> Fluid Arguments

References

Striphas, Ted. 2009. The Late Age of Print: Everyday Book Culture from Consumerism to Control. New York: Columbia University Press.

Weinberger, David. 2011. "The Machine That Would Predict the Future." Scientific American 305 (6): 323–340.

Readable –> Reproducible

References

Evans, James, and Jacob Reimer. 2009. "Open Access and Global Participation in Science," Science 323 (5917): 1025.

170

Data Monitoring and Analytics

References

Barabási, Albert-László. 2010. Bursts: The Hidden Pattern Behind Everything We Do. New York: Dutton.

Bishop, Steven, Dirk Helbing, Paul Lukowicz, and Rosaria Conte. 2011. "FuturICT: FET Flagship Pilot Project." Procedia Computer Science 7:34–38. Accessed November 7, 2013. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S187705091100679X.

The Economist. 2010. "The Data Deluge." February 27. Accessed October 5, 2013. http://www.economist.com/node/15579717.

Harmelen, Frank van, George Kampis, Katy Börner, Peter van den Besselaar, Erik Schultes, Carol Goble, Paul Groth, Barend Mons, Stuart Anderson, Stefan Decker, Conor Hayes, Thierry Buecheler, and Dirk Helbing. 2012. "Theoretical and Technological Building Blocks For An Innovation Accelerator." European Physical Journal: Special Topics 214: 183–214.

Hey, Tony, Stewart Tansley, and Kristin Tolle, eds. 2009. The Fourth Paradigm: Data-Intensive Scientific Discovery. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Research.

Observatory of Complex Systems. 2008. "Jerusalem Declaration on Data Access, Use and Dissemination for Scientific Research." Accessed September 15, 2014. http://ocs.unipa.it/Declaration20081026.pdf.

Pentland, Alex (Sandy). 2008. Honest Signals: How They Shape Our World. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Rogers, Simon. 2010. "Information is Power." The Guardian Data Blog, May 24. Accessed October 5, 2013. http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2010/may/24/data-journalism.

Schweitzer, Frank, and Alessandro Vespignani. 2012. "Editorial." EPJ Data Science 1:1. Accessed November 7, 2013. http://www.epjdatascience.com/content/1/1/1.

Big Data

References

Bishop, Steven, Dirk Helbing, Paul Lukowicz, and Rosaria Conte. 2011. "FuturICT: FET Flagship Pilot Project." Procedia Computer Science 7: 34–38. Accessed November 7, 2013. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S187705091100679X.

Gantz, John, and David Reinsel. 2011. "Extracting Value from Chaos." Accessed November 7, 2013.http://www.emc.com/collateral/analyst-reports/idc-extracting-value-from-chaos-ar.pdf.

Hey, Tony, Stewart Tansley, and Kristin Tolle, eds. 2009. The Fourth Paradigm: Data-Intensive Scientific Discovery. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Research.

McKendrick, Joe. 2010. "Data Explosion: Enough to Fill DVDs Stretching to the Moon and Back." Smart Planet, May 14. Accessed October 6, 2013. http://www.smartplanet.com/blog/business-brains/data-explosion-enough-to-fill-dvds-stretching-to-the-moon-and-back/7010.

McKendrick, Joe. 2011. "Unstructured Data ‘Out of Control’: Survey." Smart Planet. Accessed October 5, 2013. http://www.smartplanet.com/blog/business-brains/unstructured-data-8216out-of-control-survey/16195.

Big-Data Mining

References

Anderson, Chris. 2008. "The End of Theory: The Data Deluge Makes the Scientific Method Obsolete." Wired 16 (7). Accessed October 3, 2013. http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/magazine/16-07/pb_theory.

Bollier, David. 2010. The Promise and Peril of Big Data. Washington, DC: The Aspen Institute. Accessed January 28, 2014. http://www.aspeninstitute.org/sites/default/files/content/docs/pubs/The_Promise_and_Peril_of_Big_Data.pdf.

Lohr, Steve. 2012. "The Age of Big Data." The New York Times, February 11. Accessed November 7, 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/12/sunday-review/big-datas-impact-in-the-world.html.

World Economic Forum. 2012. "Big Data, Big Impact: New Possibilities for International Development." Accessed November 7, 2013. http://www.weforum.org/reports/big-data-big-impact-new-possibilities-international-development.

Big-Data Challenges

References

Weinberger, David. 2011. Too Big to Know: Rethinking Knowledge Now That Facts Aren’t the Facts, Experts Are Everywhere, and the Smartest Person in the Room Is the Room. New York: Basic Books.

Weinberger, David. 2012. "To Know, but Not Understand: David Weinberger on Science and Big Data." The Atlantic, January 3. Accessed November 7, 2013. http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2012/01/to-know-but-not-understand-david-weinberger-on-science-and-big-data/250820.

Conceptual Challenges

References

Anderson, Chris. 2008. "The End of Theory: The Data Deluge Makes the Scientific Method Obsolete." Wired 16 (7). Accessed November 7, 2013. http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/magazine/16–07/pb_theory.

Anselin, Luc. 2009. "Thirty Years of Spatial Econometrics." Working Paper 2009-2. Tempe, AZ: GeoDa Center for Geospatial Analysis and Computation, Arizona State University. Accessed November 7, 2013. https://geodacenter.asu.edu/system/files/Anselin0902.pdf.

Technology

References

McKinsey & Company. 2013. "Big Data: The Next Frontier for Competition." Accessed November 7, 2013. http://www.mckinsey.com/Features/Big_Data.

Preservation

References

Stanford University. 2013. LOCKSS Program Home Page. Accessed November 7, 2013. http://www.lockss.org.

Privacy

References

Boyd, Andrew D., Charlie Hosner, Dale A. Hunscher, Brian D. Athey, Daniel J. Clauw, and Lee A. Green. 2007. "An ‘Honest Broker’ Mechanism to Maintain Privacy for Patient Care and Academic Medical Research." International Journal of Medical Informatics 76 (5): 407–11.

Dhir, Rajiv, Ashok A. Patel, Sharon Winters, Michelle Bisceglia, Dennis Swanson, Roger Aamodt, and Michael J. Becich. 2008. "A Multidisciplinary Approach to Honest Broker Services for Tissue Banks and Clinical Data: A Pragmatic and Practical Model." Cancer 113 (7): 1705–15.

Gantz, John, and David Reinsel. 2011. "Extracting Value from Chaos." Accessed November 7, 2013. http://www.emc.com/collateral/analyst-reports/idc-extracting-value-from-chaos-ar.pdf.

Kennedy, James. 2011. "The Personal Information Economy." Research December. Accessed November 7, 2013. http://www.research-live.com/features/the-personal-information-economy/4006540.article.

Lerman, Kat. 2013. "Go Sell Yourself: Adventures on the Open Data Market." Verbatim (blog), July 31. Accessed November 7, 2013. http://blog.communispace.com/learn/go-sell-yourself-adventures-on-the-open-data-market.

World Economic Forum in collaboration with Bain & Company, Inc. 2011. Personal Data: The Emergence of a New Asset Class. Accessed November 7, 2013. http://www.scribd.com/doc/48942096/Personal-Data-The-Emergence-of-a-New-Asset-Class.

Standards and Legal Issues

References

Becker, Devin and Jenn L. Riley. 2010. Seeing Standards: A Visualization of the Metadata Universe. Bloomington, IN. Courtesy of University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and University of Idaho. In "7th Iteration (2010): Science Maps as Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Michael J. Stamper. http://scimaps.org.

Haak, Laurel L., David Baker, Donna K. Ginther, Gregg J. Gordon, Matthew A. Probus, Nirmala Kannankutty, and Bruce A. Weinberg. 2012. "Standards and Infrastructure for Innovation Data Exchange." Science 338 (6104): 196–197.

Stodden, Victoria. 2009. "The Legal Framework for Reproducible Scientific Research: Licensing and Copyright." IEEE Computing in Science and Engineering 11 (1): 35–40.

Big-Data Opportunities

Data Interlinkage

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Heath, Tom, and Christian Bizer. 2011. Linked Data: Evolving the Web into a Global Data Space. Synthesis Lectures on the Semantic Web: Theory and Technology, edited by James Hendler and Frank van Harmelen. 1 (1): 1–136. San Francisco, CA: Morgan & Claypool.

Linked Data. 2013. Home Page. Accessed November 7, 2013. http://linkeddata.org.

Reed, Daniel. 2012. "My Scientific Big Data Are Lonely." Communications of the ACM (blog), June 4. Accessed November 7, 2013. http://cacm.acm.org/blogs/blog-cacm/150102-my-scientific-big-data-are-lonely/fulltext.

Visual Analytics

References

Thomas, James J., and Kristin A. Cook, eds. 2005. Illuminating the Path: The Research and Development

Agenda for Visual Analytics. Richland, WA: National Visualization and Analytics Center.

Real-Time Monitoring

References

Wilson, Mark. "A $1 Billion Project to Remake the Disney World Experience, Using RFID." Fast Company, January 11. Accessed November 7, 2013. http://www.fastcodesign.com/1671616/a-1-billion-project-to-remake-the-disney-world-experience-using-rfid?partner=newsletter#1.

In Vivo Exploration and Simulation

References

Szell, Michael, Robert Sinatra, Giovanni Petri, Stefan Thurner, and Vito Latora. 2012. "Understanding Mobility in a Social Petri Dish." Scientific Reports 2 (457). Accessed October 5, 2013. http://www.nature.com/srep/2012/120614/srep00457/full/srep00457.html.

Big-Data Services

References

Ransom, Diana. 2008. "Location, Location, Location: Geotagging Lets Web Users Put All That Information in Its Place." The Wall Street Journal, November 27. Accessed November 7, 2013. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB116412316419229623.html.

Smarr, Larry. 2011. "An Evolution toward a Programmable Universe." The New York Times, December 5. Accessed October 5, 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/06/science/larry-smarr-an-evolution-toward-a-programmable-world.html?_r=0.

The Micro Level

References

Gernert Johannes. 2011. "Was Facebook über dich Weiss." taz.de, November 5. Accessed November 7, 2013. http://www.taz.de/Social-Networking/!81259.

Intel Corporation. 2013. The Museum of Me. Accessed November 5, 2013. http://www.intel.com/museumofme/r/index.htm.

McKendrick, Joe. 2010. "Data Explosion: Enough to Fill DVDs Stretching to the Moon and Back." Smart Planet, May 14. Accessed November 7, 2013. http://www.smartplanet.com/blog/business-brains/data-explosion-enough-to-fill-dvds-stretching-to-the-moon-and-back/7010.

OpenDataCity. 2014. Home Page. Accessed January 28, 2014. http://www.opendatacity.de.

Rooney, Ben. 2011. "Intel’s Cool—or Creepy—Museum of Me." The Wall Street Journal, June 2. Accessed November 5, 2013. http://blogs.wsj.com/tech-europe/2011/06/02/intels-coolor-creepymuseum-of-me.

University College London. 2013. "Oyster Gives Up Pearls." UCL Engineering. Accessed November 5, 2013. http://www.engineering.ucl.ac.uk/blog/projects/oyster-gives-up-pearls.

Zeit Staff. 2009. "Tell-All Telephone." Zeit Online, August 31. Accessed November 8, 2013. http://www.zeit.de/datenschutz/malte-spitz-data-retention.

Image Credits

Images of Max Schrems’ Facebook activity by Open Data City, Marco Maas, and Michael Kreil.

The Macro Level

References

Börner, Katy. 2017. Atlas of Forecasts: Predicting and Broadcasting Science. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Conover, Michael D., Clayton Davis, Emilio Ferrara, Karissa McKelvey, Filippo Menczer, and Alessandro Flammini. 2013. "The Geospatial Characteristics of a Social Movement Communication Network." PLoS ONE 8 (3): e55957. Accessed March 5, 2014. http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0055957.

Current City. 2013. "Visuals." Accessed November 8, 2013. http://currentcity.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=5&Itemid=22.

Mislove, Alan, Sune Lehmann, Yong-Yeol Ahn, Jukka-Pekka Onnela, and James Niels Rosenquist. 2010. Pulse of the Nation. Accessed November 8, 2013. http://www.ccs.neu.edu/home/amislove/twittermood.

Mislove, Alan, Sune Lehmann, Yong-Yeol Ahn, Jukka-Pekka Onnela, and James Niels Rosenquist. 2010. Pulse of the Nation. Boston, MA. Courtesy of JanysAnalytics. In "9th Iteration (2013): Science Maps Showing Trends and Dynamics," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Todd N. Theriault. http://scimaps.org.

Image Credits

See Current City 2013.

Human Forecasts

References

Conover, Michael D. 2013. "Digital Democracy: The Structure and Dynamics of Political Communication in a Large Scale Social Media Stream." PhD diss., Indiana University. Accessed January 28, 2014. http://cns.iu.edu/docs/publications/2013-conover-phd-thesis.pdf.

Smarr, Larry. 2011. "An Evolution toward a Programmable Universe." The New York Times, December 5. Accessed November 8, 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/06/science/larry-smarr-an-evolution-toward-a-programmable-world.html?_r=0.

172

Real-Time Visualization

Real-Time Insights

References

Bollen, Johan. 2013. Personal Communication. March 11.

Börner, Katy, and David E. Polley. 2014. Visual Insights: A Practical Guide to Making Sense of Data. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

The New York Times Staff. 2013. "Markets." The New York Times Online. Accessed November 8, 2013. http://markets.on.nytimes.com/research/markets/usmarkets/sectors.asp?sector=50.

Data Credits

IVMOOC 2014 data as of January 29, 2014. http://ivmooc.cns.iu.edu. Accessed September 18, 2014.

Contributors

Robert P. Light compiled data and rendered the map.

Geolocated Insights

References

Crandall, David J., Lars Backstrom, Dan Cosley, Siddharth Suri, Daniel Huttenlocher, and Jon Kleinberg. 2010. "Inferring Social Ties from Geographic Coincidences." PNAS 107: 22436–41.

Foursquare. 2011. "Planes, Trains, and Automobiles! An Infographic of Travels on Foursquare." Foursquare Blog, November 11. Accessed September 18, 2014. http://blog.foursquare.com/2011/11/22/planes-trains-and-automobiles-an-infographic-of-travels-on-foursquare.

Foursquare. 2013. About. Accessed November 8, 2013. https://foursquare.com/about.

Google Play. 2013. Foursquare (App). Accessed November 8, 2013. https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.joelapenna.foursquared&hl=en.

Patil, Sameer, Greg Norcie, Apu Kapadia, and Adam J. Lee. "Reasons, Rewards, Regrets: Privacy Considerations in Location Sharing as an Interactive Practice." 2012. Paper presented at the Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security (SOUPS), Washington DC, July 11–13. Accessed November 8, 2013. http://cups.cs.cmu.edu/soups/2012/proceedings/a5_Patil.pdf.

