Atlas of Knowledge: References

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167

Part 4: Outlook

References

Beauchesne, Olivier H. 2012. Map of Scientific Collaborations from 2005–2009. Montréal, Canada. Courtesy of http://olihb.com. In "7th Iteration (2011): Science Maps as Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Michael J. Stamper. http://scimaps.org.

Image Credits

Extracted from Beauchesne 2012.

168

S&T Trends

References

Furrier, John. 2012. "Big Data Is Big Market & Big Business—$50 Billion Market by 2017." Forbes, February 17. Accessed October 3, 2013. http://www.forbes.com/sites/siliconangle/2012/02/17/big-data-is-big-market-big-business.

Kelly, Jeff, David Vellante, and David Floyer. 2013. "Big Data Market Size and Vendor Revenues." Wikibon. Accessed October 5, 2013. http://wikibon.org/wiki/v/Big_Data_Market_Size_and_Vendor_Revenues.

Weinberger, David. 2011. Too Big to Know: Rethinking Knowledge Now That Facts Aren’t the Facts, Experts Are Everywhere, and the Smartest Person in the Room Is the Room. New York: Basic Books. 102.

Microscopes, Telescopes, and Macroscopes

References

Anthony, Piers. 1969. Macroscope. New York: Avon Books.

Börner, Katy. 2011. "Plug-and-Play Macroscopes." Communications of the ACM 54 (3): 60–69.

Ciuccarelli, Paolo. 2011. "Macroscopes and Visualization (Again): A Circular Path." DensityDesign. Accessed October 5, 2013. http://www.densitydesign.org/2011/04/macroscopes-and-visualization-again-a-circular-path.

de Rosnay, Joël. 1979. The Macroscope: A New World Scientific System. New York: Harper & Row. 73.

Graham, Shawn, Ian Milligan, and Scott Weingart. 2013. The Historian’s Macroscope: Big Digital History. Under contract with Imperial College Press, London. Open Draft Version. Accessed March 1, 2014. http://www.themacroscope.org.

Manzini, Ezio. 1989. The Materials of Invention: Materials and Design. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Sula, Chris Alen. 2012. "Philosophy through the Macroscope: Technologies, Representations, and the History of the Profession." Journal of Interactive Technology and Pedagogy 1. Accessed November 6, 2013. http://jitp.commons.gc.cuny.edu/philosophy-through-the-macroscope-technologies-representations-and-the-history-of-the-profession.

Image Credits

Adapted from de Rosnay 1979.

Plug-and-Play Macroscopes

References

Börner, Katy, and David E. Polley. 2014. Visual Insights: A Practical Guide to Making Sense of Data. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

OSGi™ Alliance. 2013. OSGi™ Alliance Home Page. Accessed October 5, 2013. http://www.osgi.org/Main/HomePage.

Changes in the S&T Landscape

References

de Solla Price, Derek J. 1965. Little Science, Big Science. New York: Columbia University Press.

de Solla Price, Derek J. 1986. Little Science, Big Science…and Beyond. New York: Columbia University Press.

Approach

Hypothesis Driven –> Data Driven

References

Anderson, Chris. 2008. "The End of Theory: The Data Deluge Makes the Scientific Method Obsolete." Wired 16 (7). Accessed October 3, 2013. http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/magazine/16-07/pb_theory.

Gianchandani, Erwin. 2012. "NIST’s BIG DATA Workshop: Too Much Data, Not Enough Solutions." The Computing Community Consortium Blog. Accessed October 5, 2013. http://www.cccblog.org/2012/06/21/nists-big-data-workshoptoo-much-data-not-enough-solutions.

Star Scientist –> Research Teams

References

Börner, Katy, Luca Dall’Asta, Weimao Ke, and Alessandro Vespignani. 2005. "Studying the Emerging Global Brain: Analyzing and Visualizing the Impact of Co-Authorship Teams." In "Understanding Complex Systems," special issue, Complexity 10 (4): 57–67.

Russell, Andy. 2012. "3 Ways to Design Toys That Boost Kids’ Creativity." Fast Company Design. Accessed October 5, 2013. http://www.fastcodesign.com/1669691/3-ways-to-design-toys-that-boost-kids-creativity.

Wuchty, Stefan, Benjamin F. Jones, and Brian Uzzi. 2007. "The Increasing Dominance of Teams in Production of Knowledge." Science 316 (2827): 1036–1039.

Image Credits

Image was designed by Perla Mateo-Lujan.

Elite Science –> Citizen Science

References

Audubon and Cornell Lab of Ornithology. 2013. eBird. Accessed November 7, 2013. http://ebird.org.

Galaxy Zoo Team. 2013. Galaxy Zoo Home Page. Accessed October 5, 2013. http://www.galaxyzoo.org.

McNally, Jess. 2010. "Asteroid Crater Hunting from Your Home." Wired. Accessed October 5, 2013. http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2010/08/crater-hunting.

Project Noah. 2013. Project Noah Home Page. Accessed October 5, 2013. http://www.projectnoah.org.

Data

Local –> Global

References

Ostrom, Elinor, Roy Gardner, and James Walker. 1994. Rules, Games, and Common Pool Resources. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

Editorial Control –> Collective Curation

References

comScore, Inc. 2013. comScore Home Page. Accessed September 5, 2014. http://www.comscore.com.

eBizMBA. 2013. "Top 15 Most Popular Websites." Accessed September 5, 2014. http://www.ebizmba.com/articles/most-popular-websites.

