IV.4 World Finance Corporation, Miami, Florida, ca. 1970-79 (6th Version)

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Mark Lombardi

The late artist Mark Lombardi is well known for his large-scale flow charts of major political and financial scandals. Unlike most works of art, his maps do not depict the hypothetical or imaginary but are rendered based on facts from mainstream publications like the New York Times, Washington Post, and Los Angeles Times. Lombardi carefully organized these facts in a handwritten database of over 14,000 cross-referenced index cards. He iteratively composed his “narrative structures” in his medium of choice: colored pencil and graphite on paper. This map shows the fifth version of a chart that focuses on the conjunction of illegal arms dealing by Chinese nationalists in Los Angeles and possible White House campaign-finance corruption. Two layers of information are presented: essential elements of the story in black, and major lawsuits, criminal indictments, and other legal actions taken against the parties in red. Interconnections of different types are revealed: a solid arrow represents influence or control; a double arrow, mutual relationship or association; a dashed arrow, flow of money, loans, or credits; a squiggle, the sale or transfer of an asset; and a double hyphen, a blocked or incomplete transaction. Line labels further detail relationships and dollar amounts.


Hobbs, Robert. 2003. Mark Lombardi: Global Networks. New York: Independent Curators International.

Pierogi Gallery. 2005. “Mark Lombardi.” Pierogi Gallery 2000. Accessed October 30, 2007. http://www.pierogi2000.com/.

Lombardi, Mark. 1999. Bill Clinton, the Lippo Group, and China Ocean Shipping Co. a.k.a. COSCO, Little Rock—Jakarta—Hong Kong, ca. 1990s (5th version). Courtesy of Pierogi Gallery. In “4th Iteration (2008): Science Maps for Economic Decision-Makers,” Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org

Acknowledgements: This exhibit is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. IIS-0238261, CHE-0524661, IIS-0534909 and IIS-0715303, the James S. McDonnell Foundation; Thomson Reuters; the Cyberinfrastructure for Network Science Center, University Information Technology Services, and the School of Library and Information Science, all three at Indiana University. Some of the data used to generate the science maps is from the Web of Science by Thomson Reuters and Scopus by Elsevier. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.