Image Credits

Planes, Trains and Automobiles! © Foursquare Labs, Inc. All of the Foursquare Logos and trademarks displayed in the screenshot are the property of Foursquare Labs, Inc.

Text (Sentiment) Insights

References

Bollen, Johan, Huina Mao, and Xiao-Jun Zeng. 2011. "Twitter Mood Predicts the Stock Market." Journal of Computational Science 2 (1): 1–8.

Börner, Katy. 2017. Atlas of Forecasts: Predicting and Broadcasting Science. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Federal Reserve. 2011. "Sentiment Analysis and Social Media Monitoring Solution RFP." Request for Proposal (Event-6994). Accessed November 8, 2013. http://info.publicintelligence.net/FRBNY-SocialMedia.pdf.

Golder, Scott A., and Michael W. Macy. 2011. "Diurnal and Seasonal Mood Vary with Work, Sleep, and Daylength across Diverse Cultures." Science 333 (6051): 1878–1881.

Lampos, Vasileios. 2009. "Mood of the Nation." Accessed November 8, 2013. http://geopatterns.enm.bris.ac.uk/mood.

Lampos, Vasileios. 2012. "Detecting Events and Patterns in Large-Scale User Generated Textual Streams with Statistical Learning Methods." PhD diss., University of Bristol. CoRR abs/1208.2873.

Mislove, Alan, Sune Lehmann, Yong-Yeol Ahn, Jukka-Pekka Onnela, and James Niels Rosenquist. 2010. Pulse of the Nation. Accessed November 8, 2013. http://www.ccs.neu.edu/home/amislove/twittermood.

Mislove, Alan, Sune Lehmann, Yong-Yeol Ahn, Jukka-Pekka Onnela, and James Niels Rosenquist. 2010. Pulse of the Nation. Boston, MA. Courtesy of JanysAnalytics. In "9th Iteration (2013): Science Maps Showing Trends and Dynamics," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Todd N. Theriault. http://scimaps.org.

The MITRE Corporation and the University of Vermont. 2013. "Daily Happiness Averages for Twitter, September 2008 to Present." Hedonometer. Accessed November 8, 2013. http://www.hedonometer.org.

Ragan, Steve. 2011. "Federal Reserve Looking to Monitor Social Media." The Tech Herald, September 27. Accessed November 8, 2013. http://www.thetechherald.com/article.php/201139/7654/Federal-Reserve-looking-to-monitor-social-media.

Image Credits

Hedonometer figure by the Computational Story Lab and MITRE Corporation.

Network Dynamics Insights

References

Herdagdelen, Amac, Wenyun Zuo, Alexander Gard-Murray, Yaneer Bar-Yam. 2013. "An Explorationof Social Identity: The Geography and Politics of News-Sharing Communities in Twitter." Complexity 19 (2): 10–20.

Image Credits

Network of Twitter Users Who Share NY Times Online Articles reproduced with permission of the New England Complex Systems Institute. http://necsi.edu. Accessed September 18, 2014.

Mood Changes in UK Twitter content courtesy of Scott Colder from Golder, Scott A., and Michael W. Macy. 2011. "Diurnal and Seasonal Mood Vary with Work, Sleep, and Daylength across Diverse Cultures." Science 333 (6051): 1878–1881.

174

Democratizing Knowledge and Participation

References

Howe, Jeff. 2009. Crowdsourcing: Why the Power of the Crowd Is Driving the Future of Business. New York: Three Rivers Press.

Lippmann, Walter. 1929. A Preface to Morals. New York: The Macmillan Company.

Shellenberger, Michael. 2011. "Why Climate Science Divides Us, But Energy Technology Unites Us." Forbes, January 11. Accessed November 8, 2012. http://www.forbes.com/sites/energysource/2011/01/11/why-climate-science-divides-us-but-energy-technology-unites-us/5.

Stodden, Victoria. 2014. "What Computational Scientists Need to Know about Intellectual Property Law: A Primer." In Opening Science: The Evolving Guide on How the Web is Changing Research, Collaboration, and Scholarly Publishing, edited by Sönke Bartling and Sascha Friesike. Berlin: SpringerOpen.

The Wisdom of Crowds

References

Surowiecki, James. 2005. The Wisdom of Crowds. New York: Anchor Books.

Open Science

Open Results

References

Stodden, Victoria. 2009. "Enabling Reproducible Research: Open Licensing for Scientific Innovation." International Journal of Communications Law and Policy 13: 1–55.

Stodden, Victoria. 2009. "The Legal Framework for Reproducible Scientific Research: Licensing and Copyright." IEEE Computing in Science & Engineering 11 (1): 35–40.

Open Data

References

Facebook. 2013. Accessed November 8, 2013. http://www.facebook.com.

Flickr. 2013. Home Page. Accessed November 8, 2013. http://www.flickr.com.

Freebase. 2013. Home Page. Accessed November 8, 2013. http://www.freebase.com.

Junar. 2013. Home Page. Accessed November 8, 2013. http://www.junar.com.

Molloy, Jennifer C. 2011. "The Open Knowledge Foundation: Open Data Means Better Science." PLoS Biol 9 (12): e1001195. Accessed November 8, 2013. http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.1001195.

PatientsLikeMe. 2013.Home Page. Accessed November 7, 2013. http://www.patientslikeme.com.

Science.gov. 2013. Home Page. Accessed November 8, 2013. http://www.science.gov.

Science.gov. 2013. "Science.gov Alliance Participants." Accessed November 8, 2013. http://www.science.gov/participatingagencies.html.

SourceForge. 2013. Home Page. Accessed November 8, 2013. http://sourceforge.net.

United States Government. 2013. Data.Gov. Accessed November 7, 2013. http://www.data.gov.

Who Is Sick. 2013. Home Page. Accessed November 7, 2013. http://whoissick.org/sickness.

WikiMapia. 2013. Home Page. Accessed November 8, 2013. http://wikimapia.org.

Wikimedia. 2013. Wikispecies. Accessed November 7, 2013. http://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Main_Page.

Wikipedia. 2013. Wikipedia Home Page. Accessed November 8, 2013. http://www.wikipedia.org.

YouTube. 2013. YouTube Home Page. Accessed November 8, 2013. http://www.youtube.

Image Credits

Image courtesy of Wikimapia, © WikiMapia.org, licensed under a Creative Commons BY-SA License, available at http://www.wikimapia.org. Accessed September 18, 2014.

Open Code

References

Mesirov, Jill P. 2010. "Accessible Reproducible Research." Science 327 (5964): 415–416.

Stodden, Victoria, Randall J. LeVeque, and Ian M. Mitchell. 2012. "Reproducible Research for Scientific Computing: Tools and Strategies for Changing the Culture." IEEE Computing in Science and Engineering 14 (4): 13–17.

Open Visualizations

References

GeoCommons. 2013. GeoCommons Home Page. Accessed November 9, 2013. http://geocommons.com.

Many Eyes. 2013. Many Eyes Home Page. Accessed November 9, 2013. http://www-958.ibm.com/software/analytics/manyeyes.

MapTube. 2013. MapTube Home Page. Accessed November 9, 2013. http://www.maptube.org/home.aspx.

Tableau Software. 2013. Tableau Software Home Page. Accessed November 9, 2013. http://www.tableausoftware.com.

Wordle. 2013. Wordle Home Page. Accessed November 9, 2013. http://www.wordle.net.

WorldMap. 2013. WorldMap Home Page. Accessed November 9, 2013. http://worldmap.harvard.edu.

Open Education

References

Börner, Katy. 2017. Atlas of Forecasts: Predicting and Broadcasting Science. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Course Builder. 2013. Home Page. Accessed November 8, 2013. https://code.google.com/p/course-builder.

Coursera. 2013. Home Page. Accessed November 8, 2013. https://www.coursera.org.

Khan Academy. 2013. Home Page. Accessed November 8, 2013. http://khanacademy.com.

Khan, Salman. 2012. The One World School House: Education Reimagined. London: Hodder & Stoughton.

Udacity. 2013. Home Page. Accessed November 8, 2013. https://www.udacity.com.

Wiederkehr, Benjamin, and Jérôme Cukier. 2012. Khan Academy Library Overview. Courtesy of Interactive Things. In "8th Iteration (2012): Science Maps for Kids," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Michael J. Stamper. http://scimaps.org.

Contributors

Robert P. Light contributed to the IVMOOC data analysis.

Image Credits

MapTube is created by the Bartlett Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. http://www.maptube.org. Accessed September 18, 2014.

Open-Notebook Science

References

Boettiger, Carl. 2013. Lab Notebook. Accessed November 9, 2013. http://carlboettiger.info/lab-notebook.html.

Priem, Jason. 2013. "Scholarship: Beyond the Paper." Nature 495 (7442): 437–440.

Push. 2013. Journal Home Page. Accessed November 9, 2013. http://push.cwcon.org.

Participatory Design

Crowdsourcing Knowledge

References

Harmelen, Frank van, George Kampis, Katy Börner, Peter van den Besselaar, Erik Schultes, Carol Goble, Paul Groth, Barend Mons, Stuart Anderson, Stefan Decker, Conor Hayes, Thierry Buecheler, and Dirk Helbing. 2012. "Theoretical and Technological Building Blocks For An Innovation Accelerator." European Physical Journal: Special Topics 214: 183–214.

Inkling Markets. 2013. Inkling Markets Home Page. Accessed November 9, 2013. http://inklingmarkets.com.

Innocentive. 2013. Innocentive Home Page. Accessed November 9, 2013. http://www.innocentive.com.

Intrade. 2013. Intrade Home Page. Accessed November 9, 2013 http://www.intrade.com/v4/home.

NITLE Prediction Markets. 2013. NITLE Prediction Markets Home Page. Accessed November 9, 2013. http://markets.nitle.org.

Stack Overflow. 2013. Stack Overflow Home Page. Accessed November 9, 2013. http://stackoverflow.com.

Vance, Ashlee. 2012. "Kaggle’s Contests: Crunching Numbers for Fame and Glory." Bloomberg Businessweek, January 4. Accessed November 9, 2013. http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/kaggles-contests-crunching-numbers-for-fame-and-glory-01042012.html.

Crowdsourcing Funding

References

Bollen, Johan, David Crandall, Damion Junk, Ying Ding, and Katy Börner. 2014. "From Funding Agencies to Scientific Agency: Collective Allocation of Science Funding as an Alternative to Peer Review." EMBO Reports 15 (1): 1–121.

Global Giving Foundation. 2014. Global Giving Home Page. Accessed August 31, 2014. http://www.globalgiving.org.

Indiana University Lilly Family School of Philanthropy. 2013. "The Million Dollar List." Accessed November 9, 2013. http://www.milliondollarlist.org.

Kickstarter. 2013. Kickstarter Home Page. Accessed August 31, 2014. http://www.kickstarter.com.

Kickstarter. 2013. "Kickstarter Stats." Accessed August 31, 2014. http://www.kickstarter.com/help/stats.

Kiva. 2013. Kiva Home Page. Accessed November 9, 2013. http://www.kiva.org.

Shema, Hadas. 2013. "Put Your Money Where Your Citations Are: A Proposal for a New Funding System." Scientific American, August 27. Accessed November 9, 2013. http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/information-culture/2013/08/27/put-your-money-where-your-citations-are-a-proposal-for-a-new-funding-system.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2013. "Kickstarter." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 9, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kickstarter.

Crowdsourcing Social Change

References

Ashoka Changemakers. 2013. Changemakers Home Page. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://www.changemakers.com.

ChallengePost Inc. and the U.S. General Services Administration. 2013. Challenge.gov. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://challenge.gov.

MySociety Limited. 2013. FixMyStreet Home Page. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://www.fixmystreet.com.

MySociety Limited. 2013. MySociety Home Page. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://www.mysociety.org.

MySociety Limited. 2013. PledgeBank. Home Page. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://www.pledgebank.com.

MySociety Limited. 2013. TheyWorkForYou Home Page. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://www.theyworkforyou.com.

Nation of Neighbors. 2013. Nation of Neighbors Home Page. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://www.nationofneighbors.com.

Turning Knowledge into Action into Change

References

FuturICT. 2013. "The Project." Accessed November 15, 2013. http://www.futurict.eu/the-project/proposal.

176

International Science Observatory

References

BookRags Media Network. 2014. "Walt Disney Quotes." Accessed January 28, 2014. http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/w/waltdisney130027.html.

Börner, Katy, Luís M. A. Bettencourt, Mark Gerstein and Stephen M. Uzzo, eds. 2009. Knowledge Management and Visualization Tools in Support of Discovery. NSF Workshop Report, Indiana University, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Yale University, and New York Hall of Science. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://vw.cns.iu.edu/cdi2008/whitepaper.html.

The New York Times. 2013. Hubble Space Telescope Articles. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/science/topics/hubble_space_telescope.

Science and Technology Facilities Council. 2013. "Large Hadron Collider ‘Big Questions about the LHC.’" Accessed November 10, 2013. http://www.lhc.ac.uk/17716.aspx.

Smith, Dave. 2012. Disney Trivia from the Vault: Secrets Revealed and Questions Answered. New York: Disney Editions.

United States Department of Commerce. 2013. The Department of Congress Budget in Brief: Fiscal Year 2013. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://www.osec.doc.gov/bmi/budget/FY13BIB/fy2013bib_final.pdf.

Image Credits

Image courtesy of Max Plank Institute, licensed under a Creative Commons By-NC-SA 3.0, unported license.

Contributors

Stuart A. Foster, President, American Association of State Climatologists, Western Kentucky University.

Real-Time Science Monitoring

References

Aschauer, Michael, Maia Gusberti, Nik Thoenen, and Sepp Deinhofer. 2002. [./logicaland] Participative Global Simulation. Vienna, Austria. Courtesy of Michael Aschauer, Maia Gusberti, and Nik Thoenen, in collaboration with Sepp Deinhofer, re-p.org. In "3rd Iteration (2007): The Power of Forecasts," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Julie M. Davis. http://scimaps.org.

Bishop, Steven, Dirk Helbing, Paul Lukowicz, and Rosaria Conte. 2011. "FuturICT: FET Flagship Pilot Project." Procedia Computer Science 7: 34–38. Accessed November 7, 2013. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S187705091100679X.

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Hamburger, Michael W., Charles Meertens, and Elisha F. Hardy. 2007. Tectonic Movements and Earthquake Hazard Predictions. Bloomington, IN and Boulder, CO. Courtesy of Indiana University and UNAVCO Consortium. In "3rd Iteration (2007): The Power of Forecasts," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Julie Davis. http://scimaps.org.

Haak, Laurel L., David Baker, Donna K. Ginther, Gregg J. Gordon, Matthew A. Probus, Nirmala Kannankutty, Bruce A. Weinberg. 2012. "Standards and Infrastructure for Innovation Data Exchange." Science 338 (6104): 196–197.