Science Data –> Citizen Data

References

Mons, Barend, Michael Ashburner, Christine Chicester, Erik Van Mulligen, Marc Weeber, Johan den Dunnen, Gert-Jan van Ommen, Mark Musen, Matthew Cockerill, Henning Hermjakob, Albert Mons, Abel Packer, Roberto Pacheco, Suzanna Lewis, Alfred Berkeley, William Melton, Nicolas Barris, Jimmy Wales, Gerard Meijssen, Erik Moeller, Peter Jan Roes, Katy Börner, and Amos Bairoch. 2008. "Calling on a Million Minds for Community Annotation in WikiProteins." Genome Biology 9 (5): R89.

PatientsLikeMe. 2013.Home Page. Accessed November 7, 2013. http://www.patientslikeme.com.

Shneiderman, Ben. "Science 2.0." Science 319 (5868): 1349–1350.

Surowiecki, James. 2005. The Wisdom of Crowds. New York: Anchor Books.

United States Government. 2013. Data.Gov. Accessed November 7, 2013. http://www.data.gov.

Wikimedia. 2013. Wikispecies. Accessed November 7, 2013. http://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Main_Page.

Wikimedia. 2013 Wiki Professional. Accessed November 7, 2013. http://wikiprofessional.org.

Little Data –> Big Data

References

Manyika, James, Michael Chui, Brad Brown, Jacques Bughin, Richard Dobbs, Charles Roxburgh, and Angela Hung Byers. 2011. Big Data: The Next Frontier for Innovation, Competition, and Productivity. New York: The McKinsey Global Institute.

Tools

Memory: Expensive –> Cheap

References

Gantz, John, and David Reinsel. 2011. Extracting Value from Chaos. Framingham, MA: IDC. Accessed October 3, 2013. http://www.emc.com/collateral/analyst-reports/idc-extracting-value-from-chaos-ar.pdf.

Komorowski, Matthew. 2013. "A History of Storage Cost." Personal Web Page. Accessed October 3, 2013. http://www.mkomo.com/cost-per-gigabyte.

Kurzweil, Ray. 2013. "Microprocessor Clock Speed." Accessed December 20, 2013. http://www.singularity.com/charts/page61.html.

Kurzweil, Ray. 2013. "Microprocessor Cost Per Transistor Cycle." Accessed December 20, 2013. http://www.singularity.com/charts/page62.html.

Pease, Arthur F. 2013. "Zettabyte Gold Mine." Siemens Home Page. Accessed October 5, 2013. http://www.siemens.com/innovation/apps/pof_microsite/_pof-spring-2011/_html_en/trends-zettabyte-gold-mine.html.

Smith, Ivan. 2013. "Cost of Hard Drive Storage Space." Accessed March 1, 2014. http://ns1758.ca/winch/winchest.html.

Image Credits

Image was designed by Perla Mateo-Lujan.

Data Credits

See Komorowski 2013.

See Kurzweil, "Microprocessor Clock Speed" and "Microprocessor Cost Per Transistor Cycle." 2013.

See Smith 2013.

Microprocessors: Slow –> Fast

References

Berndt, Ernst R., and Neal J. Rappaport. 2001. "Price and Quality of Desktop and Mobile Personal Computers: A Quarter-Century Historical Overview." The American Economic Review 91 (2): 268-273.

Committee on Global Approaches to Advanced Computing, Board on Global Science and Technology, Policy and Global Affairs, and National Research Council. 2012. The New Global Ecosystem in Advanced Computing: Implications for U.S. Competitiveness and National Security. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

Kurzweil, Ray. 2006. The Singularity is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology. New York: Penguin.

Image Credits

Image was designed by Perla Mateo-Lujan.

Data Credits

Data from 1976–1999: Berndt and Rappaport 2001. http://www.nber.org/~confer/2000/si2000/berndt.pdf. Accessed September 18, 2014.

Data from 2001–2016: ITRS, 2002 Update, On-Chip Local Clock in Table 4c: Performance and Package Chips: Frequency On-Chip Wiring Levels—Near-Term Years, p. 167.

Products and Services

Factual Analysis –> Sentiment Analysis

References

Bollen, Johan, Huina Mao, and Xiao-Jun Zeng. 2011. "Twitter Mood Predicts the Stock Market." Journal of Computational Science 2 (1): 1–8.

Golder, Scott A., and Michael W. Macy. 2011. "Diurnal and Seasonal Mood Vary with Work, Sleep, and Daylength across Diverse Cultures." Science 333 (6051): 1878–1881.

Permanent Article –> Fluid Arguments

References

Striphas, Ted. 2009. The Late Age of Print: Everyday Book Culture from Consumerism to Control. New York: Columbia University Press.

Weinberger, David. 2011. "The Machine That Would Predict the Future." Scientific American 305 (6): 323–340.

Readable –> Reproducible

References

Evans, James, and Jacob Reimer. 2009. "Open Access and Global Participation in Science," Science 323 (5917): 1025.

170

Data Monitoring and Analytics

References

Barabási, Albert-László. 2010. Bursts: The Hidden Pattern Behind Everything We Do. New York: Dutton.

Bishop, Steven, Dirk Helbing, Paul Lukowicz, and Rosaria Conte. 2011. "FuturICT: FET Flagship Pilot Project." Procedia Computer Science 7:34–38. Accessed November 7, 2013. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S187705091100679X.

The Economist. 2010. "The Data Deluge." February 27. Accessed October 5, 2013. http://www.economist.com/node/15579717.

Harmelen, Frank van, George Kampis, Katy Börner, Peter van den Besselaar, Erik Schultes, Carol Goble, Paul Groth, Barend Mons, Stuart Anderson, Stefan Decker, Conor Hayes, Thierry Buecheler, and Dirk Helbing. 2012. "Theoretical and Technological Building Blocks For An Innovation Accelerator." European Physical Journal: Special Topics 214: 183–214.

Hey, Tony, Stewart Tansley, and Kristin Tolle, eds. 2009. The Fourth Paradigm: Data-Intensive Scientific Discovery. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Research.

