I.7 Timeline of 60 Years of Anthrax Research Literature

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Steven Morris

This timeline map of anthrax research by electrical engineer Steven A. Morris uses as raw data a list of relevant research papers and the references they cite. Papers that share many references are assumed to be similar as they appear to draw from the same base knowledge. Similar papers are clustered into groups utilizing the statistical technique of agglomerative hierarchical clustering. Groups of related journal papers are plotted in horizontal tracks by publication date. A clustering tree on the left shows the structure of the topics, with the topic labels appearing on the right. Important events, measured by the number of times a paper has been cited, are indicated on the plot. Note the emergence of new topics at the bottom; this documents the research community’s response to the anthrax postal bioterror attacks in late 2001.


Morris, Steven A., and Kevin W. Boyack. 2005. “Visualizing 60 Years of Anthrax Research.” In Proceedings of the 10th International Conference of the International Society for Scientometrics and Informetrics, edited by Peter Ingwersen and Birger Larsen, 45-55. Stockholm: Karolinska University Press.

Morris, Steven A. 2005. Visualizing 60 Years of Anthrax Research. Courtesy of Steven A. Morris, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater. In “1st Iteration (2005): The Power of Maps” Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and
Deborah MacPherson. http://scimaps.org.

Acknowledgements: This exhibit is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. IIS-0238261, CHE-0524661, IIS-0534909 and IIS-0715303, the James S. McDonnell Foundation; Thomson Reuters; the Cyberinfrastructure for Network Science Center, University Information Technology Services, and the School of Library and Information Science, all three at Indiana University. Some of the data used to generate the science maps is from the Web of Science by Thomson Reuters and Scopus by Elsevier. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.