International DOI Foundation. 2013. DOI Home Page. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://www.doi.org.

ORCID. 2013. ORCID Home Page. Accessed November 10, 2013 http://orcid.org.

Stefaner, Moritz. 2014. "Worlds, Not Stories." Well-Formed Data." Accessed September 15, 2014. http://well-formed-data.net/archives/1027/worlds-not-stories.

Multilevel Science Models

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Börner, Katy. 2017. Atlas of Forecasts: Predicting and Broadcasting Science. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Litan, Roberth E., Andrew W. Wyckoff, and Kaye Husbands Fealing. 2012. Improving Measures of Science, Technology, and Innovation: Interim Report. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

National Institute of Standards and Technology. 2013. Text REtrieval Conference (TREC) Home Page. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://trec.nist.gov.

Scharnhorst, Andrea, Katy Börner, and Peter van den Besselaar, eds. 2012. Models of Science Dynamics: Encounters Between Complexity Theory and Information Science. New York: Springer-Verlag.

United States Department of Energy. 2013. Open Science Grid Home Page. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://display.grid.iu.edu.

Science Forecast Maps

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Börner, Katy, Luís M. A. Bettencourt, Mark Gerstein and Stephen M. Uzzo, eds. 2009. Knowledge Management and Visualization Tools in Support of Discovery. NSF Workshop Report, Indiana University, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Yale University, and New York Hall of Science. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://vw.slis.indiana.edu/cdi2008/NSF-Report-large.pdf.

Carpenter, Todd. 2014. "On Communicating Science, Technology, Engineering and Medicine—Alan Alda Talks About Improving Scientific Communication." The Scholarly Kitchen, February 25. Accessed September 15, 2014. http://scholarlykitchen.sspnet.org/2014/02/25/on-communicating-science-technology-engineering-and-medicine-alan-alda-talks-about-improving-scientific-communication.

Craft, Erik D. 2013. "An Economic History of Weather Forecasting." Economic History Association. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://eh.net/?s=Weather+Forecasting+History.

FuturICT. 2014. Home Page. Accessed March 1, 2014. http://www.futurict.eu.

Monmonier, Mark. 1999. Air Apparent: How Meteorologists Learned to Map, Predict, and Dramatize Weather. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Ostrom, Elinor. 1999. "Coping with Tragedies of the Commons." Annual Review of Political Science 2:493–535.

S&T Exploratories

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Börner, Katy. 2017. Atlas of Forecasts: Predicting and Broadcasting Science. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Cole, Joanna. 1985–present. The Magic School Bus Series. Illustrations by Bruce Degen. New York: Scholastic.

de Rosnay, Joël. 1979. The Macroscope: A New World Scientific System. New York: Harper & Row.

IMDb. 2013. "Humanexus" entry. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt3038374/?ref_=fn_al_tt_1.

Wolfram, Stephen. 2002. A New Kind of Science. Champaign, IL: Wolfram Media, Inc.

Wolfram|Alpha. 2013. Wolfram|Alpha Computational Knowledge Engine. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://www.wolframalpha.com.

Incentives and Purpose

References

Arthus-Bertrand, Yann. 2009. A Hymn to the Planet and Humanity. New York: Abrams Books.

Power and Responsibility

References

Anthony, Sebastian. 2013. "Astronomers Estimate 100 Billion Habitable Earth-Like Planets in the Milky Way, 50 Sextillion in the Universe." ExtremeTech, April 4. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://www.extremetech.com/extreme/152573-astronomers-estimate-100-billion-habitable-earth-like-planets-in-the-milky-way-50-sextillion-in-the-universe.

Börner, Katy. 2017. Atlas of Forecasts: Predicting and Broadcasting Science. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Torres, Abel Mendez. 2012. "Two Nearby Habitable Worlds?" Planetary Habitability Laboratory. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://phl.upr.edu/press-releases/twonearbyhabitableworlds.

Social Capital, Liveability, and Happiness

References

BigPictureSmallWorld Inc. 2008. "The Price of Peace: Abundance for All and How to Pay for It Using Military Expenditures." Accessed November 10, 2013. http://www.bigpicturesmallworld.com/war-peace/PriceofPeace.pdf.

The Economist Group. 2013. "Global Liveability Report." The Economist Intelligence Unit. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://www.eiu.com/site_info.asp?info_name=The_Global_Liveability_Report&page=noads&rf=0.

Rat Haus Reality. 2013. "What the World Wants and How to Pay for It Using Military Expenditures." Accessed November 10, 2013. http://ratical.org/co-globalize/WtWW.

White, Adrian and the National Geographic EarthPulse Team. 2008. A Global Projection of Subjective Well-Being. Washington, DC. Courtesy of National Geographic. In "4th Iteration (2008): Science Maps for Economic Decision Makers," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2013. "Global Peace Index." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_Peace_Index.

The World Bank Group. 2013. "Measuring the Dimensions of Social Capital." Accessed November 10, 2013. http://go.worldbank.org/TC9QT67HG0.

Contributors

Medard Gabel: medard@bigpicturesmallworld.com.

Image Credits

Redesigned by Perla Mateo-Lujan from: http://www.bigpicturesmallworld.com/war-peace/PriceofPeace.pdf. Accessed September 18, 2014. Original image by Medard Gabel, Earth Dashboard, BigPictureSmall World.

Think Globally, Act Locally

References

Girling, Rob. 2012. "21st Century Design: Shaping Behavior for Preferable Outcomes." Accessed November 10, 2013. http://www.artefactgroup.com/content/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/21stcenturydesign.pdf.

Thaler, Richard H., and Cass R. Sunstein. 2008. Nudge: Improving Decisions about Health, Wealth, and Happiness. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

4

Systems ScienceApproach

References

Kabat, Pavel. "Systems Science for Policy Evaluation." Science 336 (6087): 1398.

Miller, James G. 1978. Living Systems. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Systems Science Examples

References

Kabat, Pavel. "Systems Science for Policy Evaluation." Science 336 (6087): 1398.

S&T Systems Science

References

Windhager, Florian, Lukas Zenk, and Paolo Federico. 2011. "Visual Enterprise Network Analytics—Visualizing Organizational Change." In Proceedings of Dynamics of Social Networks: 7th Conference on Applications of Social Network Analysis (ASNA 2010), edited by Thomas N. Friemel, 22:59-68. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier.

Multiple Levels of Abstraction

References

Börner, Katy, Noshir Contractor, Holly J. Falk-Krzesinski, Stephen M. Fiore, Kara L. Hall, Joann Keyton, Bonnie Spring, Daniel Stokols, William Trochim, and Brian Uzzi. "A Multi-Level Systems Perspective for the Science of Team Science." Science Translational Medicine 2 (49): 1–5.

Eames, Charles, and Ray Eames. 1977. Powers of Ten. Accessed October 30, 2013. http://www.powersof10.com/film.

Image Credits

Image created by Perla Mateo-Lujan.

Different Types of Analysis

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Börner, Katy. 2017. Atlas of Forecasts: Predicting and Broadcasting Science. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Image Credits

The table with illustrations was created by Perla Mateo-Lujan and Samuel T. Mills.

Multimodal Analysis

References

Padgett, John F., and Walter W. Powell, eds. 2012. The Emergence of Organizations and Markets. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Mixed-Methods Approach

References

Börner, Katy, Noshir Contractor, Holly J. Falk-Krzesinski, Stephen M. Fiore, Kara L. Hall, Joann Keyton, Bonnie Spring, Daniel Stokols, William Trochim, and Brian Uzzi. "A Multi-Level Systems Perspective for the Science of Team Science." Science Translational Medicine 2 (49): 1–5.

Opportunities

References

Liu, Yang-Yu, Jean-Jacques Slotine, and Albert-László Barabási. "Controllability of Complex Networks." Nature 473 (7346): 167–173.

6

Micro: Individual Level

References

Leydesdorff, Loet. 2011. Personal Communication. August 11.

Personal Analytics

References

Horlings, Edwin, and Thomas Gurney. 2012. "Search Strategies along the Academic Lifecycle." Scientometrics 94 (3): 1137–1160.

Image Credits

See Horlings and Gurney 2012.

Quantifying Success

References

Forbes Staff. "The Forbes 400: The Richest People in America." Accessed October 30, 2013. http://www.forbes.com/forbes-400/list.

Kroll, Luisa, and Kerry A. Dolan. 2013. "The World’s Billionaires: The Richest People on the Planet." Forbes. Accessed October 30, 2013. http://www.forbes.com/billionaires.

Quantified Self Labs. 2013. Home Page. Accessed October 30, 2013. http://quantifiedself.com.

Wolfram Alpha LLC. 2013. Wolfram Alpha Personal Analytics for Facebook. Accessed October 30, 2013. http://www.wolframalpha.com/facebook.

Image Credits

See Wolfram Alpha LLC 2013.

Contextualizing Success

References

Rankin, Bill. 2006. "Average Per Capita Income, by Density and Average Density, by Per Capita Income." Radical Cartography. Accessed October 30, 2013. http://radicalcartography.net/density-income.png.

Rankin, Bill. 2006. "Age Groups as Percent of Population, by Density and Age Groups as Percent of Population, by Density (normalized to national averages)." Radical Cartography. Accessed October 30, 2013. http://radicalcartography.net/density-age.png.

Rankin, Bill. 2013. Radical Cartography. Accessed December 15, 2013. http://radicalcartography.net.

Image Credits

See Rankin "Average Per Capita Income" and "Age Groups" 2006.

Data Credits

All graphs based on tract-level data from the 2000 census. Data do not include U.S. territories. Formore information, see http://radicalcartography.net/density-tracts.html. Accessed September 18, 2014.

Academic Products Analytics

References

Bornmann, Lutz, Hermann Schier, Werner Marx, and Hans-Dieter Daniel. 2012. "What Factors Determine Citation Counts of Publications in Chemistry Besides Their Quality?" Journal of Informetrics 6 (1): 11–18.

Didegah, Fereshteh, and Mike Thelwall. 2012. "Predictive Indicators of Research Citation Impact in S&T Fields: A Case Study of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology." In Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Science and Technology Indicators, Montréal, Canada, September 5–8, 236–246.

Commercial Product Analytics

References

Gartner, Inc. 2013. "IT Glossary: Product Analytics." Accessed October 30, 2013. http://www.gartner.com/it-glossary/product-analytics.

8

Meso: Local Level

References

Lehrer, Jonah. 2012. "Groupthink: The Brainstorming Myth." The New Yorker, January 30. Accessed October 30, 2013. http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2012/01/30/120130fa_fact_lehrer#ixzz1kb8PzIzF.

Organizational Types

References

Crane, Diana. 1972. Invisible Colleges: Diffusion of Knowledge in Scientific Communities. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Francisco, Matthew, Staša Milojević, and Selma Šabanović. 2011. "Conference Models to Bridge Micro and Macro Studies of Science." Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 14 (4): 13.

Wagner, Caroline S. 2008. The New Invisible College: Science for Development. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.

Image Credits

Image adapted by Perla Mateo-Lujan from Francisco et al. 2011.

Teams

Size and Density

References

Barabási, Albert-László. 2005. "Network Theory: The Emergence of the Creative Enterprise." Science 308 (5722): 639–641.

Börner, Katy, Luca Dall’Asta, Weimao Ke, and Alessandro Vespignani. 2005. "Studying the Emerging Global Brain: Analyzing and Visualizing the Impact of Co-Authorship Teams." Complexity: Special Issue on Understanding Complex Systems 10 (4): 57–67.

Francisco, Matthew, Staša Milojević, and Selma Šabanović. 2011. "Conference Models to Bridge Micro and Macro Studies of Science." Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 14 (4): 13.

Guimerà, Roger, Brian Uzzi, Jarrett Spiro, Luis A. Nunes Amaral. 2005. "Team Assembly Mechanisms Determine Collaboration Network Structure and Team Performance." Science 308 (5722): 697–702.

Wuchty, Stefan, Benjamin F. Jones, and Brian Uzzi. 2007. "The Increasing Dominance of Teams in Production of Knowledge." Science 316 (5827): 1036–1039.

Zucker, Lynne G., and Michael R. Darby. 1996. "Star Scientists and Institutional Transformation: Patterns of Invention and Innovation in the Formation of the Biotechnology Industry." PNAS 93 (23): 12709–12716.

Image Credits

Image adapted by Perla Mateo-Lujan from Barabási 2005.

Ideal Spatial Proximity

References

Cummings, Jonathon N., and Sara Kiesler. 2007. "Coordination Costs and Project Outcomes in Multi-University Collaborations." Research Policy 36 (10): 1620–1634.

Lee, Kyungjoon, John S. Brownstein, Richard G. Mills, and Isaac S. Kohane. 2010. "Does Collocation Inform the Impact of Collaboration?" PLoS One 5 (12): e14279. Accessed October 31, 2013. http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0014279.

Diversity

References

Börner, Katy, and Kevin W. Boyack. 2010. "Mapping Interdisciplinary Research" (sidebar, Systems Science Section). In Oxford Handbook of Interdisciplinarity, Ch. 31, edited by Robert Frodeman, Julie Thompson Klein, and Carl Mitcham, 457–460. New York: Oxford University Press.

Börner, Katy, Richard Klavans, Michael Patek, Angela Zoss, Joseph R. Biberstine, Robert Light, Vincent Larivière, and Kevin W. Boyack. 2012. "Design and Update of a Classification System: The UCSD Map of Science." PLoS One 7 (7): e39464. Accessed October 31, 2013. http://sci.cns.iu.edu/ucsdmap.

Larivière Vincent, and Yves Gingras. 2010. "On the Relationship between Interdisciplinarity and Scientific Impact." JASIST 61 (1): 126–131.

Sugimoto, Cassidy R. 2012. Are You My Mentor? Identifying Mentors and Their Roles in LIS Doctoral Education." Journal of Education for Library and Information Science 53 (1): 2–19.

Sugimoto, Cassidy R., Terrell G. Russell, Lokman I. Meho, and Gary Marchionini. 2008. "MPACT and Citation Impact: Two Sides of the Same Scholarly Coin?" Library & Information Science Research 30 (4): 273–281.

Wagner, Caroline S., J. David Roessner, Kamau Bobb, Julie Thompson Klein, Kevin W. Boyack, Joann Keyton, Ismael Rafols, and Katy Börner. 2011. "Approaches to Understanding and Measuring Interdisciplinary Scientific Research (IDR): A Review of the Literature." Journal of Informetrics 5 (1): 14–26.

Fostering Creativity

References

Guimerà, Roger, Brian Uzzi, Jarrett Spiro, Luis A. Nunes Amaral. 2005. "Team Assembly Mechanisms Determine Collaboration Network Structure and Team Performance." Science 308 (5722): 697–702.