Observatory of Complex Systems. 2008. "Jerusalem Declaration on Data Access, Use and Dissemination for Scientific Research." Accessed September 15, 2014. http://ocs.unipa.it/Declaration20081026.pdf.

Pentland, Alex (Sandy). 2008. Honest Signals: How They Shape Our World. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Rogers, Simon. 2010. "Information is Power." The Guardian Data Blog, May 24. Accessed October 5, 2013. http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2010/may/24/data-journalism.

Schweitzer, Frank, and Alessandro Vespignani. 2012. "Editorial." EPJ Data Science 1:1. Accessed November 7, 2013. http://www.epjdatascience.com/content/1/1/1.

Big Data

References

Bishop, Steven, Dirk Helbing, Paul Lukowicz, and Rosaria Conte. 2011. "FuturICT: FET Flagship Pilot Project." Procedia Computer Science 7: 34–38. Accessed November 7, 2013. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S187705091100679X.

Gantz, John, and David Reinsel. 2011. "Extracting Value from Chaos." Accessed November 7, 2013.http://www.emc.com/collateral/analyst-reports/idc-extracting-value-from-chaos-ar.pdf.

Hey, Tony, Stewart Tansley, and Kristin Tolle, eds. 2009. The Fourth Paradigm: Data-Intensive Scientific Discovery. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Research.

McKendrick, Joe. 2010. "Data Explosion: Enough to Fill DVDs Stretching to the Moon and Back." Smart Planet, May 14. Accessed October 6, 2013. http://www.smartplanet.com/blog/business-brains/data-explosion-enough-to-fill-dvds-stretching-to-the-moon-and-back/7010.

McKendrick, Joe. 2011. "Unstructured Data ‘Out of Control’: Survey." Smart Planet. Accessed October 5, 2013. http://www.smartplanet.com/blog/business-brains/unstructured-data-8216out-of-control-survey/16195.

Big-Data Mining

References

Anderson, Chris. 2008. "The End of Theory: The Data Deluge Makes the Scientific Method Obsolete." Wired 16 (7). Accessed October 3, 2013. http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/magazine/16-07/pb_theory.

Bollier, David. 2010. The Promise and Peril of Big Data. Washington, DC: The Aspen Institute. Accessed January 28, 2014. http://www.aspeninstitute.org/sites/default/files/content/docs/pubs/The_Promise_and_Peril_of_Big_Data.pdf.

Lohr, Steve. 2012. "The Age of Big Data." The New York Times, February 11. Accessed November 7, 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/12/sunday-review/big-datas-impact-in-the-world.html.

World Economic Forum. 2012. "Big Data, Big Impact: New Possibilities for International Development." Accessed November 7, 2013. http://www.weforum.org/reports/big-data-big-impact-new-possibilities-international-development.

Big-Data Challenges

References

Weinberger, David. 2011. Too Big to Know: Rethinking Knowledge Now That Facts Aren’t the Facts, Experts Are Everywhere, and the Smartest Person in the Room Is the Room. New York: Basic Books.

Weinberger, David. 2012. "To Know, but Not Understand: David Weinberger on Science and Big Data." The Atlantic, January 3. Accessed November 7, 2013. http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2012/01/to-know-but-not-understand-david-weinberger-on-science-and-big-data/250820.

Conceptual Challenges

References

Anderson, Chris. 2008. "The End of Theory: The Data Deluge Makes the Scientific Method Obsolete." Wired 16 (7). Accessed November 7, 2013. http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/magazine/16–07/pb_theory.

Anselin, Luc. 2009. "Thirty Years of Spatial Econometrics." Working Paper 2009-2. Tempe, AZ: GeoDa Center for Geospatial Analysis and Computation, Arizona State University. Accessed November 7, 2013. https://geodacenter.asu.edu/system/files/Anselin0902.pdf.

Technology

References

McKinsey & Company. 2013. "Big Data: The Next Frontier for Competition." Accessed November 7, 2013. http://www.mckinsey.com/Features/Big_Data.

Preservation

References

Stanford University. 2013. LOCKSS Program Home Page. Accessed November 7, 2013. http://www.lockss.org.

Privacy

References

Boyd, Andrew D., Charlie Hosner, Dale A. Hunscher, Brian D. Athey, Daniel J. Clauw, and Lee A. Green. 2007. "An ‘Honest Broker’ Mechanism to Maintain Privacy for Patient Care and Academic Medical Research." International Journal of Medical Informatics 76 (5): 407–11.

Dhir, Rajiv, Ashok A. Patel, Sharon Winters, Michelle Bisceglia, Dennis Swanson, Roger Aamodt, and Michael J. Becich. 2008. "A Multidisciplinary Approach to Honest Broker Services for Tissue Banks and Clinical Data: A Pragmatic and Practical Model." Cancer 113 (7): 1705–15.

Gantz, John, and David Reinsel. 2011. "Extracting Value from Chaos." Accessed November 7, 2013. http://www.emc.com/collateral/analyst-reports/idc-extracting-value-from-chaos-ar.pdf.

Kennedy, James. 2011. "The Personal Information Economy." Research December. Accessed November 7, 2013. http://www.research-live.com/features/the-personal-information-economy/4006540.article.

Lerman, Kat. 2013. "Go Sell Yourself: Adventures on the Open Data Market." Verbatim (blog), July 31. Accessed November 7, 2013. http://blog.communispace.com/learn/go-sell-yourself-adventures-on-the-open-data-market.

World Economic Forum in collaboration with Bain & Company, Inc. 2011. Personal Data: The Emergence of a New Asset Class. Accessed November 7, 2013. http://www.scribd.com/doc/48942096/Personal-Data-The-Emergence-of-a-New-Asset-Class.

