I.5 1996 Map of Science: A Network Representation of the 43 Fourth Level Clusters Based on Data from the 1996 Science Citation Index

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Henry G. Small

Henry G. Small has pioneered mapping the structure of science based on scholarly publications, yet independent of existing disciplinary categories. The very first map of all of science is shown here. A combination of fractional citation counting and co-citation clustering via multidimensional scaling was used to extract four nested levels of clustering via single and complete linkage. Major disciplines of science emerge from a bottom-up aggregation of highly cited papers. They are displayed in two dimensions, using an order-dependent, geometric triangulation process that produces a unified hierarchical arrangement of documents. Each circle contains a map of similar construction at a lower level of aggregation. Circle size corresponds to the number of citations received by documents in each cluster. Links among circles represent aggregate document co-citations. The original setup facilitated interactive exploration of the nested hierarchy of scientific disciplines.


Small, Henry. 1999. “Visualizing Science by Citation Mapping.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science 50 (9): 799-813.

Small, Henry. 1999. 1996 Map of Science: A Network Representation of the 43 Fourth-Level Clusters Based on Data from the 1996 Science Citation Index. Courtesy of Henry Small, Thomson Reuters. In “1st Iteration (2005): The Power of Maps,” Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and
Deborah MacPherson. http://scimaps.org.

Acknowledgements: This exhibit is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. IIS-0238261, CHE-0524661, IIS-0534909 and IIS-0715303, the James S. McDonnell Foundation; Thomson Reuters; the Cyberinfrastructure for Network Science Center, University Information Technology Services, and the School of Library and Information Science, all three at Indiana University. Some of the data used to generate the science maps is from the Web of Science by Thomson Reuters and Scopus by Elsevier. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.