Heinze, Thomas, Philip Shapira, Juan D. Rogers, and Jacqueline M. Senker. 2009. "Organizational and Institutional Influences on Creativity in Scientific Research." Research Policy 38 (4): 610–623.

Parker, John N., and Edward J. Hackett. 2012. "Hot Spots and Hot Moments in Scientific Collaborations and Social Movements." American Sociological Review 77 (1): 21–44.

Importance of Weak Ties

References

Börner, Katy, and David E. Polley. 2014. Visual Insights: A Practical Guide to Making Sense of Data. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Granovetter, Mark S. 1970. "Changing Jobs: Channels of Mobility Information in a Suburban Population." PhD diss., Harvard University.

Granovetter, Mark S. 1973. "The Strength of Weak Ties." American Journal of Sociology 78 (6): 1360–1380.

Padgett, John F., and Walter W. Powell, eds. 2012. The Emergence of Organizations and Markets. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Institutions and Regions

Rankings

References

Aaronson, Becca. 2011. "Interactive: The Demographics of Poverty in Texas." The Texas Tribune, December 15. Accessed October 31, 2013. http://www.texastribune.org/library/data/demographics-poverty-texas-2011. Indiana Business Research Center. 2013. "Stats America." Accessed October 31, 2013. http://www.statsamerica.org.

Becher, Tony, and Paul R. Trowler. 2001. Academic Tribes and Territories: Intellectual Enquiry and the Culture of Disciplines. 2nd ed. Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.

Zoss, Angela M., Michael D. Conover, and Katy Börner. 2010. "Where Are the Academic Jobs? Interactive Exploration of Job Advertisements in Geospatial and Topical Space." In Advances in Social Computing: Third International Conference on Social Computing, Behavioral Modeling and Prediction, edited by Sun-Ki Chai, John Salerno, and Patricia L. Mabry, 238–247. Bethesda, MD: Springer.

Return on Investment

References

Marshall, Eliot, and John Travis. 2011. "U.K. Scientific Papers Rank First in Citations." Science 334 (6055): 443.

Stephan, Paula. 2012. How Economics Shapes Science Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Venture Capital Dispersion

References

Butler, Declan. 2008. "Swollen with Success." Nature 455 (7211): 270–271.

National Science Foundation. 2008. "Science and Engineering Indicators 2008." Accessed October 30, 2013. http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/seind08.

Image Credits

Swollen with Success reprinted by permission from Macmillan Publishers Ltd. Nature. Copyright 2008.

Data Credits

Venture Capital Maps, see National Science Foundation 2008.

Innovation Networks

References

Walshok, Mary L. 2011. "The Role of Social Networks and Boundary Spanning Organizations in Highly Innovative Communities." Lecture presented as part of the Networks and Complex Systems Talk Series, Indiana University, April. Accessed March 1, 2014. http://cns.iu.edu/docs/netscitalks/Walshok.pdf.

Zucker, Lynne G., and Michael R. Darby. 1996. "Star Scientists and Institutional Transformation: Patterns of Invention and Innovation in the Formation of the Biotechnology Industry." PNAS 93 (23): 12709–12716.

Scientific Disciplines

References

Börner, Katy, Shashikant Penumarthy, Mark Meiss, and Weimao Ke. 2006. "Mapping the Diffusion of Information among Major U.S. Research Institutions." Scientometrics 68 (3): 415–426.

Cronin, Blaise, and Stephen Pearson. 1990. "The Export of Ideas from Information Science." Journal of Information Science 16 (6): 381–391.

Network Centrality and Robustness

References

Rosvall, Martin, and Carl T. Bergstrom. 2008. "Maps of Random Walks on Complex Networks Reveal Community Structure." PNAS 105 (4): 1118–1123.

Image Credits

Maps of Random Walks on Complex Networks Reveal Community Structure courtesy of PNAS. © 2007, National Academy of Sciences, USA.

Emerging Research Areas

References

Guo, Hanning, Scott B. Weingart, and Katy Börner. 2011. "Mixed-Indicators Model for Identifying Emerging Research Areas." Scientometrics 89 (1): 421–435.

Leydesdorff, Loet, and Thomas Schank. 2008. "Dynamic Animations of Journal Maps: Indicators of Structural Change and Interdisciplinary Developments." JASIST 59 (11): 1810–1818.

10

Macro: Global Level

References

Suresh, Subra. 2012. "Remarks." Speech given at the Integrative Graduate Education Research and Traineeship Project Meeting, Washington, DC, May 31. Accessed September 14, 2014. http://www.nsf.gov/news/speeches/suresh/12/ss120531_igert.jsp.

National Indicators

Population

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. 2–3.

Haub, Carl. 2011. "How Many People Have Ever Lived on Earth?" Population Reference Bureau Online. Accessed October 31, 2013. http://www.prb.org/Publications/Articles/2002/HowManyPeopleHaveEverLivedonEarth.aspx.

Haub, Carl. 2011. "In 2011, World Population Surpasses 7 Billion." Population Reference Bureau Online. http://www.prb.org/Publications/Articles/2011/world-population-7billion.aspx.

Hendler, James A. 2013. Personal Communication. Spring.

Holt, Richard. 2013. "Twitter in Numbers." The Telegraph, March 21. Accessed October 31, 2013. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/twitter/9945505/Twitter-in-numbers.html.

Miniwatts Marketing Group. 2012. "The World Population and the Top Ten Countries with the Highest Population." Internet World Stats. Accessed October 31, 2013. http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats8.htm.

Nordpil. 2013. "World Database of Large Urban Areas, 1950–2050." Accessed October 31, 2013. http://nordpil.com/go/resources/world-database-of-large-cities.

Tam, Donna. 2013. "Facebook by the Numbers: 1.06 Billion Monthly Active Users." CNET, January 30. Accessed October 31, 2013. http://news.cnet.com/8301-1023_3-57566550-93/facebook-by-the-numbers-1.06-billion-monthly-active-users.

United Nations. 2008. "World Urbanization Prospects: The 2007 Revision." New York: United Nations. Accessed November 15, 2013. http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/wup2007/2007WUP_Highlights_web.pdf.

Worldometers. 2013. "World Population." Accessed October 31, 2013. http://www.worldometers.info/world-population.

Data Credits

See United Nations 2008.

GDP and National Debt

References

BBC News. 2011. "Eurozone Debt Web: Who Owes What to Whom in Europe." BBC News: Business. November 18. Accessed September 18, 2014. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-15748696.

CNN Money. 2012. "Global 500: Our Annual Ranking of the World’s Largest Corporations." Accessed November 15, 2013. http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/global500/2012/full_list.

Hall, Ed. 2013. "U.S. National Debt Clock." Accessed November 6, 2013. http://www.brillig.com/debt_clock.

White, D. Steven. 2012. "The Top 175 Global Economic Entities, 2011." Personal Home Page. Accessed October 31, 2013. http://dstevenwhite.com/2012/08/11/the-top-175-global-economic-entities-2011.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2013. "List of Countries by GDP (Nominal)." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 15, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_GDP_%28nominal%29.

Image Credits

Image reprinted with permission of the BBC, © 2011, from "Eurozone Debt Web: Who Owes What to Whom in Europe." BBC News: Business. November 18. Accessed September 18, 2014. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-15748696.

Data Credits

See CNN Money 2012.

See Wikimedia Foundation 2013.

Research Funding

References

Feldman, Michael. 2012. "India Aims to Double R&D Spending for Science." HPC Wire, January 4. Accessed October 31, 2013. http://www.hpcwire.com/hpcwire/2012-01-04/india_aims_to_double_r_d_spending_for_science.html.

Indiana University Lilly Family School of Philanthropy. 2013. "The Million Dollar List." Accessed November 9. http://www.milliondollarlist.org.

Kay, Luciano. 2011. "How Do Prizes Induce Innovation? Learning from the Google Lunar X-Prize." Accessed October 31, 2013. http://scienceofsciencepolicy.net/publication/how-do-prizes-induce-innovation-learning-google-lunar-x-prize.

Co-Funding Networks

References

Shapira, Philip, and Jue Wang. 2010. "Comment: Follow the Money. What Was the Impact of the Nanotechnology Funding Boom of the Past Ten Years?" Nature 468 (7324): 627–628.

Image Credits

Cross-Border Funding of Nanotechnology Research reprinted by permission from Macmillan Publishers Ltd. Nature. Copyright 2010.

Return on Investment

References

Hall, Kara L., Daniel Stokols, Brooke A. Stipelman, Amanda L. Vogel, Annie Feng, Beth Masimore, Glen Morgan, Richard P. Moser, Stephen E. Marcus, and David Berrigan. "Assessing the Value of Team Science: A Study Comparing Center- and Investigator-Initiated Grants." American Journal of Preventive Medicine 42 (2): 157–163.

Education

References

The Financial Times LTD. 2012. "Global MBA Rankings 2012." Accessed October 31, 2013. http://rankings.ft.com/businessschoolrankings/global-mba-rankings-2012.

Hazelkorn, Ellen. 2011. Rankings and the Reshaping of Higher Education: The Battle for World-Class Excellence. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

International Association of Universities. 2012. International Handbook of Universities. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

International Association of Universities and Palgrave Macmillan. 2013. "World Higher Education Database Online." Accessed October 31, 2013.http://www.whed-online.com.

Irizarry, Rafa. 2011. "Expected Salary by Major." Simply Statistics. Accessed October 31, 2013. http://simplystatistics.tumblr.com/post/12599452125/expected-salary-by-major.

Marope, Mmantsetsa, Peter J. Wells, and Ellen Hazelkorn, eds. 2013. Rankings and Accountability in Higher Education: Uses and Misuses. Paris: UNESCO Publishing.

The Partnership for a New American Economy. 2011. The "New American" Fortune 500. Accessed October 31, 2013. http://www.renewoureconomy.org/sites/all/themes/pnae/img/new-american-fortune-500-june-2011.pdf.

Wildavsky, Ben. 2010. The Great Brain Race: How Global Universities Are Reshaping the World. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Yau, Nathan. "Education in the United States: Enrollment and Dropouts." Flowing Prints. Accessed October 31, 2013. http://flowingprints.com/print1.php.

Flows

References

Committee on Global Approaches to Advanced Computing, Board on Global Science and Technology, Policy and Global Affairs, and National Research Council. 2012. The New Global Ecosystem in Advanced Computing: Implications for U.S. Competitiveness and National Security. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

Collaboration

References

Ye, Fred Y., Susan S. Yu, and Loet Leydesdorff. 2013. "The Triple-Helix of University-Industry-Government Relations at the Country Level, and Its Dynamic Evolution under the Pressures of Globalization." JASIST 64 (11): 2317–2325.

Communication

References

Medina, Sammy. 2012. "A Designer Overhauls the NSA’s Atrocious Powerpoint Presentation." Fast Company, June 12. Accessed October 31, 2013. http://www.fastcodesign.com/1672808/a-designer-overhauls-the-nsas-atrocious-powerpoint-presentation?partner=newsletter#1.

Image Credits

From "Dear NSA" by Emiland De Cubber. http://www.emiland.me. Accessed September 18, 2014.

Trade

References

Hausmann, Ricardo, César A. Hidalgo, Sebastián Bustos, Michele Coscia, Sarah Chung, Juan Jimenez, Alexander Simoes, Muhammed A. Yildirim. 2011. The Atlas of Economic Complexity. Boston, MA: Harvard Kennedy School and MIT Media Lab. Accessed August 28, 2013. http://www.cid.harvard.edu/documents/complexityatlas.pdf.

Hidalgo, César A., Bailey Klinger, Albert-László Barabási, and Ricardo Hausmann. 2007. "The Product Space Conditions the Development of Nations." Science 317 (5837): 482–487.

Hidalgo, César A., Bailey Klinger, Albert-László Barabási, and Ricardo Hausmann. 2008. "The Product Space." César Hidalgo Home Page. Accessed August 28, 2013. http://www.chidalgo.com/productspace.

Stefaner, Moritz. 2013. "Global Trade Flows." Personal Home Page. Accessed October 31, 2013. http://moritz.stefaner.eu/projects/global-trade-flows.

United Nations. 2013. UN Comtrade Database. Accessed November 6, 2013. http://comtrade.un.org/db.

United States Department of Commerce. 2013. Foreign Trade. United States Census Bureau Online. Accessed November 6, 2013. http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade.

Image Credits

Global Trade Flows (Image 1) courtesy of Moritz Stefaner for CITI, 2011.

Global Trade Flows (Image 2) courtesy of Moritz Stefaner for CITI, 2011.

Data Credits

See United Nations 2013.

See United States Department of Commerce 2013.

12

Universal: Multilevel

References

Kelly, Kevin. 1997. "New Rules for the New Economy." Wired 5 (9). Accessed October 31, 2013. http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/5.09/newrules.html.

Metrics

Journal Impact Factor

References

Adler, Robert, John Ewing, and Peter Taylor. 2008. "Citation Statistics. A Report from the International Mathematical Union." Accessed October 31, 2013. http://www.mathunion.org/publications/report/citationstatistics0.

The American Society for Cell Biology. 2012. "San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment (DORA)." Accessed October 31, 2013. http://am.ascb.org/dora.

Editorial Board. 2006. "The Impact Factor Game." PLoS Medicine 3(6): e291. Accessed October 31, 2013. http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.0030291.

Editorial Board. 2005. "Not-So-Deep Impact." Nature 435 (7045): 1003–1004.

Rossner, Mike, Heather Van Epps, and Emma Hill. 2007. "Show me the Data." The Journal of Cell Biology 179 (6): 1091–1092.

Rossner Mike, Heather Van Epps, and Emma Hill. 2008. "Irreproducible Results: A Response to Thomson Scientific." The Journal of Cell Biology 180 (2): 254–255.

Seglen, Per O. 1997. "Why the Impact Factor of Journals Should Not Be Used for Evaluating Research." BMJ 314:498–502.

Vanclay, Jerome K. 2012. "Impact Factor: Outdated Artefact or Stepping-Stone to Journal Certification?" Scientometrics 92 (2): 211–238.

The h-Index

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Bornmann, Lutz, Rüdiger Mutz, Sven E. Hug, and Hans-Dieter Daniel. 2011. "A Multilevel Meta-Analysis of Studies Reporting Correlations between the h-index and 37 Different h-index Variants." Journal of Informetrics 5 (3): 346–359.

Hirsch, J. E. 2005. "An Index to Quantify an Individual’s Scientific Research Output." PNAS 102 (46): 16569–16572.

Universal Laws

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Garfield, Eugene. 1980. "Bradford’s Law and Related Statistical Patterns." In Essays of an Information Scientist, Vol. 4, 476–483. Philadelphia, PA: ISI Press.