Standards and Legal Issues

References

Becker, Devin and Jenn L. Riley. 2010. Seeing Standards: A Visualization of the Metadata Universe. Bloomington, IN. Courtesy of University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and University of Idaho. In "7th Iteration (2010): Science Maps as Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Michael J. Stamper. http://scimaps.org.

Haak, Laurel L., David Baker, Donna K. Ginther, Gregg J. Gordon, Matthew A. Probus, Nirmala Kannankutty, and Bruce A. Weinberg. 2012. "Standards and Infrastructure for Innovation Data Exchange." Science 338 (6104): 196–197.

Stodden, Victoria. 2009. "The Legal Framework for Reproducible Scientific Research: Licensing and Copyright." IEEE Computing in Science and Engineering 11 (1): 35–40.

Big-Data Opportunities

Data Interlinkage

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Heath, Tom, and Christian Bizer. 2011. Linked Data: Evolving the Web into a Global Data Space. Synthesis Lectures on the Semantic Web: Theory and Technology, edited by James Hendler and Frank van Harmelen. 1 (1): 1–136. San Francisco, CA: Morgan & Claypool.

Linked Data. 2013. Home Page. Accessed November 7, 2013. http://linkeddata.org.

Reed, Daniel. 2012. "My Scientific Big Data Are Lonely." Communications of the ACM (blog), June 4. Accessed November 7, 2013. http://cacm.acm.org/blogs/blog-cacm/150102-my-scientific-big-data-are-lonely/fulltext.

Visual Analytics

References

Thomas, James J., and Kristin A. Cook, eds. 2005. Illuminating the Path: The Research and Development

Agenda for Visual Analytics. Richland, WA: National Visualization and Analytics Center.

Real-Time Monitoring

References

Wilson, Mark. "A $1 Billion Project to Remake the Disney World Experience, Using RFID." Fast Company, January 11. Accessed November 7, 2013. http://www.fastcodesign.com/1671616/a-1-billion-project-to-remake-the-disney-world-experience-using-rfid?partner=newsletter#1.

In Vivo Exploration and Simulation

References

Szell, Michael, Robert Sinatra, Giovanni Petri, Stefan Thurner, and Vito Latora. 2012. "Understanding Mobility in a Social Petri Dish." Scientific Reports 2 (457). Accessed October 5, 2013. http://www.nature.com/srep/2012/120614/srep00457/full/srep00457.html.

Big-Data Services

References

Ransom, Diana. 2008. "Location, Location, Location: Geotagging Lets Web Users Put All That Information in Its Place." The Wall Street Journal, November 27. Accessed November 7, 2013. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB116412316419229623.html.

Smarr, Larry. 2011. "An Evolution toward a Programmable Universe." The New York Times, December 5. Accessed October 5, 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/06/science/larry-smarr-an-evolution-toward-a-programmable-world.html?_r=0.

The Micro Level

References

Gernert Johannes. 2011. "Was Facebook über dich Weiss." taz.de, November 5. Accessed November 7, 2013. http://www.taz.de/Social-Networking/!81259.

Intel Corporation. 2013. The Museum of Me. Accessed November 5, 2013. http://www.intel.com/museumofme/r/index.htm.

McKendrick, Joe. 2010. "Data Explosion: Enough to Fill DVDs Stretching to the Moon and Back." Smart Planet, May 14. Accessed November 7, 2013. http://www.smartplanet.com/blog/business-brains/data-explosion-enough-to-fill-dvds-stretching-to-the-moon-and-back/7010.

OpenDataCity. 2014. Home Page. Accessed January 28, 2014. http://www.opendatacity.de.

Rooney, Ben. 2011. "Intel’s Cool—or Creepy—Museum of Me." The Wall Street Journal, June 2. Accessed November 5, 2013. http://blogs.wsj.com/tech-europe/2011/06/02/intels-coolor-creepymuseum-of-me.

University College London. 2013. "Oyster Gives Up Pearls." UCL Engineering. Accessed November 5, 2013. http://www.engineering.ucl.ac.uk/blog/projects/oyster-gives-up-pearls.

Zeit Staff. 2009. "Tell-All Telephone." Zeit Online, August 31. Accessed November 8, 2013. http://www.zeit.de/datenschutz/malte-spitz-data-retention.

Image Credits

Images of Max Schrems’ Facebook activity by Open Data City, Marco Maas, and Michael Kreil.

The Macro Level

References

Börner, Katy. 2017. Atlas of Forecasts: Predicting and Broadcasting Science. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Conover, Michael D., Clayton Davis, Emilio Ferrara, Karissa McKelvey, Filippo Menczer, and Alessandro Flammini. 2013. "The Geospatial Characteristics of a Social Movement Communication Network." PLoS ONE 8 (3): e55957. Accessed March 5, 2014. http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0055957.

Current City. 2013. "Visuals." Accessed November 8, 2013. http://currentcity.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=5&Itemid=22.

Mislove, Alan, Sune Lehmann, Yong-Yeol Ahn, Jukka-Pekka Onnela, and James Niels Rosenquist. 2010. Pulse of the Nation. Accessed November 8, 2013. http://www.ccs.neu.edu/home/amislove/twittermood.

Mislove, Alan, Sune Lehmann, Yong-Yeol Ahn, Jukka-Pekka Onnela, and James Niels Rosenquist. 2010. Pulse of the Nation. Boston, MA. Courtesy of JanysAnalytics. In "9th Iteration (2013): Science Maps Showing Trends and Dynamics," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Todd N. Theriault. http://scimaps.org.

Image Credits

See Current City 2013.

Human Forecasts

References

Conover, Michael D. 2013. "Digital Democracy: The Structure and Dynamics of Political Communication in a Large Scale Social Media Stream." PhD diss., Indiana University. Accessed January 28, 2014. http://cns.iu.edu/docs/publications/2013-conover-phd-thesis.pdf.

