VII.3 Visualizing Bible Cross-References

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Chris Harrison

Pastor Christoph Römhild

Few books can claim to have been as thoroughly analyzed as the Bible. For millennia, scholars from many religions have pored over the text, extracting meaning and guidance from its pages. Following in this long tradition, Chris Harrison, a Ph.D. student in the Human-Computer Interaction Institute at Carnegie Mellon University, and Christoph Römhild, a Lutheran pastor, collaborated to create a multi-colored arc diagram of cross-references found in the Lutheran Bible. In this visualization, information found on thousands of pages of text is collapsed into a visual overview. The bar graph that runs along the bottom represents all of the chapters in the Bible. Chapters alternate in color between white and light grey. The length of each bar denotes the number of verses in the chapter. Each one of the 63,779 cross-references found in the Bible is depicted by a single arc—the color corresponds to the distance between the two chapters, creating a rainbow-like effect. More information can be found at


Harrison, Chris and Christoph Römhild. 2008. Visualizing Bible Cross-References. Courtesy of Chris Harrison and Christoph Römhild. In “7th Iteration (2011): Science Maps as Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries,” Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Michael J. Stamper.

Acknowledgements: This exhibit is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. IIS-0238261, CHE-0524661, IIS-0534909 and IIS-0715303, the James S. McDonnell Foundation; Thomson Reuters; the Cyberinfrastructure for Network Science Center, University Information Technology Services, and the School of Library and Information Science, all three at Indiana University. Some of the data used to generate the science maps is from the Web of Science by Thomson Reuters and Scopus by Elsevier. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.