Helbing, Dirk, and Stefano Balietti. 2011. "From Social Data Mining to Forecasting Socio-Economic Crises." European Physics Journal Special Topics 195 (1): 3–68.

Redner, Sidney. 1998. "How Popular Is Your Paper? An Empirical Study of the Citation Distribution.’’ European Physics Journal B 4 (2): 131–134.

van Raan. Anthony F. J. 2013. "Universities Scale Like Cities." PLoS One 8 (3): e59384. Accessed November 2, 2013. http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0059384.

Transportation and Communication

Air and Sea Traffic Flows

References

Ducruet, César, Daniele Ietri, and Céline Rozenblat. 2011. "Cities in Worldwide Air and Sea Flows: A Multiple Networks Analysis." Cybergeo: European Journal of Geography, document 528. Accessed November 2, 2013. http://cybergeo.revues.org/23603.

Image Credits

© Ducruet, Rozenblat, and Ietri 2010.

Internet Traffic

References

PriMetrica, Inc. 2013. "Global Internet Map." TeleGeography. Accessed November 2, 2013. http://www.telegeography.com/telecom-maps/global-internet-map/index.html.

Image Credits

Global Internet Map courtesy of TeleGeography. http://www.telegeography.com. Accessed September 18, 2014.

14

S&T Dynamics: Trendsand Bursts of Activity

References

Roco, Mihail C. 2010. "The Long View of Nanotechnology Development: The National Nanotechnology Initiative at 10 Years." Journal of Nanoparticle Research 13: 427–445.

Seib, Gerald F. 2008. "In Crisis, Opportunity for Obama." The Wall Street Journal, November 21. Accessed September 14, 2014. http://online.wsj.com/articles/SB122721278056345271.

Trends

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Quealy, Kevin, Gregory Roth, and R. M. Schneiderman. 2009. "How the Government Dealt with Past Recessions." The New York Times, January 26. Accessed November 2, 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2009/01/26/business/economy/20090126-recessions-graphic.html?ref=business&_r=1&;.

Image Credits

From The New York Times, Jan. 26, 2009 © 2009 The New York Times. All rights reserved. Used by permission and protected by the Copyright Laws of the United States. The printing, copying, redistribution, or retransmission of this Content without express written permission is prohibited.

Revenue Performance Growth

References

Austin, Scott. 2009. "How Long Does it Take to Build a Technology Empire?" The Wall Street Journal, August 25. Accessed November 2, 2013. http://blogs.wsj.com/venturecapital/2009/08/25/how-long-does-it-take-to-build-a-technology-empire.

Image Credits

Tale of 100 Entrepreneurs courtesy of Tableau Software, Inc.

Acceleration of Technology Developments

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

OECD. 2013. OECD Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2013: Innovation for Growth. Paris, France: OECD Publishing.

Rogers, Everett M. 1962. Diffusion of Innovations. New York: Free Press.

Image Credits

Acceleration in the Co-development of Patented Technologies, 1996-2001 and 2006-2011 from OECD. 2013. OECD Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2013: Innovation for Growth, p. 171, OECD Publishing. OECD © 2013. http://www.oecd.org/sti/scoreboard-2013.pdf. Accessed September 18, 2014.

Return on Investment Delays

References

Alston, Julian M., Matthew A. Andersen, Jennifer S. James, Philip G. Pardey. 2010. Persistence Pays: U.S. Agricultural Productivity Growth and the Benefits from Public R&D Spending. New York: Springer.

Illinois Institute of Technology Research Institute under Contract NSF-C535. 1968. Technology in Retrospect and Critical Events in Science (TRACES). Washington, DC: NSF.

Narin, Francis. 2013. "Tracing the Paths from Basic Research to Economic Impact." F&M Scientist, Winter.

National Science Foundation. 1993–present. Science and Engineering Indicators. Arlington, VA: NSF.

Bursts of Activity

References

Mazloumian, Amin, Young-Ho Eom, Dirk Helbing, Sergi Lozano, Santo Fortunato. "How Citation Boosts Promote Scientific Paradigm Shifts and Nobel Prizes." PLoS One 6 (5): e18975. Accessed November 2, 2013. http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0018975.

Tipping Points

References

Gladwell, Malcolm. 2000. The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference. New York: Little, Brown, and Company.

Schelling, Thomas C. 1978. Micromotives and Macrobehavior. New York: W. W. Norton and Co. 147–155.

Exogenous Shocks and Discontinuities

Fiscal Discontinuities

References

Berg, Jeremy. 2012. "The Best-Laid Plans: It’s Time to Move Forward." ASBMB Today, September. Accessed November 2, 2013. http://www.asbmb.org/asbmbtoday/asbmbtoday_article.aspx?id=17831.

Biomedical Research Workforce Working Group. 2012. Biomedical Research Workforce Working Group Report. Accessed November 2, 2013. http://acd.od.nih.gov/Biomedical_research_wgreport.pdf.

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Korn, David, Robert R. Rich, Howard H. Garrison, Sidney H Golub, Mary J. C. Hendrix, Stephen J. Heinig, Bettie Sue Masters, and Richard J. Turman. 2002. "The NIH Budget in the ‘Postdoubling’ Era." Science 296 (5572): 1401–1402.

Image Credits

Trends in Basic Research by Agency, FY 1976-2015 from 2014. AAAS Report XXXIX: Research and Development FY 2015. © 2014 AAAS. Accessed September 18, 2014. http://www.aaas.org/sites/default/files/BasicRes_0.jpg.

Legal Discontinuities

References

Dhar, Deepali, and John His-en Ho. 2009. "Stem Cell Research Policies around the World." Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine 82 (3): 113–115.

16

S&T Dynamics:Structural Changes

References

Diamond, Jared. 2005. Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed. New York: Viking.

Institut des Systemes Complexes. 2011. Programme for Mining the Digital Traces of Science. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://www.iscpif.fr/tiki-index.php?page=MDTS11programme.

United States Department of Health and Human Services. 2007. Investing in Discovery: National Institute of General Medical Sciences—Strategic Plan 2008–2012. Accessed November 2, 2013. http://publications.nigms.nih.gov/strategicplan/strategicplan.pdf.

Evolving Geography

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

European Union. 2013. "European Union: Countries." Accessed November 2, 2013. http://europa.eu/about-eu/countries.

Fuller, R. Buckminster, and John McHale. 1965. Shrinking of Our Planet. Carbondale, IL. Courtesy of the Estate of R. Buckminster Fuller. In "4th Iteration (2008): Science Maps for Economic Decision Makers," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

Gilgtc. 2007. "Political Borders of Europe from 1519 to 2006." YouTube, November 6. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nq0KNfS_M44.

Minard, Charles Joseph. 1866. Europe Raw Cotton Imports in 1858, 1864 and 1865. Paris, France. Courtesy of the Library of Congress, Geography and Maps Division. In "4th Iteration (2008): Science Maps for Economic Decision Makers," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

Image Credits

Maps of Europe (1519, 1941, 1805, 2006) courtesy of Gerard von Hebel.

Evolving S&T Landscape

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Klavans, Richard, and Kevin W. Boyack. 2007. Maps of Science: Forecasting Large Trends in Science. Berwyn, PA and Albuquerque, NM. Courtesy of Richard Klavans, SciTech Strategies, Inc. In "3rd Iteration (2007): The Power of Forecasts," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Julie M. Davis. http://scimaps.org.

Menard, Henry W. 1971. Science: Growth and Change. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Sun, Xiaoling, Jasleen Kaur, Staša Milojević, Alessandro Flammini, and Filippo Menczer. 2013. "Social Dynamics of Science." Scientific Reports 3 (1069). Accessed September 10, 2014. http://www.nature.com/srep/2013/130115/srep01069/full/srep01069.html.

Genealogy of Science

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Börner, Katy, Richard Klavans, Michael Patek, Angela Zoss, Joseph R. Biberstine, Robert Light, Vincent Lariviére, and Kevin W. Boyack. 2012. "Design and Update of a Classification System: The UCSD Map of Science." PLoS One 7 (7): e39464. Accessed October 31, 2013. http://sci.cns.iu.edu/ucsdmap.

Klavans, Richard, and Kevin W. Boyack. 2007. Maps of Science: Forecasting Large Trends in Science. Berwyn, PA and Albuquerque, NM. Courtesy of Richard Klavans, SciTech Strategies, Inc. In "3rd Iteration (2007): The Power of Forecasts," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Julie M. Davis. http://scimaps.org.

Zeller, Daniel. 2007. Hypothetical Model of the Evolution and Structure of Science. New York, NY. Courtesy of Daniel Zeller. In "3rd Iteration (2007): The Power of Forecasts," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Julie M. Davis. http://scimaps.org.

Alluvial Maps of Science

References

Map Equation. 2013. "The Alluvial Generator." Accessed November 15. http://mapequation.org/apps/AlluvialGenerator.html.

Rosvall, Martin, and Carl T. Bergstrom. 2010. "Mapping Change in Large Networks." PLoS One 5 (1): e8694. Accessed November 4, 2013. http://mapequation.org/assets/publications/PLoSONE2010Rosvall.pdf.

Image Credits

Mapping Change in Science courtesy of Martin Rosvall and http://www.mapequation.org/apps/AlluvialGenerator.html. Accessed September 18, 2014.

Software Credits

MapEquation. http://mapequation.org/apps/AlluvialGenerator.html. Accessed September 18, 2014.

The Phylomemy of Science

References

Börner, Katy. 2017. Atlas of Forecasts: Predicting and Broadcasting Science. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Chavalarias, David, and Jean-Philippe Cointet. 2013. "Phylometric Patterns in Science Evolution—The Rise and Fall of Scientific Fields." PLoS ONE 8 (2): e54847. Accessed November 4, 2013. http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0054847&representation=PDF.

Hyper-Streams

Image Credits

Thematic Domination of Media Framing by David Chavalarias (1,2), Jean-Phillipe Cointet (2,3), Lise Cornilleau (2,7), Tam Kien Duong (2,3,4), Andreï Mogoutov (3), Camille Roth (2,5), Thierry Savy (2), Lionel Villard (3,6). 1 - Centre d’Analyse et de Mathématique Sociales, CNRS; 2 - Institut des Systèmes Complexes de Paris Île-de-France; 3 - Inra-SenS - CorText - IFRIS; 4 - Formism; 5 - Centre March Bloch Berlin, CNRS-MAE; 6 Université Paris-Est, ESIEE - LATTS; 7 - Sciences-Po, Centre de Sociologie des Organisations. This work has been supported by The Complex Systems Institute of Paris Île-de-France (ISC-PIF, http://www.iscpif.fr) and The Institute for Research, Innovation and Society (IFRIS, http://www.ifris.org). Both sites accessed September 18, 2014.

Scientific Revolutions

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Chen, Chaomei. 2003. Mapping Science Frontiers: The Quest for Knowledge Visualization. London: Springer-Verlag.

Chen, Chaomei, and Jasna Kuljis. 2003. "The Rising Landscape: A Visual Exploration of Superstring Revolutions in Physics." JASIST 54(5): 435–446.

Kuhn, Thomas S. 1962. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago, IL: The University ofChicago Press.

Wegener, Alfred. (1929) 1966. The Origin of Continents and Oceans. Translated from the 4th Revised German Edition by John Biram. Reprint, New York: Dover Publications, Inc.

Zeller, Daniel. 2007. Hypothetical Model of the Evolution and Structure of Science. New York, NY. Courtesy of Daniel Zeller. In "3rd Iteration (2007): The Power of Forecasts," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Julie M. Davis. http://scimaps.org.

Evolving Collaboration Patterns

References

Tuckman, Bruce. 1965. "Developmental Sequence in Small Groups." Psychological Bulletin 63 (6): 384–99.

Zanetti, Marcelo Serrano, Emre Sarigöl, Ingo Scholtes, Claudio Juan Tessone, and Frank Schweitzer. 2012. "A Quantitative Study of Social Organisation in Open Source Software Communities." In Proceedings of ICCSW. Accessed November 5, 2013. http://www.sg.ethz.ch/research/topics/social-se/oss-communities.

Image Credits

Image redesigned by Tracey Theriault from Zanetti et al. 2012.

18

S&T Dynamics: Diffusionand Feedback Patterns

References

Madison, James. 1825. "James Madison to George Thompson, June 30." Sea of Liberty. Accessed September 14, 2014. https://seaofliberty.org/explore/james-madison-george-thompson-quote/171.

Human Migration

Migration Trajectories

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Hausmann, Ricardo, César A. Hidalgo, Sebastián Bustos, Michele Coscia, Sarah Chung, Juan Jimenez, Alexander Simoes, Muhammed A. Yildirim. 2011. The Atlas of Economic Complexity. Boston, MA: Harvard Kennedy School and MIT Media Lab. Accessed August 28, 2013. http://www.cid.harvard.edu/documents/complexityatlas.pdf.

Hidalgo, César A., Bailey Klinger, Albert-László Barabási, and Ricardo Hausmann. 2007. "The Product Space Conditions the Development of Nations." Science 317 (5837): 482–487.

Mager, Christoph. 2012. "Heidelberg Nobel Prize Winners." In Wissenschaftsatlas of Heidelberg University: Spatio-Temporal Relations of Academic Knowledge Production, edited by Peter Meusburger and Thomas Schuch, 250–253. Knittlingen, Germany: Bibliotheca Palatina.

Skupin, André, and Ron Hagelman. 2005. "Visualizing Demographic Trajectories with Self-Organizing Maps." GeoInformatica 9 (2): 159–179.

Image Credits

The Atlantic Slave Trade by Philip D. Curtin © 1969 by the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System. Reprinted by permission of the University of Wisconsin Press.

Nobelpreisträger, für Physik, Chemie, und Medizin from Mager 2012.

Brain Circulation

References

Johnson, Jean M., and Mark C. Regets. 1998. International Mobility of Scientists and Engineers to the United States: Brain Drain or Brain Circulation, National Science Foundation (NSF 98–316).

Salmi, Jamil. 2012. "Attracting Talent in a Global Academic World: How Emerging Research Universities Can Benefit from Brain Circulation." Brain Circulation 2 (1). Accessed September 5, 2014. http://academicexecutives.elsevier.com/articles/attracting-talent-global-academic-world-how-emerging-research-universities-can-benefit.

Saxenian, Anna Lee. 2002. "Brain Circulation: How High Skilled Immigration Makes Everyone Better Off." The Brookings Review 20 (1): 28–31.

Productivity

References

Department of Business, Innovation and Skills. International Comparative Performance of the UK Research Base – 2011. Accessed November 5, 2013. http://www.bis.gov.uk/assets/biscore/science/docs/i/11-p123-international-comparative-performance-uk-research-base-2011.

Image Credits

Image © Crown 2011, licensed under the Open Government Licence v2.0.