Smarr, Larry. 2011. "An Evolution toward a Programmable Universe." The New York Times, December 5. Accessed November 8, 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/06/science/larry-smarr-an-evolution-toward-a-programmable-world.html?_r=0.

172

Real-Time Visualization

Real-Time Insights

References

Bollen, Johan. 2013. Personal Communication. March 11.

Börner, Katy, and David E. Polley. 2014. Visual Insights: A Practical Guide to Making Sense of Data. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

The New York Times Staff. 2013. "Markets." The New York Times Online. Accessed November 8, 2013. http://markets.on.nytimes.com/research/markets/usmarkets/sectors.asp?sector=50.

Data Credits

IVMOOC 2014 data as of January 29, 2014. http://ivmooc.cns.iu.edu. Accessed September 18, 2014.

Contributors

Robert P. Light compiled data and rendered the map.

Geolocated Insights

References

Crandall, David J., Lars Backstrom, Dan Cosley, Siddharth Suri, Daniel Huttenlocher, and Jon Kleinberg. 2010. "Inferring Social Ties from Geographic Coincidences." PNAS 107: 22436–41.

Foursquare. 2011. "Planes, Trains, and Automobiles! An Infographic of Travels on Foursquare." Foursquare Blog, November 11. Accessed September 18, 2014. http://blog.foursquare.com/2011/11/22/planes-trains-and-automobiles-an-infographic-of-travels-on-foursquare.

Foursquare. 2013. About. Accessed November 8, 2013. https://foursquare.com/about.

Google Play. 2013. Foursquare (App). Accessed November 8, 2013. https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.joelapenna.foursquared&hl=en.

Patil, Sameer, Greg Norcie, Apu Kapadia, and Adam J. Lee. "Reasons, Rewards, Regrets: Privacy Considerations in Location Sharing as an Interactive Practice." 2012. Paper presented at the Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security (SOUPS), Washington DC, July 11–13. Accessed November 8, 2013. http://cups.cs.cmu.edu/soups/2012/proceedings/a5_Patil.pdf.

Image Credits

Planes, Trains and Automobiles! © Foursquare Labs, Inc. All of the Foursquare Logos and trademarks displayed in the screenshot are the property of Foursquare Labs, Inc.

Text (Sentiment) Insights

References

Bollen, Johan, Huina Mao, and Xiao-Jun Zeng. 2011. "Twitter Mood Predicts the Stock Market." Journal of Computational Science 2 (1): 1–8.

Börner, Katy. 2017. Atlas of Forecasts: Predicting and Broadcasting Science. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Federal Reserve. 2011. "Sentiment Analysis and Social Media Monitoring Solution RFP." Request for Proposal (Event-6994). Accessed November 8, 2013. http://info.publicintelligence.net/FRBNY-SocialMedia.pdf.

Golder, Scott A., and Michael W. Macy. 2011. "Diurnal and Seasonal Mood Vary with Work, Sleep, and Daylength across Diverse Cultures." Science 333 (6051): 1878–1881.

Lampos, Vasileios. 2009. "Mood of the Nation." Accessed November 8, 2013. http://geopatterns.enm.bris.ac.uk/mood.

Lampos, Vasileios. 2012. "Detecting Events and Patterns in Large-Scale User Generated Textual Streams with Statistical Learning Methods." PhD diss., University of Bristol. CoRR abs/1208.2873.

Mislove, Alan, Sune Lehmann, Yong-Yeol Ahn, Jukka-Pekka Onnela, and James Niels Rosenquist. 2010. Pulse of the Nation. Accessed November 8, 2013. http://www.ccs.neu.edu/home/amislove/twittermood.

Mislove, Alan, Sune Lehmann, Yong-Yeol Ahn, Jukka-Pekka Onnela, and James Niels Rosenquist. 2010. Pulse of the Nation. Boston, MA. Courtesy of JanysAnalytics. In "9th Iteration (2013): Science Maps Showing Trends and Dynamics," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Todd N. Theriault. http://scimaps.org.

The MITRE Corporation and the University of Vermont. 2013. "Daily Happiness Averages for Twitter, September 2008 to Present." Hedonometer. Accessed November 8, 2013. http://www.hedonometer.org.

Ragan, Steve. 2011. "Federal Reserve Looking to Monitor Social Media." The Tech Herald, September 27. Accessed November 8, 2013. http://www.thetechherald.com/article.php/201139/7654/Federal-Reserve-looking-to-monitor-social-media.

Image Credits

Hedonometer figure by the Computational Story Lab and MITRE Corporation.

Network Dynamics Insights

References

Herdagdelen, Amac, Wenyun Zuo, Alexander Gard-Murray, Yaneer Bar-Yam. 2013. "An Explorationof Social Identity: The Geography and Politics of News-Sharing Communities in Twitter." Complexity 19 (2): 10–20.

Image Credits

Network of Twitter Users Who Share NY Times Online Articles reproduced with permission of the New England Complex Systems Institute. http://necsi.edu. Accessed September 18, 2014.

Mood Changes in UK Twitter content courtesy of Scott Colder from Golder, Scott A., and Michael W. Macy. 2011. "Diurnal and Seasonal Mood Vary with Work, Sleep, and Daylength across Diverse Cultures." Science 333 (6051): 1878–1881.

174

Democratizing Knowledge and Participation

References

Howe, Jeff. 2009. Crowdsourcing: Why the Power of the Crowd Is Driving the Future of Business. New York: Three Rivers Press.

Lippmann, Walter. 1929. A Preface to Morals. New York: The Macmillan Company.

Shellenberger, Michael. 2011. "Why Climate Science Divides Us, But Energy Technology Unites Us." Forbes, January 11. Accessed November 8, 2012. http://www.forbes.com/sites/energysource/2011/01/11/why-climate-science-divides-us-but-energy-technology-unites-us/5.