Trade Networks

Global Trade Ecology

References

Minard, Charles Joseph. 1866. Europe Raw Cotton Imports in 1858, 1864 and 1865. Paris, France. Courtesy of the Library of Congress, Geography and Maps Division. In "4th Iteration (2008): Science Maps for Economic Decision Makers," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

R&D Investment Dependencies

References

Chartered Institute of Management Accountants. 2012. Managing Inter-Firm Interdependencies in R&D Investment: Insights from the Semiconductor Industry 8 (3). Accessed November 5, 2013. http://www.cimaglobal.com/Documents/Thought_leadership_docs/Organisational%20management/RD-invest-report.pdf.

Shifts in Technology’s Center of Gravity

References

Quah, Danny. 2011. "World’s Center of Economic Gravity Shifts East." CNN Online. Accessed November 5, 2013. http://globalpublicsquare.blogs.cnn.com/2011/04/07/worlds-center-of-economic-gravity-shifts-east.

Thibodeau, Patrick. 2012. "U.S. Sees Tech’s ‘Center of Gravity’ Shifting to Asia." Computerworld. Accessed November 5, 2013. http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/9234640/U.S._sees_tech_s_center_of_gravity_shifting_to_Asia?pageNumber=1.

Diffusion of Knowledge

Geospatial and Topical Diffusion

References

Chen, Chaomei, Weizhong Zhu, Brian Tomaszewski, and Alan MacEachren. 2007. "Tracing Conceptual and Geospatial Diffusion of Knowledge." In Proceedings of HCI International 2007, Beijing, China, July 22–27. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 4564: 265–274. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Viral Marketing

References

Hinz, Oliver, Bernd Skiera, Christian Barrot, and Jan U. Becker. 2011. "Seeding Strategies for Viral Marketing: An Empirical Comparison." Journal of Marketing 75 (6).

Diffusion of Reputation

References

Hauke, Sascha, Martin Pyka, Markus Borschbach, Dominik Heider. 2010. "Reputation-Based Trust Diffusion in Complex Socio-Economic Networks." In Information Retrieval and Mining in Distributed Environments, edited by Alessandro Soro, Eloisa Vargiu, Giuliano Armano, Gavino Paddeu, 21–40. Berlin: Springer Verlag.

Radicchi, Fillipo, Santo Fortunato, Benjamin Markines, and Alessandro Vespignani. 2009. "Diffusion of Scientific Credits and the Ranking of Scientists." Physical Review 80 (5).

Feedback Cycles and Science Models

References

Barabási, Albert-László, and Réka Albert. 1999. "Emergence of Scaling in Random Networks." Science 286 (5349): 509–512.

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Börner, Katy. 2017. Atlas of Forecasts: Predicting and Broadcasting Science. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Council for Chemical Research. 2009. Chemical R&D Powers the U.S. Innovation Engine. Washington, DC. Courtesy of the Council for Chemical Research. In "5th Iteration (2009): Science Maps for Science Policy Makers," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

Latour, Bruno, and Steve Woolgar. 1982. "The Cycle of Credibility." In Science in Context: Readings in the Sociology of Science, edited by Barry Barnes and David Edge, 35–43. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Martino, Joseph P. 1969. Science and Society in Equilibrium. Holloman Air Force Base, NM. Courtesy of AAAS. In "5th Iteration (2009): Science Maps for Science Policy Makers," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

Martino, Joseph P. 1969. "Science and Society in Equilibrium." Science 165 (3895): 769–772.

Whitley, Richard. 1984. The Intellectual and Social Organization of the Sciences. New York: Oxford University Press.

20

Part 2: EnvisioningScience andTechnology

References

Dorling, Danny, Mark E. J. Newman, Graham Allsopp, Anna Barford, Ben Wheeler, John Pritchard, and David Dorling. 2006. Ecological Footprint. Sheffield, UK and Ann Arbor, MI. Courtesy of the Universities of Sheffield and Michigan. In "4th Iteration (2008): Science Maps for Economic Decision Makers," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

Tufte, Edward R. 1997. Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press. 50.

Image Credits

Extracted from: Dorling et al. 2006. © Copyright Sasi Group (University of Sheffield) and Mark E. J. Newman (University of Michigan).

22

Foundations and Aspirations

References

Monmonier, Mark. 1996. How to Lie with Maps. 2nd ed. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. 2.

Foundations

References

Bertin, Jacques. 1983. Semiology of Graphics. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.

Cleveland, William S. 1993. Visualizing Data. Summit, NJ: Hobart Press.

Cleveland, William S. 1994. The Elements of Graphing Data. Summit, NJ: Hobart Press.

Playfair, William. 2005 (1786). The Commercial and Political Atlas and Statistical Breviary. Edited by Howard Wainer and Ian Spence. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Tufte, Edward R. 1990. Envisioning Information. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.

Tufte, Edward R. 1997. Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.

Tufte, Edward R. 2001. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. 2nd ed. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.

Tukey, John W. 1977. Exploratory Data Analysis. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Wainer, Howard. 1997. Visual Revelations: Graphical Tales of Fate and Deception from Napoleon Bonaparte to Ross Perot. New York: Copernicus.

Wainer, Howard. 2005. Graphic Discovery: A Trout in the Milk and Other Visual Adventures. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Wainer, Howard. 2009. Picturing the Uncertain World: How to Understand, Communicate, and Control Uncertainty through Graphical Display. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Wilkinson, Leland. 2005. The Grammar of Graphics. New York: Springer.

Embracing the Power

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Darwin, Charles. 1837. "Evolutionary Tree Sketch from First Notebook on Transmutation of Species." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 17, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Darwin_tree.png.

Darwin, Charles. 1859. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. London: John Murray.

Friendly, Michael. 2008. "The Golden Age of Statistical Graphics." DataVis.ca. Accessed February 8, 2014. http://www.datavis.ca/papers/ssc/GoldenAge-SSC-2x2.pdf.

Koch, Tom. 2005. Cartographies of Disease: Maps, Mapping, and Medicine. Redlands, CA: ESRI Press.

ims25. 2008. "Nightingale’s ‘Coxcombs.’" Understanding Uncertainty, May 11. Accessed February 8, 2014. http://understandinguncertainty.org/coxcombs.

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. 2013. "GBD Compare." Accessed December 17, 2013. http://viz.healthmetricsandevaluation.org/gbd-compare.

NASA. 2008. "Earthrise at Christmas" (Taken in 1968). Last modified March 23. http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/imagegallery/image_feature_102.html.

Nightingale, Florence. 1858. "Diagram of the Causes of Mortality in the Army in the East" from Notes on Matters Affecting the Health, Efficiency, and Hospital Administration of the British Army. Wikimedia Commons. Accessed December 17, 2013. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nightingale-mortality.jpg.

Nightingale, Florence. 1858. Mortality of the British Army. London: Harrison and Sons.

Porostocky, Thomas. 2013. "Causes of Untimely Death" (Infographic). In "Want to Save Lives? You Need a Map of What’s Doing Us In" by Lee Simmons. Wired. Accessed December 17, 2013. http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2013/11/infoporn-causes-of-death.

Rehmeyer, Julie. 2008. "Florence Nightingale: The Passionate Statistician." Science News, November 26. Accessed February 7, 2014. https://www.sciencenews.org/article/florence-nightingale-passionate-statistician.

Robertson, Murray, and John Emsley. 2005. Visual Elements Periodic Table. London, UnitedKingdom. Courtesy of the Royal Society of Chemistry Images, © 1999-2006 by Murray Robertson. In "2nd Iteration (2006): The Power of Reference Systems," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Deborah MacPherson. http://scimaps.org.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2014. "Earthrise." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed February 8, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earthrise.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2014. "Florence Nightingale." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed February 8, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Florence_Nightingale.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2014. "John Snow." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed February 8, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Snow_%28physician%29.

Disclaimer

References

Börner, Katy, and David E. Polley. 2014. Visual Insights: A Practical Guide to Making Sense of Data. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Frankel, Felice C., and Angela H. DePace. 2012. Visual Strategies: A Practical Guide to Graphics for Scientists and Engineers. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Hansen, Derek, Ben Shneiderman, and Marc A. Smith. 2010. Analyzing Social Media Networks with NodeXL: Insights from a Connected World. Burlington, MA: Morgan Kaufmann.

Lima, Manuel. 2011. Visual Complexity: Mapping Patterns of Information. New York: Princeton Architectural Press.

McCandless, David. 2009. The Visual Miscellaneum: A Colorful Guide to the World’s Most Consequential Trivia. New York: Harper Design.

Rendgen, Sandra. 2012. Information Graphics. Edited by Julius Wiedemann. Cologne, Germany: Taschen.

Tufte, Edward R. 1990. Envisioning Information. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.

Tufte, Edward R. 1997. Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.

Tufte, Edward R. 2001. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. 2nd ed. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.

Weissman, Jerry. 2009. Presenting to Win: The Art of Telling Your Story. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

Yau, Nathan. 2011. Visualize This: The FlowingData Guide to Design, Visualization, and Statistics. Indianapolis, IN: Wiley.

Tree of Life

Image Credits

Tree of Life reproduced and altered with the kind permission of the Syndics of Cambridge University Library.

Causes of Mortality in the British Military during the Crimean War

References

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010. "Diagram of the Causes of Mortality in the Army in the East." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed September 18, 2010. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nightingale-mortality.jpg.

Image Credits

See Wikimedia 2010.

Spot Map of the Golden Square Cholera Outbreak

References

Wikimedia Foundation. 2005. "Spot Map of the Golden Square Cholera Outbreak." Wikibooks. Accessed September 18, 2014. http://nl.wikibooks.org/wiki/Bestand:Snow-cholera-map.jpg

Image Credits

See Wikimedia Foundation 2005.

The Antibiotic Abacus: Adding Up Drug Resistance

References

McCandless, David. 2014. Knowledge is Beautiful. London: HarperCollins.

Image Credits

The Antibiotic Abacus from http://www.informationisbeautiful.net/visualizations/antibiotic-resistance. Accessed September 18, 2014.

Data Credits

Foundational data for The Antibiotic Abacus is available at http://bit.ly/KIB_Antibiotics. Accessed September 14, 2014.

24

Needs-DrivenWorkflow Design

Visualization Taxonomies and Frameworks

References

Card, Stuart K., and Jock D. Mackinlay. 1997. "The Structure of the Information Visualization Design Space." In Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization, 92–99. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society.

Chi, Ed H. 2000. "A Taxonomy of Visualization Techniques Using the Data State Reference Model." In Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization, 69–75. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society.

Keim, Daniel A. 2001. "Visual Exploration of Large Data Sets." Communications of the ACM 44 (8): 38–44.

Mackinlay, Jock D. 1986. "Automating the Design of Graphical Presentations of Relational Information." ACM Transactions on Graphics 5 (2): 110–141.

Pfitzner, Darius, Vaughan Hobbs, and David Powers. 2003. "A Unified Taxonomic Framework for Information Visualization." In Proceedings of the Asia-Pacific Symposium on Information Visualisation, 24: 57–66. Darlinghurst, Australia: Australian Computer Society, Inc.

Shneiderman, Ben. 1996. "The Eyes Have It: A Task by Data Type Taxonomy for Information Visualizations." In Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages, 336–343. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society.

Image Credits

Redesigned by Perla Mateo-Lujan based on an image from Chi 2000.

Workflow Design

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Reference System Versus Data Overlay

References

Bostock, Michael. 2012. "Non-Contiguous Cartogram." Mbostock’s Blocks (blog), November 11. Accessed March 1, 2014. http://bl.ocks.org/mbostock/4055908. © Copyright 2013 Mike Bostock.

Bostock, Michael. 2013. "Voroni Arc Map." Mbostock’s Blocks (blog), November 22. Accessed March 1, 2014. http://bl.ocks.org/mbostock/7608400.

Ittelson, William H. 1996. "Visual Perception of Markings." Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 3 (2): 171–187.

Image Credits

2012 Political Election Choropleth Map © 2012 M. E. J. Newman.

2012 Political Election Contiguous Cartogram © 2012 M. E. J. Newman.

See Bostock 2012.

See Bostock 2013.

U.S. Map of Contiguous States created by Samuel T. Mills.

Visualization Framework image created by Perla Mateo-Lujan and Tracey Theriault based on a concept by Katy Börner.

Software Credits

U.S. Map of Contiguous States rendered using the Sci2 Tool. http://sci2.cns.iu.edu. Accessed September 18, 2014.

26

Insight Need Types

References

Bertin, Jacques. 1983. Semiology of Graphics. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press. 12.

Burkhard, Remo A. 2004. "Learning from Architects: The Difference between Knowledge Visualization and Information Visualization." In Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Information Visualization (IV‘04), 519–524.

Burkhard, Remo A. 2006. "Learning from Architects: Complementary Concept Mapping Approaches." Information Visualization 5: 225–234.

Card, Stuart K., and Jock D. Mackinlay. 1997. "The Structure of the Information Visualization Design Space." In Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization, 92-99. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society.

Harris, Robert L. 1999. Information Graphics: A Comprehensive Illustrated Reference. New York: Oxford University Press.

Pirolli, Peter, and Stuart Card. 2005. "The Sensemaking Process and Leverage Points for Analyst Technology as Identified through Cognitive Task Analysis." In Proceedings of the International Conference on Intelligence Analysis, 2–4. McLean, VA: MITRE.

Framework

Basic Task Types

References

Bertin, Jacques. 1983. Semiology of Graphics. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.

Few, Stephen C. 2012. Show Me The Numbers: Designing Tables and Graphs to Enlighten. Burlingame, CA: Analytics Press.

Frankel, Felice C., and Angela H. DePace. 2012. Visual Strategies: A Practical Guide to Graphics for Scientists and Engineers. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

IBM. 2013. Many Eyes. Accessed December 18, 2013. http://www-958.ibm.com/software/analytics/manyeyes.

Juice Labs. 2013. Chart Chooser. Accessed December 18, 2013. http://labs.juiceanalytics.com/chartchooser.

Rendgen, Sandra. 2012. Information Graphics. Edited by Julius Wiedemann. Cologne, Germany: Taschen.

Wehrend, Stephen C., and Clayton Lewis. 1990. "A Problem-Oriented Classification of Visualization Techniques. In Proceedings of the 1st Conference on Visualization ‘90, 139–143. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society.

Yau, Nathan. 2011. Visualize This: The FlowingData Guide to Design, Visualization, and Statistics. Indianapolis, IN: Wiley.

Image Credits

Created by Perla Mateo-Lujan, with data provided by Katy Börner.

Interaction Types

References

Keim, Daniel A. 2001. "Visual Exploration of Large Data Sets." Communications of the ACM 44 (8): 38–44.

Shneiderman, Ben. 1996. "The Eyes Have It: A Task by Data Type Taxonomy for Information Visualizations." In Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages, 336–343. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society.

Descriptions and Examples

Categorizing and Clustering

Image Credits

Image created by Perla Mateo-Lujan.

Distribution (also Outliers and Gaps)

Image Credits

Image created by Perla Mateo-Lujan.

Trends

References

Harris, Robert L. 1999. Information Graphics: A Comprehensive Illustrated Reference. New York: Oxford University Press.

Peltier, Jon. 2011. "Chart Busters: Pie Charts Can’t Show Trendlines." Peltier Tech Blog, May 5. Accessed March 1, 2014. http://peltiertech.com/WordPress/chart-busters-pie-charts-cant-show-trendlines.

Image Credits

Time Spent on Weekends adapted by Perla Mateo-Lujan from Harris 1999 © Oxford University Press, 2000; see also Peltier 2011.

Composition (of Objects and of Text)

Image Credits

Image created by Perla Mateo-Lujan.

Software Credits

Network layout rendered using the Sci2 Tool. http://sci2.cns.iu.edu. Accessed September 14, 2014.

Comparison

References

Harris, Robert L. 1999. Information Graphics: A Comprehensive Illustrated Reference. New York: Oxford University Press.

Image Credits

Demographic Pyramid adapted by Perla Mateo-Lujan from Harris 1999 © Oxford University Press, 2000.

Geospatial Location

References

ESRI. 2013. "Within." Accessed December 18, 2013. http://edndoc.esri.com/arcsde/9.1/general_topics/understand_spatial_relations.htm#Within.

Data Credits

IVMOOC 2014 data as of May 29, 2014. http://ivmooc.cns.iu.edu. Accessed September 18, 2014.

Software Credits

Network layout rendered using the Sci2 Tool. http://sci2.cns.iu.edu. Accessed September 18, 2014.

Contributors

Data compiled by Robert P. Light; map rendered by Scott Emmons and redesigned by Perla Mateo-Lujan.

Correlations and Relationships

References

Padgett, John F. 1986. "Florentine Families Dataset." Accessed March 1, 2014. http://www.casos.cs.cmu.edu/computational_tools/datasets/sets/padgett.

Image Credits

Image created by Katy Börner and Perla Mateo-Lujan, using data from Padgett 1986.

Data Credits

See Padgett 1986.

Software Credits

Network layout rendered using the Sci2 Tool. http://sci2.cns.iu.edu. Accessed September 14, 2014.

28

Data Scale Types

References

Cameron, William Bruce. 1963. Informal Sociology: A Casual Introduction to Sociological Thinking. New York: Random House.

Stevens, Stanley S. 1946. "On the Theory of Scales of Measurement." Science 103 (2684): 677–680.

Velleman, Paul F., and Leland Wilkinson. 1993. "Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, and Ratio Typologies Are Misleading." The American Statistician 47 (1): 65–72.

Framework

References

Bertin, Jacques. 1983. Semiology of Graphics. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press. 34.

Dunn, Dana S. 2000. Statistics and Data Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. New York: McGraw-Hill

Harris, Robert L. 1999. Information Graphics: A Comprehensive Illustrated Reference. New York: Oxford University Press.

MacEachren, Alan M. 2004. How Maps Work: Representation, Visualization, and Design. New York: Guilford.

Munzner, Tamara. 2014. Information Visualization: Principles, Techniques, and Practice. Natick, MA: AK Peters.

Stevens, Stanley S. 1946. "On the Theory of Scales of Measurement." Science 103 (2684): 677–680.

Image Credits

© Tamara Munzner, "Visualization Principles," 2011.

Conversions

References

Abelson, Robert P., and John W. Tukey. 1963. "Efficient Utilization of Non-Numerical Information in Quantitative Analysis: General Theory and the Case of Simple Order." The Annals of Mathematical Statistics 34 (4): 1347–1369.

Kruskal, Joseph B. 1964. "Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling: A Numerical Method." Psychometrika 29 (2): 115–129.

Tukey, John W. (1961) 1986. "Data Analysis and Behavioral Science, or Learning to Bear the Quantitative Man’s Burden by Shunning Badmandments." In The Collected Works of John W. Tukey, vol. III, edited by Lyle V. Jones, 391–484. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Inc.

Velleman, Paul F., and Leland Wilkinson. 1993. "Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, and Ratio Typologies Are Misleading." The American Statistician 47 (1): 65–72.

Mathematical Operations

References

Stevens, Stanley S. 1946. "On the Theory of Scales of Measurement." Science 103 (2684): 677–680.

Image Credits

Image adapted from Stevens 1946.

Descriptions and Examples

References

Chrisman, Nicholas R. 1998. "Rethinking Levels of Measurement for Cartography." Cartography and Geographic Information Science 25 (4): 231–242.

Nominal Scale

References

VIVO Project. 2014. "NetSci: Index of Contents." Accessed March 1, 2014. http://vivo-netsci.cns.iu.edu/vivo12/browse.

Data Credits

See VIVO Project 2014.

Ordinal Scale

References

Wikimedia Foundation. 2014. "Example Likert Scale." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 1, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Example_Likert_Scale.svg.

Image Credits

Redesigned with permission under a Creative Commons license from Nicholas Smith, © 2012.

Interval Scale

Image Credits

Image rendered by Perla Mateo-Lujan based on a concept by Katy Börner.

Ratio Scale

References

Stevens, Stanley S. 1946. "On the Theory of Scales of Measurement." Science 103 (2684): 677–680.

30

Visualization Types

References

Bertin, Jacques. 1983. Semiology of Graphics. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.

Harris, Robert L. 1999. Information Graphics: A Comprehensive Illustrated Reference. New York: Oxford University Press.

Heer, Jeffrey, Michael Bostock, and Vadim Ogievetsky. 2010. "A Tour Through the Visualization Zoo." Communications of the ACM 53 (6): 59–67.

Wattenberg, Martin. 2010. Interview. In Journalism in the Age of Data (Video). Accessed January 31, 2014. http://datajournalism.stanford.edu.

Framework

References

Bertin, Jacques. 1983. Semiology of Graphics. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.

Engelhardt, Yuri. 2002. "The Language of Graphics: A Framework for the Analysis of Syntax and Meaning in Maps, Charts, and Diagrams." PhD diss., University of Amsterdam.

Harris, Robert L. 1999. Information Graphics: A Comprehensive Illustrated Reference. New York: Oxford University Press.

Microsoft. 2013. Excel. Accessed December 20, 2013. http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/excel.

Shneiderman, Ben. 1996. "The Eyes Have It: A Task by Data Type Taxonomy for Information Visualizations." In Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages, 336–343. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society.

Image Credits

Visualization Types table designed by Perla Mateo-Lujan.

Descriptions and Examples

References

Harris, Robert L. 1999. Information Graphics: A Comprehensive Illustrated Reference. New York: Oxford University Press.

Tables

Image Credits

Image created by Perla Mateo-Lujan.

Charts

Image Credits

Pie Chart, Doughnut Chart, and Bubble Chart examples by Samuel T. Mills.

Tag Cloud example by Samuel T. Mills and Perla Mateo-Lujan.

Graphs

References

Wikimedia Foundation. 2014. "U.S. First Class Postage Rate." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. September 21, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_United_States_postage_rates#mediaviewer/File:US_Postage_History.svg.

Image Credits

See Wikimedia Foundation 2014.

Parallel Coordinate Graph designed by Perla Mateo-Lujan.

Maps

References

Yunker, Jon. 2007. "Country Codes of the World." Accessed March 1, 2014. http://bytelevel.com/map/ccTLD.html.

Image Credits

Adapted from Yunker 2007.

Solar Light Map of Cambridge, MA © Mapdwell LLC. All rights reserved.

Network Layouts

Trees

Image Credits

Tree View and Force-Directed Layout images by Samuel T. Mills.

Treemap image by Perla Mateo-Lujan.

Networks

References

Krzywinski, Martin. 2011. Hive Plots. Accessed January 30, 2014. http://www.hiveplot.net.

Krzywinski, Martin, Inanc Birol, Steven J. M. Jones, and Marco A. Marra. 2011. "Hive Plots: Rational Approach to Visualizing Networks." Briefings in Bioinformatics 13 (5): 627–644.

Lima, Manuel. 2014. The Book of Trees: Visualizing Branches of Knowledge. New York: Princeton Architectural Press.

Wattenberg, Martin. 2014. The Shape of Song. Accessed January 30, 2014. http://www.turbulence.org/Works/song.

Image Credits

Arc Graph and Force-Directed Layout by Samuel T. Mills.

32

Graphic Symbol Types

References

Harris, Robert L. 1999. Information Graphics: A Comprehensive Illustrated Reference. New York: Oxford University Press. 379.

Klee, Paul. 1964. The Diaries of Paul Klee. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. [Quotation, p. 183].

Framework

References

Bertin, Jacques. 1983. Semiology of Graphics. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.

Börner, Katy. 2017. Atlas of Forecasts: Predicting and Broadcasting Science. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Engelhardt, Yuri. 2002. "The Language of Graphics: A Framework for the Analysis of Syntax and Meaning in Maps, Charts, and Diagrams." PhD diss., University of Amsterdam.

Harris, Robert L. 1999. Information Graphics: A Comprehensive Illustrated Reference. New York: Oxford University Press. 231.

Horn, Robert E. 1998. Visual Language: Global Communication for the 21st Century. Bainbridge Island, WA: MacroVU, Inc.

MacEachren, Alan M. 2004. How Maps Work: Representation, Visualization, and Design. New York: Guilford. 271.

Tufte, Edward R. 1990. Envisioning Information. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.

Tufte, Edward R. 1997. Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.

Tufte, Edward R. 2001. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. 2nd ed. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.

Tufte, Edward R. 2007. Beautiful Evidence. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.

Wilkinson, Leland. 2005. The Grammar of Graphics. New York: Springer.

Instantiation

References

Bertin, Jacques. 1981. Graphics and Graphics Information Processing. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

MacEachren, Alan M. 2004. How Maps Work: Representation, Visualization, and Design. New York: Guilford. 271.

Image Credits

Image from Bertin 1981, © De Gruyter 1981.

Combinations

References

Turner, Eugene. 1977. Life in Los Angeles. Accessed March 1, 2014. http://media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/originals/11/14/9b/11149b5830447ed2c51c68c61fce1285.jpg.

Wertheimer, Max. 1923. "Untersuchungen zur Lehre von der Gestalt. II." Psychologische Forschung 4 (1): 301–350.

Image Credits

Eugene Turner, 1977. "Life in Los Angeles" California State University Northridge.

Descriptions and Examples

References

Elmer, Martin. 2013. "The Trouble with Chernoff." Map Hugger (blog). Accessed December 20, 2013. http://maphugger.com/post/44499755749/the-trouble-with-chernoff.

Holten, Danny and Jarke J. van Wijk. "A User Study on Visualizing Directed Edges in Graphs." In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 2299-2308. New York: ACM.

Kimerling, A. Jon, Aileen R. Buckley, and Phillip C. Muehrcke. 2009. Map Use: Reading and Analysis. 6th ed. Redlands, CA: ESRI.

Geometric Symbols

Lines

Image Credits

Image created by Perla Mateo-Lujan.

Areas

Image Credits

Image created by Perla Mateo-Lujan.

Surfaces

References

Morris, Steven, Camille DeYong, Zheng Wu, Sinan Salman, Dagmawi Yemenu. 2002. "DIVA: A Visualization System for Exploring Document Databases for Technology Forecasting." Computers and Industrial Engineering 43 (4): 841–862.

Image Credits

Reprinted from Morris et al. 2002 © National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A.

Linguistic Symbols

Image Credits

Typeface examples: Microsoft (Cambria); Monotype (Arial); Adobe (Adobe Caslon).

Proportional and Monospace typeface examples: Adobe (Adobe Garamond); Courier (public domain).

Dingbat examples: Microsoft (Webdings); Adobe (Conventional Dingbats).

Pictorial Symbols

Statistical Glyphs

References

Harris, Robert L. 1999. Information Graphics: A Comprehensive Illustrated Reference. New York: Oxford University Press.

Vande Moere, Andrew. 2013. Information Aesthetics (blog). Accessed December 20, 2013. http://infosthetics.com.

Image Credits

Statistical Glyphs adapted by Perla Mateo-Lujan from Harris 1999 © Oxford University Press, 2000.

Word Count Sparklines courtesy of Andrew Vande Moere. http://infosthetics.com. Accessed September 18, 2014.

Contributors

André Skupin provided expert comments.

34

Graphic Variable Types

References

Bertin, Jacques. 1981. Graphics and Graphics Information Processing. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

Card, Stuart K., and Jock D. Mackinlay. 1997. "The Structure of the Information Visualization Design Space." In Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization, 92–99. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society.

DEVise Development Group. 2010. Home Page. Accessed December 20, 2013. http://pages.cs.wisc.edu/~devise.

Green, Marc. 1998. "Towards a Perceptual Science of Multidimensional Data Visualization: Bertin and Beyond." ERGO/GERO Human Factors Science. Accessed December 20, 2013. http://graphics.stanford.edu/courses/cs448b-06-winter/papers/Green_Towards.pdf.

Kimerling, A. Jon, Aileen R. Buckley, Phillip C. Muehrcke, Juliana O. Muehrcke. 2011. Map Use: Reading, Analysis, Interpretation. 7th ed. Redlands, CA: Esri Press Academic.

Livny, Miron, Raghu Ramakrishnan, Kevin S. Beyer, Guangshun Chen, Donko Donjerkovic, Shilpa Lawande, Jussi P. Myllymaki, and Kent Wenger. 1997. "DEVise: Integrated Querying and Visual Exploration of Large Datasets." In Proceedings of the 1997 ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data, 301–312. New York: ACM.

MacEachren, Alan M. 2004. How Maps Work: Representation, Visualization, and Design. New York: Guilford.

Mackinlay, Jock D. 1986. "Automating the Design of Graphical Presentations of Relational Information." ACM Transactions on Graphics 5 (2): 110–141.

Roth, Steven F., and Mattis, Joe. 1990. "Data Characterization for Intelligent Graphics Presentation." In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 193–200. New York: ACM.

SciencesPo. 2010. "La Graphique, Jacques Bertin 2000." Accessed December 20, 2013. http://cartographie.sciences-po.fr/fr/la_graphique_jacques_bertin2.

Shneiderman, Ben. 1996. "The Eyes Have It: A Task by Data Type Taxonomy for Information Visualizations." In Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages, 336–343. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society.

Stevens, Stanley S. 1946. "On the Theory of Scales of Measurement." Science 103 (2684): 677–680.

Stolte, Chris, and Pat Hanrahan. 2002. "Polaris: A System for Query, Analysis and Visualization of Multi-Dimensional Relational Databases." IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics 8 (1): 62–65.