Stodden, Victoria. 2014. "What Computational Scientists Need to Know about Intellectual Property Law: A Primer." In Opening Science: The Evolving Guide on How the Web is Changing Research, Collaboration, and Scholarly Publishing, edited by Sönke Bartling and Sascha Friesike. Berlin: SpringerOpen.

The Wisdom of Crowds

References

Surowiecki, James. 2005. The Wisdom of Crowds. New York: Anchor Books.

Open Science

Open Results

References

Stodden, Victoria. 2009. "Enabling Reproducible Research: Open Licensing for Scientific Innovation." International Journal of Communications Law and Policy 13: 1–55.

Stodden, Victoria. 2009. "The Legal Framework for Reproducible Scientific Research: Licensing and Copyright." IEEE Computing in Science & Engineering 11 (1): 35–40.

Open Data

References

Facebook. 2013. Accessed November 8, 2013. http://www.facebook.com.

Flickr. 2013. Home Page. Accessed November 8, 2013. http://www.flickr.com.

Freebase. 2013. Home Page. Accessed November 8, 2013. http://www.freebase.com.

Junar. 2013. Home Page. Accessed November 8, 2013. http://www.junar.com.

Molloy, Jennifer C. 2011. "The Open Knowledge Foundation: Open Data Means Better Science." PLoS Biol 9 (12): e1001195. Accessed November 8, 2013. http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.1001195.

PatientsLikeMe. 2013.Home Page. Accessed November 7, 2013. http://www.patientslikeme.com.

Science.gov. 2013. Home Page. Accessed November 8, 2013. http://www.science.gov.

Science.gov. 2013. "Science.gov Alliance Participants." Accessed November 8, 2013. http://www.science.gov/participatingagencies.html.

SourceForge. 2013. Home Page. Accessed November 8, 2013. http://sourceforge.net.

United States Government. 2013. Data.Gov. Accessed November 7, 2013. http://www.data.gov.

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WikiMapia. 2013. Home Page. Accessed November 8, 2013. http://wikimapia.org.

Wikimedia. 2013. Wikispecies. Accessed November 7, 2013. http://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Main_Page.

Wikipedia. 2013. Wikipedia Home Page. Accessed November 8, 2013. http://www.wikipedia.org.

YouTube. 2013. YouTube Home Page. Accessed November 8, 2013. http://www.youtube.

Image Credits

Image courtesy of Wikimapia, © WikiMapia.org, licensed under a Creative Commons BY-SA License, available at http://www.wikimapia.org. Accessed September 18, 2014.

Open Code

References

Mesirov, Jill P. 2010. "Accessible Reproducible Research." Science 327 (5964): 415–416.

Stodden, Victoria, Randall J. LeVeque, and Ian M. Mitchell. 2012. "Reproducible Research for Scientific Computing: Tools and Strategies for Changing the Culture." IEEE Computing in Science and Engineering 14 (4): 13–17.

Open Visualizations

References

GeoCommons. 2013. GeoCommons Home Page. Accessed November 9, 2013. http://geocommons.com.

Many Eyes. 2013. Many Eyes Home Page. Accessed November 9, 2013. http://www-958.ibm.com/software/analytics/manyeyes.

MapTube. 2013. MapTube Home Page. Accessed November 9, 2013. http://www.maptube.org/home.aspx.

Tableau Software. 2013. Tableau Software Home Page. Accessed November 9, 2013. http://www.tableausoftware.com.

Wordle. 2013. Wordle Home Page. Accessed November 9, 2013. http://www.wordle.net.

WorldMap. 2013. WorldMap Home Page. Accessed November 9, 2013. http://worldmap.harvard.edu.

Open Education

References

Börner, Katy. 2017. Atlas of Forecasts: Predicting and Broadcasting Science. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Course Builder. 2013. Home Page. Accessed November 8, 2013. https://code.google.com/p/course-builder.

Coursera. 2013. Home Page. Accessed November 8, 2013. https://www.coursera.org.

Khan Academy. 2013. Home Page. Accessed November 8, 2013. http://khanacademy.com.

Khan, Salman. 2012. The One World School House: Education Reimagined. London: Hodder & Stoughton.

Udacity. 2013. Home Page. Accessed November 8, 2013. https://www.udacity.com.

Wiederkehr, Benjamin, and Jérôme Cukier. 2012. Khan Academy Library Overview. Courtesy of Interactive Things. In "8th Iteration (2012): Science Maps for Kids," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Michael J. Stamper. http://scimaps.org.

Contributors

Robert P. Light contributed to the IVMOOC data analysis.

Image Credits

MapTube is created by the Bartlett Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. http://www.maptube.org. Accessed September 18, 2014.

Open-Notebook Science

References

Boettiger, Carl. 2013. Lab Notebook. Accessed November 9, 2013. http://carlboettiger.info/lab-notebook.html.

Priem, Jason. 2013. "Scholarship: Beyond the Paper." Nature 495 (7442): 437–440.

Push. 2013. Journal Home Page. Accessed November 9, 2013. http://push.cwcon.org.

Participatory Design

Crowdsourcing Knowledge

References

Harmelen, Frank van, George Kampis, Katy Börner, Peter van den Besselaar, Erik Schultes, Carol Goble, Paul Groth, Barend Mons, Stuart Anderson, Stefan Decker, Conor Hayes, Thierry Buecheler, and Dirk Helbing. 2012. "Theoretical and Technological Building Blocks For An Innovation Accelerator." European Physical Journal: Special Topics 214: 183–214.

Inkling Markets. 2013. Inkling Markets Home Page. Accessed November 9, 2013. http://inklingmarkets.com.

Innocentive. 2013. Innocentive Home Page. Accessed November 9, 2013. http://www.innocentive.com.