Treinish, Lloyd A. 1999. "A Function-Based Data Model for Visualization." In Proceedings of IEEE Visualization ‘99: Late Breaking Hot Topics, 73–76. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society.

Wainer, Howard. 1983. Foreword to Semiology of Graphics by Jacques Bertin. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press. ix.

Wilkinson, Leland. 2005. The Grammar of Graphics. New York: Springer.

Framework

References

Bertin, Jacques. 1983. Semiology of Graphics. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.

Bertin, Jacques. 1981. Graphics and Graphics Information Processing. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

Healey, Christopher G., and James T. Enns. 2012. "Attention and Visual Memory in Visualization and Computer Graphics." IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics 18 (7): 1170–1188.

Horn, Robert E. 1998. Visual Language: Global Communication for the 21st Century. Bainbridge Island, WA: MacroVU, Inc.

Jacobson, Robert E., ed. 1999. Information Design. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Kosslyn, Stephen M. 1994. Elements of Graph Design. New York: W.H. Freeman and Co.

MacEachren, Alan M. 2004. How Maps Work: Representation, Visualization, and Design. New York: Guilford. 275–276.

Marriott, Kim, and Bernd Meyer, eds. 1998. Visual Language Theory. New York: Springer.

Mijksenaar, Paul. 1997. Visual Function: An Introduction to Information Design. New York: Princeton Architectural Press.

Mollerup, Per. 1997. Marks of Excellence. London: Phaidon Press.

Wainer, Howard. 1997. Visual Revelations: Graphical Tales of Fate and Deception from Napoleon Bonaparte to Ross Perot. New York: Copernicus.

Ware, Colin. 2000. Information Visualization: Perception for Design. Burlington, MA: Morgan-Kaufman.

Wertheimer, Max. 1923. "Untersuchungen zur Lehre von der Gestalt. II." Psychologische Forschung 4 (1): 301–350.

Wilkinson, Leland. 2005. The Grammar of Graphics. New York: Springer.

Wurman, Richard Saul. 1997. Information Architects. New York: Graphis Inc.

Combinations

References

Wilkinson, Leland. 2005. The Grammar of Graphics. New York: Springer.

Perception Accuracy

References

Cleveland, William S., and Robert McGill. 1984. "Graphical Perception: Theory, Experimentation, and Application to the Development of Graphical Methods." Journal of the American Statistical Association 79 (387): 531–554.

Mackinlay, Jock D. 1986. "Automating the Design of Graphical Presentations of Relational Information." ACM Transactions on Graphics 5 (2): 110–141.

Spence, Robert. 2007. Book Information Visualization: Design for Interaction. 2nd ed. Harlow, UK: Pearson/Prentice.

Image Credits

Image adapted with permission of Jock Mackinlay.

Image courtesy of Robert Spence.

Descriptions and Examples

References

Harris, Robert L. 1999. Information Graphics: A Comprehensive Illustrated Reference. New York: Oxford University Press.

Paper Leaf Design. 2011. "Elements of Design: A Quick Reference Sheet." Paper Leaf (blog). Accessed December 20, 2013. http://www.paper-leaf.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/EoD_White_1440.jpg.

Retinal

References

Wilkinson, Leland. 2005. The Grammar of Graphics. New York: Springer. 317.

Form

References

Börner, Katy. 2017. Atlas of Forecasts: Predicting and Broadcasting Science. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Image Credits

Images from Harris 1999 © Oxford University Press, 1999.

Color

References

Brewer, Cynthia A. 1994. "Color Use Guidelines for Mapping and Visualization." In Visualization in Modern Cartography, edited by Alan M. MacEachren and D. R. Fraser Taylor, 123–147. Oxford, UK: Pergamon.

Brewer, Cynthia A. 1999. "Color Use Guidelines for Data Representation." In Proceedings of the Section on Statistical Graphics, American Statistical Association, 55–60. Alexandria, VA: ASA.

Brewer, Cynthia A., and Mark Harrower. 2013. "ColorBrewer 2.0: Color Advice for Cartography." Accessed December 20, 2013. http://colorbrewer2.org.

Fairchild, Mark D. 1998. Color Appearance Models. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Mersey, Janet E. 1990. "Color and Thematic Map Design: The Role of Colour Scheme and Map Complexity in Choropleth Map Communication." Cartographica 27 (3): 1–167.

Paper Leaf Design. 2014. "Color Theory: Quick Reference Sheet for Designers." Accessed February 10, 2014. http://www.paper-leaf.com/samples/designfreebies/ColorTheory_Print.pdf.

Travis, David. 1991. Effective Color Displays: Theory and Practice. London: Academic Press.

Tufte, Edward R. 1990. "Color and Information." In Envisioning Information. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.

Ware, Colin. 2000. Information Visualization: Perception for Design. Burlington, MA: Morgan-Kaufman.

From Wikimedia Foundation. 2014. "HSV Color Solid Cylinder Alpha Lowgamma." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 1, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:HSV_color_solid_cylinder_alpha_lowgamma.png.

Image Credits

See Wikimedia Foundation 2014.

Texture

References

Caivano, Jose Luis. 1990. "Visual Texture as a Semiotic System." Semiotica 80 (3-4): 239–252.

MacEachren, Alan M. 2004. How Maps Work: Representation, Visualization, and Design. New York: Guilford.

Paper Leaf Design. 2011. "Elements of Design: A Quick Reference Sheet." Paper Leaf (blog). Accessed December 20, 2013. http://www.paper-leaf.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/EoD_White_1440.jpg.

Image Credits

Images from Harris 1999 © Oxford University Press, 1999.

Optics

References

Frankel, Felice C., and Angela H. DePace. 2012. Visual Strategies: A Practical Guide to Graphics for Scientists and Engineers. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. 106.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2013. "Stereoscopic Depth Rendition." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 20, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stereoscopic_depth_rendition.

Image Credits

See Wikimedia Foundation 2013.

Graphic Variable Types Versus Graphic Symbol Types

Image Credits

Four-page table created by Perla Mateo-Lujan and Katy Börner.

40

User Needs Acquisition

References

Markoff, John. 2011. "Steven P. Jobs, 1955–2011: Apple’s Visionary Redefined Digital Age." The New York Times, October 5. Accessed December 20, 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/06/business/steve-jobs-of-apple-dies-at-56.html?pagewanted=all.

General Considerations

Production Versus Consumption

References

Hook, Peter A., and Katy Börner. 2005. "Educational Knowledge Domain Visualizations: Tools to Navigate, Understand, and Internalize the Structure of Scholarly Knowledge and Expertise." In New Directions in Cognitive Information Retrieval, edited by Amanda Spink and Charles Cole, 187–208. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer-Verlag.

Iterative Prototyping and Replication

References

Felix, Elliot. 2010. "Design Strategy." Accessed March 1, 2014. http://elliotfelix.files.wordpress.com/2010/03/elliot-felix-design-strategy1.jpg.

Image Credits

Design Strategy Chart © Elliot Felix 2010.

Users and Needs

User Types

References

Burkhard, Remo A. 2005. Knowledge Visualization: The Use of Complementary Visual Representations for the Transfer of Knowledge. A Model, a Framework, and Four New Approaches. PhD Thesis, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule ETH Zürich.

Demographics

References

Börner, Katy. 2017. Atlas of Forecasts: Predicting and Broadcasting Science. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Needs Acquisition

Surveys

References

SurveyMonkey. 2014. SurveyMonkey Home Page. Accessed January 31, 2014. https://www.surveymonkey.com.

Apprentice Model

Contributors

Bradford W. Paley introduced the concept of an apprentice.

Lead User Analysis

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Lead User Infosite. 2014. Leaduser.com Home Page. Accessed March 1, 2014. http://www.leaduser.com.

Von Hippel, Eric. 1986. "Lead Users: A Source of Novel Product Concepts." Management Science 32 (7): 791-805.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2014. "Lead User." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 1, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lead_user.

Conjoint Analysis

References

Orme, Bryan K. 2005. Getting Started with Conjoint Analysis. Madison, WI: Research Publishers LLC.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2014. "Conjoint Analysis (Marketing)." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 1, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conjoint_analysis_%28marketing%29.

User Mining and Modeling

References

Brody, Tim, Stevan Harnad, and Leslie Carr. 2006. "Earlier Web Usage Statistics as Predictors of Later Citation Impact." JASIST 57 (8): 1060–1072.

Fu, Lawrence, and Constantin Aliferis. 2009. Method for Predicting Citation Counts. US Patent 20090157585 A1, filed November 7, 2008, and issued June 18, 2009.

Meho, Lokman I. 2006. "The Rise and Rise of Citation Analysis." arXiv. Accessed March 1, 2014. http://arxiv.org/abs/physics/0701012.

42

Data Acquisition

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Wells, Robert, and Judith A. Whitworth. 2007. "Assessing Outcomes of Health and Medical Research: Do We Measure What Counts or Count What We Can Measure?" Australia and New Zealand Health Policy, 4:14. Accessed December 20, 2013. http://www.anzhealthpolicy.com/content/4/1/14.

Data Aggregation

References

Harris, Robert L. 1999. Information Graphics: A Comprehensive Illustrated Reference. New York: Oxford University Press.

Matching Data Analysis Types

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Börner, Katy, Richard Klavans, Michael Patek, Angela Zoss, Joseph R. Biberstine, Robert Light, Vincent Lariviére, and Kevin W. Boyack. 2012. "Design and Update of a Classification System: The UCSD Map of Science." PLoS One 7 (7): e39464. Accessed October 31, 2013. http://sci.cns.iu.edu/ucsdmap.

Image Credits

Image created by Katy Börner and Perla Mateo-Lujan.

Software Credits

Images rendered using the Sci2 Tool. http://sci2.cns.iu.edu. Accessed September 14, 2014.

Matching Graphic Variable Types

References

Bertin, Jacques. 1983. Semiology of Graphics. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press. 33, 357.

Börner, Katy. 2017. Atlas of Forecasts: Predicting and Broadcasting Science. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Brewer, Cynthia A., and Mark Harrower. 2013. "ColorBrewer 2.0: Color Advice for Cartography." Accessed December 20, 2013. http://colorbrewer2.org.

Fischer, Eric. 2012. Language Communities of Twitter. Oakland, CA. Courtesy of Eric Fischer. In "8th Iteration (2012): Science Maps for Kids," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Michael J. Stamper. http://scimaps.org.

Harrower, Mark, and Cynthia A. Brewer. 2003. "ColorBrewer.org: An Online Tool for Selecting Colour Schemes for Maps." The Cartographic Journal 40 (1): 27–37.

Slocum, Terry A., Robert B. McMaster, Fritz C. Kessler, and Hugh H. Howard. 1999. Thematic Cartography and Geovisualization. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

44

Statistical Studies

References

BookRags Media Network. 2014. "Evan Davis Quotes." Accessed January 21, 2014. http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/e/evandavis481959.html.

Cleveland, William S. 1993. Visualizing Data. Summit, NJ: Hobart Press.

Cleveland, William S. 1994. The Elements of Graphing Data. Summit, NJ: Hobart Press.

Few, Stephen C. 2012. Show Me The Numbers: Designing Tables and Graphs to Enlighten. Burlingame, CA: Analytics Press.

Tukey, John W. 1977. Exploratory Data Analysis. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Exploratory Versus Confirmatory

References

Börner, Katy. 2017. Atlas of Forecasts: Predicting and Broadcasting Science. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Tukey, John W. 1977. Exploratory Data Analysis. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Data Distributions

References

Anscombe, Francis J. 1973. "Graphs in Statistical Analysis." American Statistician 27 (1): 17–21.

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Börner, Katy, Jeegar T. Maru, and Robert L. Goldstone. 2004. "The Simultaneous Evolution of Author and Paper Networks." PNAS 101 (Suppl. 1): 5266–73.

Redner, Sidney. 1998. "How Popular is Your Paper? An Empirical Study of the Citation Distribution." The European Physical Journal B 4 (2):131–134.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2013. "Frank Anscombe." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 20, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_Anscombe.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2013. "Normal Distribution." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 20, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Normal_distribution.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2014. "Standard Deviation Diagram." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed January 31, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Standard_deviation_diagram.svg.

Image Credits

Image created by Katy Börner and Perla Mateo-Lujan.

Curve Fitting

References

Harris, Robert L. 1999. Information Graphics: A Comprehensive Illustrated Reference. New York: Oxford University Press.

Image Credits

Images adapted from Harris 1999 © Oxford University Press, 1999.

Correlations

References

Playfair, William. 2005 (1786). The Commercial and Political Atlas and Statistical Breviary. Edited by Howard Wainer and Ian Spence. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Staff. 2007. "Worth a Thousand Words." The Economist, December 19. Accessed January 6, 2014. http://www.economist.com/node/10278643?story_id=10278643.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2014. "William Playfair." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed January 6, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Playfair.

Wheat Prices Versus Wages

Image Credits

Chart: Showing at One View the Price of the Quarter of Wheat, and Wages of Labour by the Week, from 1565 to 1821 courtesy of Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University.

Magnet States Versus Sticky States

References

Pew Research Center. 2008. "American Mobility: Who Moves? Who Stays Put? Where’s Home?" Pew Research: Social & Demographic Trends. Accessed January 31, 2014. http://pewsocialtrends.org/files/2011/04/American-Mobility-Report-updated-12-29-08.pdf.

Pew Research Center. 2014. "Map: U.S. Migration Flows." Pew Research: Social & Demographic Trends. Accessed January 6, 2014. http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2008/12/17/u-s-migration-flows.

Data Credits

U.S. Census Bureau Data.

All of Inflation’s Little Parts

References

Bloch, Matthew, Shan Carter, and Amanda Cox. 2008. "All of Inflation’s Little Parts." The New York Times, May 3. Accessed January 6, 2014. http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2008/05/03/business/20080403_SPENDING_GRAPHIC.html.

Data Credits

Bureau of Labor Statistics

Michael Balzer, University of Konstanz (Germany)

Prison Expenditures for Brooklyn, New York City

References

Spatial Information Design Lab. 2008. The Pattern. Published by the Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation of Columbia University, New York, NY.

Image Credits

Prison Expenditure by Census Block, Brooklyn, New York, 2003 by Laura Kurgan, Eric Cadora, David Reinfurt, and Sarah Williams. Million Dollar Blocks Project, 2006, Spatial Information Design Lab, GSAPP, Columbia University.

Acknowledgements: This exhibit is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. IIS-0238261, CHE-0524661, IIS-0534909 and IIS-0715303, the James S. McDonnell Foundation; Thomson Reuters; the Cyberinfrastructure for Network Science Center, University Information Technology Services, and the School of Library and Information Science, all three at Indiana University. Some of the data used to generate the science maps is from the Web of Science by Thomson Reuters and Scopus by Elsevier. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.