Intrade. 2013. Intrade Home Page. Accessed November 9, 2013 http://www.intrade.com/v4/home.

NITLE Prediction Markets. 2013. NITLE Prediction Markets Home Page. Accessed November 9, 2013. http://markets.nitle.org.

Stack Overflow. 2013. Stack Overflow Home Page. Accessed November 9, 2013. http://stackoverflow.com.

Vance, Ashlee. 2012. "Kaggle’s Contests: Crunching Numbers for Fame and Glory." Bloomberg Businessweek, January 4. Accessed November 9, 2013. http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/kaggles-contests-crunching-numbers-for-fame-and-glory-01042012.html.

Crowdsourcing Funding

References

Bollen, Johan, David Crandall, Damion Junk, Ying Ding, and Katy Börner. 2014. "From Funding Agencies to Scientific Agency: Collective Allocation of Science Funding as an Alternative to Peer Review." EMBO Reports 15 (1): 1–121.

Global Giving Foundation. 2014. Global Giving Home Page. Accessed August 31, 2014. http://www.globalgiving.org.

Indiana University Lilly Family School of Philanthropy. 2013. "The Million Dollar List." Accessed November 9, 2013. http://www.milliondollarlist.org.

Kickstarter. 2013. Kickstarter Home Page. Accessed August 31, 2014. http://www.kickstarter.com.

Kickstarter. 2013. "Kickstarter Stats." Accessed August 31, 2014. http://www.kickstarter.com/help/stats.

Kiva. 2013. Kiva Home Page. Accessed November 9, 2013. http://www.kiva.org.

Shema, Hadas. 2013. "Put Your Money Where Your Citations Are: A Proposal for a New Funding System." Scientific American, August 27. Accessed November 9, 2013. http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/information-culture/2013/08/27/put-your-money-where-your-citations-are-a-proposal-for-a-new-funding-system.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2013. "Kickstarter." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 9, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kickstarter.

Crowdsourcing Social Change

References

Ashoka Changemakers. 2013. Changemakers Home Page. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://www.changemakers.com.

ChallengePost Inc. and the U.S. General Services Administration. 2013. Challenge.gov. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://challenge.gov.

MySociety Limited. 2013. FixMyStreet Home Page. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://www.fixmystreet.com.

MySociety Limited. 2013. MySociety Home Page. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://www.mysociety.org.

MySociety Limited. 2013. PledgeBank. Home Page. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://www.pledgebank.com.

MySociety Limited. 2013. TheyWorkForYou Home Page. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://www.theyworkforyou.com.

Nation of Neighbors. 2013. Nation of Neighbors Home Page. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://www.nationofneighbors.com.

Turning Knowledge into Action into Change

References

FuturICT. 2013. "The Project." Accessed November 15, 2013. http://www.futurict.eu/the-project/proposal.

176

International Science Observatory

References

BookRags Media Network. 2014. "Walt Disney Quotes." Accessed January 28, 2014. http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/w/waltdisney130027.html.

Börner, Katy, Luís M. A. Bettencourt, Mark Gerstein and Stephen M. Uzzo, eds. 2009. Knowledge Management and Visualization Tools in Support of Discovery. NSF Workshop Report, Indiana University, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Yale University, and New York Hall of Science. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://vw.cns.iu.edu/cdi2008/whitepaper.html.

The New York Times. 2013. Hubble Space Telescope Articles. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/science/topics/hubble_space_telescope.

Science and Technology Facilities Council. 2013. "Large Hadron Collider ‘Big Questions about the LHC.’" Accessed November 10, 2013. http://www.lhc.ac.uk/17716.aspx.

Smith, Dave. 2012. Disney Trivia from the Vault: Secrets Revealed and Questions Answered. New York: Disney Editions.

United States Department of Commerce. 2013. The Department of Congress Budget in Brief: Fiscal Year 2013. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://www.osec.doc.gov/bmi/budget/FY13BIB/fy2013bib_final.pdf.

Image Credits

Image courtesy of Max Plank Institute, licensed under a Creative Commons By-NC-SA 3.0, unported license.

Contributors

Stuart A. Foster, President, American Association of State Climatologists, Western Kentucky University.

Real-Time Science Monitoring

References

Aschauer, Michael, Maia Gusberti, Nik Thoenen, and Sepp Deinhofer. 2002. [./logicaland] Participative Global Simulation. Vienna, Austria. Courtesy of Michael Aschauer, Maia Gusberti, and Nik Thoenen, in collaboration with Sepp Deinhofer, re-p.org. In "3rd Iteration (2007): The Power of Forecasts," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Julie M. Davis. http://scimaps.org.

Bishop, Steven, Dirk Helbing, Paul Lukowicz, and Rosaria Conte. 2011. "FuturICT: FET Flagship Pilot Project." Procedia Computer Science 7: 34–38. Accessed November 7, 2013. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S187705091100679X.

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Hamburger, Michael W., Charles Meertens, and Elisha F. Hardy. 2007. Tectonic Movements and Earthquake Hazard Predictions. Bloomington, IN and Boulder, CO. Courtesy of Indiana University and UNAVCO Consortium. In "3rd Iteration (2007): The Power of Forecasts," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Julie Davis. http://scimaps.org.

Haak, Laurel L., David Baker, Donna K. Ginther, Gregg J. Gordon, Matthew A. Probus, Nirmala Kannankutty, Bruce A. Weinberg. 2012. "Standards and Infrastructure for Innovation Data Exchange." Science 338 (6104): 196–197.

International DOI Foundation. 2013. DOI Home Page. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://www.doi.org.

ORCID. 2013. ORCID Home Page. Accessed November 10, 2013 http://orcid.org.

Stefaner, Moritz. 2014. "Worlds, Not Stories." Well-Formed Data." Accessed September 15, 2014. http://well-formed-data.net/archives/1027/worlds-not-stories.

Multilevel Science Models

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Börner, Katy. 2017. Atlas of Forecasts: Predicting and Broadcasting Science. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Litan, Roberth E., Andrew W. Wyckoff, and Kaye Husbands Fealing. 2012. Improving Measures of Science, Technology, and Innovation: Interim Report. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

National Institute of Standards and Technology. 2013. Text REtrieval Conference (TREC) Home Page. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://trec.nist.gov.

Scharnhorst, Andrea, Katy Börner, and Peter van den Besselaar, eds. 2012. Models of Science Dynamics: Encounters Between Complexity Theory and Information Science. New York: Springer-Verlag.

United States Department of Energy. 2013. Open Science Grid Home Page. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://display.grid.iu.edu.

Science Forecast Maps

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Börner, Katy, Luís M. A. Bettencourt, Mark Gerstein and Stephen M. Uzzo, eds. 2009. Knowledge Management and Visualization Tools in Support of Discovery. NSF Workshop Report, Indiana University, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Yale University, and New York Hall of Science. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://vw.slis.indiana.edu/cdi2008/NSF-Report-large.pdf.

Carpenter, Todd. 2014. "On Communicating Science, Technology, Engineering and Medicine—Alan Alda Talks About Improving Scientific Communication." The Scholarly Kitchen, February 25. Accessed September 15, 2014. http://scholarlykitchen.sspnet.org/2014/02/25/on-communicating-science-technology-engineering-and-medicine-alan-alda-talks-about-improving-scientific-communication.

Craft, Erik D. 2013. "An Economic History of Weather Forecasting." Economic History Association. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://eh.net/?s=Weather+Forecasting+History.

FuturICT. 2014. Home Page. Accessed March 1, 2014. http://www.futurict.eu.

Monmonier, Mark. 1999. Air Apparent: How Meteorologists Learned to Map, Predict, and Dramatize Weather. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Ostrom, Elinor. 1999. "Coping with Tragedies of the Commons." Annual Review of Political Science 2:493–535.

S&T Exploratories

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Börner, Katy. 2017. Atlas of Forecasts: Predicting and Broadcasting Science. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Cole, Joanna. 1985–present. The Magic School Bus Series. Illustrations by Bruce Degen. New York: Scholastic.

de Rosnay, Joël. 1979. The Macroscope: A New World Scientific System. New York: Harper & Row.

IMDb. 2013. "Humanexus" entry. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt3038374/?ref_=fn_al_tt_1.

Wolfram, Stephen. 2002. A New Kind of Science. Champaign, IL: Wolfram Media, Inc.

Wolfram|Alpha. 2013. Wolfram|Alpha Computational Knowledge Engine. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://www.wolframalpha.com.

Incentives and Purpose

References

Arthus-Bertrand, Yann. 2009. A Hymn to the Planet and Humanity. New York: Abrams Books.

Power and Responsibility

References

Anthony, Sebastian. 2013. "Astronomers Estimate 100 Billion Habitable Earth-Like Planets in the Milky Way, 50 Sextillion in the Universe." ExtremeTech, April 4. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://www.extremetech.com/extreme/152573-astronomers-estimate-100-billion-habitable-earth-like-planets-in-the-milky-way-50-sextillion-in-the-universe.

Börner, Katy. 2017. Atlas of Forecasts: Predicting and Broadcasting Science. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Torres, Abel Mendez. 2012. "Two Nearby Habitable Worlds?" Planetary Habitability Laboratory. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://phl.upr.edu/press-releases/twonearbyhabitableworlds.

Social Capital, Liveability, and Happiness

References

BigPictureSmallWorld Inc. 2008. "The Price of Peace: Abundance for All and How to Pay for It Using Military Expenditures." Accessed November 10, 2013. http://www.bigpicturesmallworld.com/war-peace/PriceofPeace.pdf.

The Economist Group. 2013. "Global Liveability Report." The Economist Intelligence Unit. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://www.eiu.com/site_info.asp?info_name=The_Global_Liveability_Report&page=noads&rf=0.

Rat Haus Reality. 2013. "What the World Wants and How to Pay for It Using Military Expenditures." Accessed November 10, 2013. http://ratical.org/co-globalize/WtWW.

White, Adrian and the National Geographic EarthPulse Team. 2008. A Global Projection of Subjective Well-Being. Washington, DC. Courtesy of National Geographic. In "4th Iteration (2008): Science Maps for Economic Decision Makers," Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2013. "Global Peace Index." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_Peace_Index.

The World Bank Group. 2013. "Measuring the Dimensions of Social Capital." Accessed November 10, 2013. http://go.worldbank.org/TC9QT67HG0.

Contributors

Medard Gabel: medard@bigpicturesmallworld.com.

Image Credits

Redesigned by Perla Mateo-Lujan from: http://www.bigpicturesmallworld.com/war-peace/PriceofPeace.pdf. Accessed September 18, 2014. Original image by Medard Gabel, Earth Dashboard, BigPictureSmall World.

Think Globally, Act Locally

References

Girling, Rob. 2012. "21st Century Design: Shaping Behavior for Preferable Outcomes." Accessed November 10, 2013. http://www.artefactgroup.com/content/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/21stcenturydesign.pdf.

Thaler, Richard H., and Cass R. Sunstein. 2008. Nudge: Improving Decisions about Health, Wealth, and Happiness. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Acknowledgements: This exhibit is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. IIS-0238261, CHE-0524661, IIS-0534909 and IIS-0715303, the James S. McDonnell Foundation; Thomson Reuters; the Cyberinfrastructure for Network Science Center, University Information Technology Services, and the School of Library and Information Science, all three at Indiana University. Some of the data used to generate the science maps is from the Web of Science by Thomson Reuters and Scopus by Elsevier. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.